American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

Published by American Psychological Association
Online ISSN: 1939-0025
Publications
Article
The conference program of the Macy Foundation was started 16 years ago to dicuss urgent problems in the field of medicine and health. A group of about 25 participants from various disciplines meets for a few days in order to exchange ideas and, hopefully, to stimulate creativity. The publications resulting from these meetings do not make easy reading, but the stick-to-it reader is usually well rewarded. If the reader comes with a reasonably high degree of tolerance for incompleteness and a manageable amount of insecurity as to some of the basic assumptions and findings in his own field of endeavor, he will be enriched with a number of facts or points of view, which, however unsettling, can only prove fruitful in the long run. One of the most striking aspects of group process came up in the question of whether a certain number of specific elements are necessary in the nature, constituency, and continuity of a given group. For example, it was noted that some safety officers report that when accident-prone individuals are removed these seem to replace themselves and there will be a new top group of accident-prone individuals. A similar kind of replacement apparently occurs when safety-prone individuals are transferred or when provocative prisoners are removed or isolated. Blauvelt observed hat if you remove those goats from the herd which form the bottom group they are quickly replaced by another group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The collection of molecules of deoxyribosenucleic acid that will make the next generation of human beings what it will be is not so good as that which determined our character; there are more bad molecules in the collection. The defective genes are now not being eliminated from the pool of human germ plasma so rapidly as in the past, because we have made medical progress and have developed feelings of compassion such as to make it possible for us to permit the individuals who carry the bad genes to have more progeny than in the past. Sickle-cell anemia was the first disease to be recognized as involving an: abnormality of a molecule. A dozen years ago it was thought that all human beings manufacture the same kind of hemoglobin. It was found that the parents of the patients with this disease manufacture both normal adult human hemoglobin and sickle-cell-anemia hemoglobin; molecules of the two kinds of hemoglobin are present in each red cell of these parents, in about equal amounts. The gene abnormality responsible for the disease is evidently a minute one. The hemoglobin molecule consists of two identical parts, each containing about 300 amino-acid residues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Comments on an article by Ted Clark & Dennis T. Jaffe (see record 2013-41292-014). Clark and Jaffe assume that psychotherapy of any type articulates and supports certain values, and that the counter culture social service model that they prefer is more supportive of the values of youth than the "innovative professional service organization." The author do not find that that statement is particularly polarizing. Clark and Jaffe believe that service is a privilege, much as traditional practitioners do, they expect-from their value base-payment in growth, rather than material payment for their efforts; to view such value conflicts as conflicts about what is in the patient's best interests is a woeful misreading of the paper on youth crisis centers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
It is time to shift our researchlight away from the poor and the black, who have begun to resent and resist unremitting service as study targets. More appropriate research subjects are groups and institutions that are in a position to obstruct or to tolerate needed changes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine how pre- and postmigration factors affect the psychological distress and adjustment for a community sample of Vietnamese refugees resettled in the United States. The sample included a substantial proportion of ex-political detainees who experienced a particularly large number of traumatic events prior to migration. Additionally, the study assessed postmigration experiences using multidimensional and bidirectional measures of acculturation to the Vietnamese and American cultures and measures of satisfaction with social support from like-ethnic and host culture network members. Psychological adjustment and distress were assessed with depression, anxiety, alienation, and life satisfaction. Findings show that premigration traumatic experiences predicted only measures of anxiety. The other measures of adjustment and distress were predicted by postmigration factors, including acculturation and social support. In sum, findings suggest that different psychological outcomes are predicted by different pre- and postmigration factors, suggesting that adjustment is a complex process that involves multiple indicators and dimensions. Significant differences were also found between ex-political detainees and other Vietnamese refugees suggesting the importance of considering their unique experience.
 
Article
Early posttraumatic psychiatric disorders have not been well studied in disaster workers. This study examined the rates of probable acute stress disorder (ASD), probable depression, increased tobacco use, and their associated risk factors in 9/11 World Trade Center disaster workers. Surveys were obtained from 90 disaster workers (e.g., medical personnel, police, firefighters, search and rescue) 2-3 weeks after 9/11. Nearly 15% of disaster workers had probable ASD and 26% had probable depression. Probable ASD and depression were highly related to functional impairment. The risk for ASD was increased for those with 9/11-specific disaster exposures, more pre-9/11 trauma exposures, and the peritraumatic dissociative symptom of altered sense of time. Disaster workers who were younger, non-White, or who had increasing numbers of peritraumatic dissociative symptoms were more likely to have probable depression. More than half of tobacco users increased their tobacco use after 9/11. Additionally, all tobacco users with probable ASD and almost all tobacco users with probable depression increased tobacco use. Rapid mobilization of resources for early screening and intervention and health promotion campaigns aimed at improving adverse health-related behaviors may be helpful for this high-risk group.
 
Article
Explored longitudinally the effects of paternal involvement in child rearing and maternal employment in prior years on grades and educational expectations of a group of White, middle-class adolescents from 59 intact families. 32 families participated in the final follow-up. Past maternal employment was found to be a more powerful predictor of children's academic performance and expectations than was amount of father involvement. Part-time maternal employment appeared to be optimal for children's academic expectations.
 
Total 24-hr toddler crying by 9/11 group and time (means and standard errors). BA = Before attack group; AA = After attack group. 
Total 24-hr toddler sleeping by 9/11 group and time (means and standard errors). BA = Before attack group; AA = After attack group. 
Mean Levels of Maternal and Toddler Emotional Stress Symptoms 
Mean Levels of Parenting Stress and Health Symptoms 
Article
Unlike other forms of disaster, terrorism is not confined to a particular place or time, and recent evidence indicates that the 9/11 terrorist attack was a significant macrolevel stressor affecting the health and mental health of United States citizens. No studies, however, have reported symptoms in toddlers and their mothers both before and after the attacks. To address this gap, we examined the effects of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on mothers and their 33-month-old toddlers. The attacks occurred during data collection at 33 months of a longitudinal study. Thirty-three-month-old toddlers and mothers who were assessed after the attacks were compared with those assessed before the attacks. When changes were examined from a previous wave of data collected at 15 months, those in the after-attack group showed poorer health, lower child acceptance, and marginally more anxiety, and their toddlers cried more and slept less, whereas the before-attack group showed no changes. Our findings contribute to research documenting widespread effects of the 9/11 terrorist attack on stress-related symptoms and suggest that greater attention must be placed on the needs of our youngest citizens and their caregivers.
 
Prevalence of Behavior Problems in Children at Three Points in Time 
Article
Children’s behavior was assessed with 3 cross-sectional random-digit-dial telephone surveys conducted 11 months before, 4 months after, and 6 months after September 11, 2001. Parents reported fewer behavior problems in children 4 months after the attacks compared with the pre-September 11 baseline. However, 6 months after the attacks, parents’ reporting of behavior problems was comparable to pre-September 11 levels. In the 1st few months after a disaster, the identification of children who need mental health treatment may be complicated by a dampened behavioral response or by a decreased sensitivity of parental assessment to behavioral problems.
 
Article
Six months after September 11, 2001 (9/11), 124 New York City workers participated in a self-report study of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although direct exposure to the terrorist attacks of 9/11 was limited, estimates of the prevalence of current PTSD in this mostly ethnic minority population ranged from 7.8% to 21.2%, as measured by the PTSD Checklist (F. W. Weathers, B. T. Litz, D. S. Herman, J. A. Huska, & T. M. Keane, 1993). Consistent with the study hypotheses, direct exposure to the attacks of 9/11, worries about future terrorist attacks (threat appraisal), and reduced confidence in self after 9/11 each predicted symptoms of PTSD, even after controlling for symptoms of anxiety and depression. These results support the idea that a traumatic event's meaning is associated with PTSD symptoms. Gender was not a significant predictor of symptoms, once other demographic variables were controlled. Most respondents who met the criteria for current PTSD had not sought therapy or counseling.
 
Article
Exposure to trauma can lead to both posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress, but little is known about the commonalities and differences in the pathways through which they occur. The authors examined coping and emotional reactions as mediators of the effect of television exposure on both posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress in a nationally representative sample of 1,004 U.S. adults approximately 6 weeks after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Although posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress symptoms were moderately positively related, the pathways from coping and emotions to the outcomes differed: Positive coping and anger were more strongly related to posttraumatic growth than to posttraumatic stress, and pathways of negative coping and feeling depressed regarding the attacks were more strongly related to stress than to growth. Comparison of models suggested that emotions are both outcomes of and motivators for coping and that patterns of coping and emotions relate differentially to posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth.
 
Article
This study examined the responses of elementary school children in Washington, DC, to the September 11 terrorist attacks. Parents (primarily mothers) of children in kindergarten through Grade 6 and children in Grades 4 to 6, including 47 matched parent-child pairs, completed questionnaires regarding exposure, stress reactions, and constructive actions taken 3 months after the attacks. Parent reports and, to an even greater extent, children's self-reports revealed high levels of negative reactions to the attacks on behalf of the children. These reactions were best understood in the context of their exposure to the attacks, primarily through television news, and the reactions of and coping assistance provided by their parents. Implications for school personnel, health care professionals, and intervention efforts are discussed.
 
Article
This study examines factors related to helpseeking among New York City parents on behalf of their young children after the September 11th terrorist attacks. Data were gathered from 180 parents about their children (under age 5) through in-depth parent interviews 9-12 months postdisaster. Parents were asked to describe their children's disaster-related experiences, their own and their children's mental health status, and post-9/11 helpseeking behavior for their children. Predictors of parental helpseeking for children's services included the emergence of new fears in children since 9/11, parent symptoms of depression, and parents' own helpseeking. The strongest predictor was children's direct exposure to the attacks. Fifteen percent (n = 27) of parents sought services for their very young children. Findings suggest that following 9/11, a familial orientation to helpseeking combined with children's specific disaster-related experiences may provide a basis for seeking services for young children, rather than children's apparent mental health status.
 
Article
Two and one-half years after the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center attack, 204 middle school students in an immigrant community located near Ground Zero were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as influenced by "dose" of exposure to the attack and accumulated lifetime traumas. Ninety percent of students reported at least one traumatic event other than 9/11 (e.g., community violence) with an average of 4 lifetime events reported. An interaction was obtained such that the dose-response effect depended on presence of other traumas. Among students with the lowest number of additional traumas, the usual dose-response pattern of increasing PTSD symptoms with increasing 9/11 exposure was observed; among those with medium to high cumulative life trauma, PTSD symptoms were substantially higher and uniformly so regardless of 9/11 exposure dose. Results suggest that traumas that precede or follow mass violence often have as much as if not greater impact on long-term symptom severity than high-dose exposure to the event. Implications regarding the presence of continuing or previous trauma exposure for postdisaster and early intervention policies are discussed.
 
Article
Using statistically imputed data to increase available power, this article reevaluated the long-term effects of divorce mediation on adults' psychological adjustment and investigated the relations among coparenting custody conflict, nonacceptance of marital termination, and depression at 2 occasions over a decade apart following marital dissolution. Group comparisons revealed that fathers and parents who mediated their custody disputes reported significantly more nonacceptance at the 12-year follow-up assessment. Significant interactions were observed by gender in regression models predicting nonacceptance at the follow-up; mothers' nonacceptance was positively associated with concurrent depression, whereas fathers' nonacceptance was positively associated with early nonacceptance and negatively associated with concurrent conflict.
 
Article
This article focuses on alternative responses to the pressures of Proposition 13. Although the rhetoric of Proposition 13 and the political activity in support of it seem overwhelming. there are enough countervailing factors, enough ambivalence in values and public policy positions to make it doubtful that there will be drastic, revolutionary changes in the human services. What we can assume for some time to come is that there will be stringency and attrition-that everything will be much tougher. In that situation, a number of approaches will be used by advocacy groups, by professionals, and by bureaucrats at various governmental levels to try to meet commitments and to prevent the dismantling of programs for which they are responsible. This paper will consider a number of trends that are emerging as responses to this situation, and will raise some questions as to their implications. If social policy goals of equity, coverage, and access are to be achieved, it is essential that a decentralized system be administered effectively by public servants of very substantial competence, with a good policy sense and with analytical, administrative, and planning skills. Even if some of the older ideas about a comprehensive human service system operated directly by the government turn out to be unrealistic, the public responsibility for human services remains irreversible. That responsibility now has to be implemented through a complexity of arrangements with many constituents and providers. The greatest hazard posed by Proposition I3 is that, under pressure of severe financial limitations, a mechanism such as contracting will be used to bypass the problem and abdicate our public responsibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
An interracial group of high school students met weekly to discuss personal responsibility toward the problems of civil rights and racial equality. The goals and intentions expressed by the black students came as a distinct surprise to the white. One conclusion to be drawn is that the public schools must assume a vital role in educating youth about values and moral issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The frequency of fifty-five behavior symptoms was studied in the entire kindergarten through grade two population of a midwestern university town. Many symptoms proved to be of high frequency; boys had a greater number of symptoms with a marked excess of acting out than did girls. Generally speaking, the mean number of symptoms per child decreased with age in both sexes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the duration of emotional and behavioral problems among children (aged 2–6 yrs) 14 mo after they had experienced hurricane Hugo and assessed factors that predicted longevity of these problems. Mothers of Ss who had experienced the storm provided information on their children's behavioral problems, trauma symptoms, effects of the hurricane, life stressors, and duration of symptoms; this information was compared with information provided by mothers of control children (aged 2–10 yrs) who had not experienced the storm. Ss who had experienced the storm showed significantly higher anxiety and withdrawal and more behavior problems than did children who had not. Behavioral problems decreased steadily over the 6 mo following the storm. Mothers' distress in the hurricane's aftermath was associated with longevity of their children's emotional and behavioral difficulties.
 
Article
Clinical knowledge of subjective experience is considered essential for formulation of appropriate treatment expectations and goals. This study examined the relationship between self-reported depression and affective and cognitive correlates. Results indicated that girls reporting more depression had significantly earlier developmental levels of object relations and cognition than girls reporting less depression, regardless of chronological ages.
 
Article
The effects of exposure to direct and vicarious political, family, and community violence on the adjustment of 625 six-year-old black South African children was examined. Ambient community violence was most consistently related to children's psychosocial outcomes. Resources in the form of individual child resilience, maternal coping, and positive family relationships were found to mitigate the adverse impact in all the assessed domains of children's functioning.
 
Article
At the fifth phase of a longitudinal study of transracial adoption outcomes, 52 adolescents of black descent adopted in infancy were examined with respect to racial self-identity, general adjustment, and self-esteem. The 34 adolescents adopted into white families and the 18 adopted into black families identified themselves as black or of mixed race in similar proportions, and most were found to be well adjusted and to have good or very good self-esteem. The findings offer implications for adoption policy and placement decisions.
 
PERSONAL AND MILITARY BACKGROUND OF CSR (W=112) AND CONTROL (A*=189) GROUPS
PERCENTAGES OF PTSD SYMPTOMS BY GROUP AND TIME
MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF IES SCORES BY GROUP
Article
Eighteen years after their participation in the Yom Kippur War, the psychiatric status of two groups of Israeli veterans--112 combat stress reaction casualties and 189 comparable controls--was assessed. Casualties had higher rates and greater intensity of posttraumatic stress disorder than did controls, both initially and at 18-year follow-up. Similarly, intrusion and avoidance tendencies and psychiatric symptomatology were evidenced more often by combat stress reaction casualties than by controls. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
 
Article
An 18-year follow-up of 66 aggressive and disturbed adolescents admitted to the children's unit of a large mental hospital in 1960 reveals a high degree of antisocial and criminal behavior persisting into adulthood, with lessening psychiatric involvement as the subjects matured. Factors contributing to this pattern of continuing antisocial behavior are identified, and implications for treatment programs are considered.
 
Article
Presents an obituary of Samuel Willard Hartwell, (1882–1951). The story of his life and of his vivid human relationships before and after he chose the field of child psychiatry, in his mid-forties, would make an interesting saga of a sincere, enthusiastic, socially minded physician. Hartwell's roots were deep in the rich soil of Iowa and particularly about the small town of New Hampton, where Mrs. Hartwell still maintains the old home and near which he gradually accumulated farm properties. With his inherent driving force Dr. Hartwell was impatient about many things that feed the ego with many of us. He hated dressing up; he was of what might be called the rough-and-ready type; he was primarily an outdoor man; almost better than anything he loved his fishing trips to the Minnesota lakes. But transcending all he had great human qualities that led him to serve valiantly and that endeared him to a host of his fellow beings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article explores special interest for our evaluation of Emminghaus' early attempt at formulating system of child psychiatry is his chapter on childhood hysteria. As we know, this syndrome was approaching the crest of its use as a major tool in evaluating psychological abnormality in children in Emminghaus' time. While even highly esteemed workers like Edward Henoch took what might appear to us today a one-sided stand, Emminghaus not only brilliantly evaluates both the validity and misuse of the syndrome, but provides a survey which with few exceptions would still be acceptable today. In evaluating Emminghaus' child psychiatry as a whole, it may be said that there is hardly a more recent book that, in so balanced and complete a way, presents a blueprint for the future development of the field. The entire field of child psychiatry is still in its beginnings, and even the newest books are characterized by immaturity and incompleteness. Emminghaus' mature and nuclear early attempt ought not to be left out of the picture or forgotten. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents an obituary of Lawson G. Lowrey (1890-1957). Lowrey was one of the founders and one of the most devoted and renowned members of the American Orthopsychiatric Association. His untimely passing brought a deep sense of sorrow not only to the many who knew him, who worked with him or who had personal contact with him, but to the entire field of orthopsychiatry. Lowrey's was a complicated personality which does not readily lend itself to he judged by usual or ordinary standards. His keenness, his perceptiveness, his breadth of view, his vivid imagination, his inexhaustible fund of knowledge, his straight forwardness and his capacity for immediate critical response while appreciated by many were also felt as too threatening by some. He was the first member of the sixth and seventh generations of these families in America. Lowrey himself saw nothing very unusual in the precocity and brilliance of his educational achievement and career. Although Lowrey began in private practice the day after the Institute closed, his need to work with a group remained strong and was a consultant or attending physician in several hospitals. In addition to this formidable list of activities Lowrey found time and energy to give many lectures before a variety of groups, lay and professional, presented numerous papers before many professional associations besides our own, where his name as participant or discussant was rarely missing from our programs and wrote and edited several books and numerous papers, leaving an incomplete bibliography of over 140 published works. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents an obituary Frederick H. Allen (1890-1964). Frederick H. Allen died January 15, 1964, at the age of 73 . An effective participant in all that he undertook, Dr. Allen continued a role of active leadership even into his last months, and in the face of a circulatory handicap which had restricted his activities over recent years. His important place in American and world child psychiatry was sufficiently documented by the honors that were accorded him and the organization responsibilities which were placed upon him. His clinic was one of the first in which a respect for the unique contribution of each of the professional disciplines determined case procedure. The clinical field of child psychiatry became firmly established with the development of effective techniques in psychotherapy with children. For those who knew him well admiration yielded to affection. He was respected and beloved throughout our field. With such a recent loss our recollections are crowded with a host of mutually shared experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This letter presents a historical note on the child psychiatrist, James Stuart Plant (1890-1947). Since 1 924, there have not been many prominent American child psychiatrists who have repudiated the American Orthopsychiatric Association. James Stuart Plant was one of these. Plant did not accept the premises of American Orthopsychiatric Association and thought it better for our charter group to organize as a section of the American Psychiatric Association; and as an evidence of his individualistic characteristic he solidly maintained that attitude. James Plant was an original thinker. A graduate of the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, by 1920 he was the clinical director at the MacLean Hospital and studied at the Judge Baker Clinic. Two years later he moved to the Essex County Juvenile Clinic in Newark where he remained until his death 25 years later. James Stuart Plant, in sum, believed that the promise of psychiatry, of pediatrics, and of child-rearing was that children themselves are more interesting than the diseases of children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents an obituary of Luther E. Woodward (1897-1961). The death of Woodward robbed the mental health community of a remarkably expressive form of leadership, and deprived individuals, groups and organizations throughout the country of a force for thought and action which had come to be unique. To the American Orthopsychiatric Association, Dr. Woodward's passing brought the loss of an exceptionally devoted and contributing member. A past president of the Association, Dr. Woodward had served, both before and after holding this office, on a series of hard-working "Ortho" committees. He was a member of the Committee on Functions and Relations, 1945-4 7 ; CoChairman of the Arrangements Committee, 1 94 7-48 ; Chairman of the Publicity Committee, 1 949-50; a member of the Psychotherapy Committee, 1 953- 54; a member of the Finance Committee, 1 956-5 7 ; and Chairman of the Committee on Special Publications, 1 95 8-60. In 1 9 6 1 , at the time of his death, he was serving in a newly appointed capacity as Editor of Special Publications. Dr. Woodward began his professional career as a Lutheran minister. In 1 9 32, with his psychiatric social work training well advanced, Dr. Woodward moved directly into the mental health field, joining the clinical staff of the Bureau of Child Guidance of the New York City Schools, with which he was to be associated for eleven years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents an obituary of Annette Garrett (1898-1957). Annette Garrett's contribution to the field of psychiatric social work has been widespread, rich, and enduring. Her teaching has been incorporated into the point of view and thinking of the hundreds of students, now professional social workers, who knew her at the Smith College School for Social Work. Her influence through her writing has left a mark upon many professions beyond the limits of casework. Her wise counsel to her friends, and others with whom she came in contact, is impossible to measure. When she went to the Smith College School for Social Work as Associate Director in 1935, it was to work with Professor Everett Kimball, then the Director. In her twenty-two years at Smith she saw the School through many complicated and troubled times, as well as stimulating developments. Garrett taught casework each summer on the campus, traveled periodically throughout the rest of the year to visit students in placement, and their agency supervisors, did a major share in selection of students fo r the School, and carried a wide responsibility for decisions about agency placements. Garrett published many professional articles. Garrett was a member of the Family Service Association of America, the National Association of Social Workers, and the National Conference of Social Work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article presents a literature review on the prevalence of childhood mental disease in America. Child psychiatry, as a branch of the broader discipline, has developed only within the last forty years. It is not strange therefore, in considering only the United States, to find that the literature and research on “insanity” in childhood before 1900 is extremely meagre and marked by no monumental efforts. Although the United States is today undeniably the leader in research and progress in child psychiatry, it was not so in the nineteenth century, and the few outstanding pioneers in the field before the turn of the century were not Americans. Although psychiatry is a comparatively new term, “insanity” as its main subject-matter is an older terminology and it is within that topic that the early literature is designated. Treatment, in much of the literature, is discussed briefly or not at all. Institutionalization is often recommended as the best course rather than home treatment, hut there is little reference to the type of treatment to be undertaken once the patient is in the institution. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents an obituary of Adelaide McFadyen Johnson (1905–1960). Dr. Johnson had obtained a thorough basic training in science, medicine, psychiatry, child psychiatry and psychoanalysis in Rockford (Illinois), Chicago, and Baltimore. At the University of Chicago some of her medical friends and colleagues came to know her eager enthusiasm for learning and teaching, her lively interest in the arts and her great capacity for warm, considerate, lifelong friendship. Completion of her medical studies on the same campus after this was followed by basic study of psychiatry in Baltimore with another master, Adolf Meyer. Back in Chicago during her psychoanalytic training, the staff of the Institute for Juvenile Research felt the stimulus of her inquiring mind and her creativeness in comradely collaborative clinical research, as did in subsequent years the staffs and faculties of many other institutions. Dr. Johnson served successively as a member of the Section of Psychiatry of the Mayo Clinic and associate clinical professor of psychiatry in the Mayo Foundation, Graduate School, University of Minnesota; as professor of psychiatry from 1954 to 1957; and eventually, as clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of Minnesota while in private practice. She was a member of several scientific and professional organizations, in the meetings of which she repeatedly participated as essayist, and as member of workshops, panels and symposia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents an obituary of Dr. J. Franklin Robinson (1910-1966). Dr. Robinson was born in Canada and graduated from the faculty of medicine, University of Toronto, in 1936. Upon completing his formal training, Dr. Robinson became director of the Children's Service Center at Wilkes Barre, Pa., and continued in that position full-time until his death. Evidence of his scientific and clinical interests are A Monograph on Basic Fundamentals in Child Psychiatry being circulated by the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization in English, French, German and Arabic; chapters in four books between 1954 and 1961 , and two dozen articles in various American psychiatric journals. Dr. Robinson was president of the American Association of Psychiatric Clinics for Children in 1961-63 and at the time of his death was president of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. He was a member of the Board of Directors of Luzerne County Mental Health Association, a member of the Board of the Pennsylvania Mental Health Association and its Executive Committee and a member of the Advisory Council to the National Association of Mental Health. Dr. Robinson will be remembered and his loss felt in many ways by those who knew him, but children, parents, child psychiatrists and others who never knew him will continue to benefit from the work he did in his lifetime.
 
Article
The psychology literature concerning Jewish children hidden during World War II appeared in 1991 and was predominantly American and Israeli. Nevertheless, few studies consider the specific and complex situation of the "hidden children." The present study broaches this theme. The aim of this research is to show the consequences of the cumulate trauma in adults whose trauma occurred when they were children; it also aims to show how the subjects cope with the trauma. This research used a qualitative methodology. A series of semistructured interviews on personal and psychological history was conducted with 35 Jewish people (21 women, 14 men; mean age = 74.9 years; range = 65-82 years) living in France and who had been hidden between 1940 and 1944 during the Occupation in France (except for 2 hidden in Belgium and the Netherlands). The current research identified specific traumas, intra- and intergenerational family disorders, and affiliation disturbances, as well as protective factors and ways of coping with the trauma. This research shows the impact of collective history on individual history, the experience of Jewish children who were hidden in France and who stayed in France following the Liberation presents specific features.
 
Article
Presents an obituary for Jane Knitzer. Knitzer obtained her degrees from Wellesley College and Harvard University, and received a postdoctoral fellowship from the National Institute of Mental Health. This was followed by an assistant professorship in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies at the College of Human Ecology at Cornell University, and then a position as a senior policy specialist with the Children’s Defense Fund. During this time, she wrote several landmark documents in child policy that had a tremendous impact on the field of children’s mental health. She was the founding director of the Institute for Child and Youth Policy Studies as part of Statewide Youth Advocacy and also an adjunct professor at the Graduate School of Education and Human Development at the University of Rochester. Next, she returned to New York City, where she was a senior research scientist and later a dean of the Division of Research, Demonstration and Policy at Bank Street College of Education. Other positions included working for the National Center for Children in Poverty and serving as president of Division 37, Child, Youth and Family Services, American Psychological Association. Knitzer's legacy is in the disciplines that span children’s services: child health, child development, early childhood, mental health, child welfare, juvenile justice, and public health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the current status of clinical psychologists and their capacity to practice psychotherapy. Quietly and unobtrusively over the years clinical psychologists have made a place for themselves working for the most part side by side with doctors. Their work has been accepted, if not by the medical profession as a body, at least unofficially by a small group of physicians. Recognizing their skill with people and having confidence in their judgment, they have made it possible to utilize these skills both by referring patients to clinical psychologists and by accepting them in the clinics as having therapeutic responsibilities. The rapidly increasing number of clinical psychologists engaging in psychotherapy and the fact that psychiatrists have been drawn into the new professional training programs now in operation in many universities have resulted in raising the status of the clinical psychologist from that of an unofficial, informal acceptance or nonacceptance by individual physicians to the point that formal medical bodies have given, and still are giving, official consideration to the place of the clinical psychologist in the practice of psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the development of the practice of psychotherapy by clinical psychologists. The origin of this new profession is often ascribed to the splendid work of psychologists in the armed services in World War II; however, such changes as are inherent in the present-day multidisciplinary approach to the problems of human behavior--and of which the emergence of clinical psychology is but a part--are changes that were multidetermined and were inevitable in our culture, whether World War II had supervened or not. The war may well have been only a precipitating or hastening event. We are now faced with the most serious challenge of all, that of fulfilling the hopes for service in treatment by clinical psychologists by solving the problems of adequate training for treatment work. The author comments on the problems that have arisen, or that seem bound to arise, in carrying out a training program for psychotherapy at the clinical level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents the case of a boy, aged ten and a half, who was referred by his father, on the recommendation of an allergist who had been treating him for asthma with no success. The attacks were first noted when the patient was eleven months of age. Other symptoms included bossiness with other boys, disobedience at home, and a bad disposition when he had asthma. The patient with treated with several months of play therapy. Both parents also received therapy. As the treatment progressed, the problem which began as a problem around the child’s asthmatic attacks soon was seen as a personality problem in the child; and severe marital problems which had not been evident in the beginning were revealed and handled in the work with the parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents a case report of a four years old when he was referred to The James Jackson Putnam Children’s Center by a local children’s hospital with the tentative diagnosis of “childhood schizophrenia.” This article will summarize some of the pertinent information given to us by the referring hospital and by the parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Top-cited authors
Ronald C. Kessler
  • Harvard Medical School
Philip Leaf
  • Johns Hopkins University
Richard G Frank
  • Harvard University
Christopher B Nelson
  • Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, Pa USA
Michael Ungar
  • Dalhousie University