American Journal of Life Sciences

Published by Science Publishing Group
Print ISSN: 2328-5702
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The dermatitis Paederus is a dermatitis contact caused by caustic and vesicant activity of pederin. It occurs after skin contact with beetles Paederus kind belonging to the family Staphylinidae. The geographical distribution of these insects is global. Diagnosis is primarily based on clinical evidence and the epidemiological context. We report below six cases of pederose to Paederus occurred among the Moroccan Level II hospital staff in Bunia deployed in the framework UN peacekeeping operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo(MONUSCO).
 
SC, HFD-ob and HFD-obR rats were exposed to restraint stress for 30, 90 or 120 min. Plasma corticosterone (A) and GR mRNA (B and D), GR protein (C and E) and miR-142-3p (F and G) expression in the hypothalamus (B, C and F) and hippocampus (D, E and G) were assayed. Expression levels of protein, mRNA and miRNA are given as % of non-restrained controls (non). N=6. * p<0.05 vs. non-restrained controls, # p<0.05 vs. SC and HFD-ob rats. 
Dexamethasone (DEX) or saline was administered intraperitoneally to rats. Hypothalamic (A, B and E) and hippocampal (C, D and F) GR mRNA (A and C), GR protein (B and D) and miR-142-3p (E and F) expression were assayed. mRNA, protein and miRNA expression levels are given as % of saline group. N=8. * p<0.05 vs. saline group.
Adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham-operated (sham) rats were restrained for 90 min (stress). Hypothalamic (A, B and E) and hippocampal (C, D and F) GR mRNA (A and C), GR protein (B and D) and miR-142-3p (E and F) expression were assayed. mRNA, protein, and miRNA expression levels are given as % of non-restrained (non) sham rats. N=6. * p<0.05 vs. non-restrained controls.
High fat diet (HFD) induces dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. The HPA axis is controlled by the feedback of glucocortioids on the hypothalamus, hippocampus and pituitary. At least three miRNAs (miR-101a, miR-124, miR-142-3p) have been reported to suppress glucocorticoid receptor (GR) translation. Because their relation to stress-induced downregulation of GR expression and dysregulation of its expression in HFD feeding are unclear, we studied to identify which miRNAs are involved in restraint-induced downregulation of GR expression in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, and to compare the basal and restraint-modified miRNA expressions in these tissues in HFD-fed rats. Rats exposed to HFD were divided into two groups, HFD-induced obese (HFD-ob) and obesity resistant (HFD-obR) rats. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher in HFD-ob than in standard chow-fed (SC) rats and in HFD-obR. Restraint-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone was higher in HFD-obR than in the other groups. Restraint decreased GR expressions and increased miR-142-3p expression in the hypothalamus and hippocampus without affecting others expressions. miR-142-3p expressions in both areas were increased by dexamethasone and restraint-induced miR-142-3p expression was blocked in adrenalectomy. The basal expression of GR or miR-142-3p expression in both areas of HFD-fed rats did not differ from those of SC, and restraint induced no changes in GR or miR-142-3p expression in both areas in HFD-ob and HFD-obR. These results suggest that impairment of glucocorticoid-induced increase in miR-142-3p may be involved in dysregulation of stress-induced downregulation of GR expression in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of HFD-fed rats.
 
Although Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been shown to be essential in the process of cancer formation, it is unclear how Wnt3a signaling pathway regulates abnormal proliferation and differentiation of breast cancer cells. Here, we found overexpression of Wnt3a stimulated the expression of the Wntsignaling’s downstream genes such as LRP6, Naked, Axin1, DVL-2, β-catenin, and TCF-1 in breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.Primarycilia is deemed as sensory cell antennae thatcoordinates a large number of cellular signaling pathways, sometimes coupling cell division and differentiation. Primary cilia were found on the surface of this cell line. Overexpression of Wnt3a decreased the formation of primary cilia. Inhibition of Wnt3a with Calphostin C facilitated growth of primary cilia. Wnt3a activated cell proliferation gene of CyclinD1. In contrary, Calphostin C decreased the promotional effect on proliferation of MDA-MB-231. The Snail family of transcription factor has previously been implicated in the differentiation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells (epithelial-mesenchymal transitions) during embryonic development. Wnt3a promoted MDA-MB-231 induced expression of Snail, whose effect was inhibited by Calphostin-C. VEGFA activity was originally referred to as vascular permeability factor and had been shown to stimulate endothelial cell mitogenesis and cell migration and increased microvascular permeability. Wnt3a facilitated MDA-MB-231 induced expression of VEGFA, as well as Calphostin-C suppressed its effect. Taken together, these results suggested thatWnt3a signaling played an important role in regulating the formation of breast cancer.
 
Curcumin, the active component of turmeric, is a polyphenolic phytochemical with anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-allergic properties. Mast cells participate in allergic inflammation by virtue of their ability of being activated to allergens and lead to the release of number of biologically active mediators including histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, various cytokines etc. In this report, we have investigated effects of curcumin on non-immunological stimulations like Compound 48/80 induced systemic anaphylaxis. In vitro experiments have confirmed non-toxicity of curcumin (50µM) as assessed by MTT test but 100µM dose was found toxic. Curcumin (50µM) inhibited Compound 48/80 induced mouse peritoneal mast cell (MPMC) degranulation and histamine release in dose-dependent manner. Therefore, it is worth to study effect of curcumin on non-immunological stimulations as most often it occurs without IgE involvement. Whether it has mast cell membrane stabilizing activity or some other signaling mechanisms are involved underlying its potential could be explored further.
 
Background: Dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers (dCCBs) were widely used in anithypertensive treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of polymorphisms of CACNA1C, eNOS and RGS2 on the antihypertensive efficiency of dihydropyridine calcium channel blocks (dCCBs) in Chinese patients with essential hypertension (EH). Methods: A total of 107 untreated Chinese mild to moderate EH patients were enrolled in this study, and had been prescribed azelnidipine or nitrendipine as monotherapy. All patients who had gave informed consent for genetic research were divided into two groups: treated with azelnidipine or nitrendipine for at leaset 6 weeks. Five polymorphisms of three blood pressure (BP) and hypertension susceptible genes were studied in our research, and these polymorphisms were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and direct sequencing. Every patients’ BP and heart rate were measured at 0 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks. The biochemical parameters of blood were detected before and 6 weeks after the administration. Adverse effects were evaluated at the last visitation. Results: Both the systolic and diastolic BP levels were significanlty decreased after six weeks of dCCBs treatment, from 149.3 ± 9.2 mmHg to 132.2 ± 11.7 mmHg and form 97.9 ± 3.0 mmHg to 85.5 ± 7.5 mmHg, as well as the levels of TP, TBIL, CHO and LDL, the P-values were P=0.017, P=0.045, P=0.039, P=0.041 respectivley. As 11 of 75 patients appeared adverse reactions, the rate of adverse effects showed no difference in various genotypes. There were significant interactions between eNOS G894T polymorphism and △DBP, △MBP on azelnidipine therapy patients, but not in nitrendipine, the GG genotype carriers were more sensitive in blood decrease than GT/TT genotype carriers (P<0.05). Conclusion: CCBs had potential hepatoprotective and antiatheroscloresis effects for Chinese EH paitents. And the eNOS G894T polymorphism is associated with the hypotensive effect of azelnidipine.
 
Oral thrush is commonly associated with HIV infection. The causative agent is a yeast strain that is originally a commensal of the oral cavity. Most species of the genus Candida that causes oral candidasis in HIV patients if not properly identified and treated with the drug of choice could result in resistant to the drugs and make treatment very difficult. This study was carried out to establsish the species spectrum of the common yeast(Candida albicans) associated with oral candidiasis in HIV patients on antiretroviral treatment in Abakaliki. A total of 240 samples were collected from HIV sero-positive males(64) and females(176) at the two hospitals. 40 control samples from HIV sero-negative persons were also collected. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and Candida species were isolated and characterized using germ tube test and sugar fermentation tests. Out of the 240 subjects(HIV sero-positive patients) examined for oral candidiasis, the carriage rate of oral candidiasis were 12.5%(30/240). Candida albicans accounted for 80.00% in HIV sero-postive patients, followed by Candida pseudotropicalis(10.0%). More women, 21(8.75) had oral candidiasis than men 9(3.75%). HIV patients whether or not on drugs were predisposed to oral candidiasis. C. albicans(76.19%) is the commonest species associated with HIV infected patients on ART(Active Retroviral Therapy) followed by Candida pseudotropicalis(14.29%), Candida tropicalis(4.76%) and Candida parapsilosis(4.76%). Among the patients not on ART Candida albicans(88.89%) was most prevalent, followed by Candida guilliermondii(11.11%). C. albicans still remains the leading cause of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV infected persons within the study population. Constant identification of isolates of yeasts infecting HIV infected persons and the immune compromised will further enhance the appropriate treatment and minimize the spread emergence of antifungal resistance.
 
Zinc Acetate on Feeding Pattern  
Effect of Metoclopramide on Zinc Induced Alteration of Faecal Pellet Output.
Effect of Zinc Acetate on Frequency of Defecation  
Gastrointestinal Transit Time in Rats  
shows the total transit time of zinc acetate (50 mg/kg) treated group (746.2 ± 5.95 min) increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the control group (251.2 ± 5.48 min) (p < 0.05).  
This study evaluated the influence of orally administered zinc acetate on gastrointestinal tract propulsion of rats. It also evaluated the effects of the salt on faecal output and gastrointestinal transit time in the rats. The effects of zinc acetate on feeding as well as water intake were determined. The dose of zinc acetate which produced the maximal effect was used to investigate the receptors involved in the alteration of gastrointestinal motility by the salts. All the three doses of zinc acetate (50 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg and 110 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction in the number of total faecal pellets produced in eight hours of study (2.67 ± 0.67, 10.75 ± 0.60, 5 ± 0.52) respectively when compared with the control group (15.67 ± 0.52). Also, the three doses of zinc acetate produced a dose-dependent significant reduction in the faecal mass (1.23 ± 0.08g, 0.96 ± 0.07g, 0.59 ± 0.07g) respectively when compared with control group (3.39 ± 0.25g).The total transit time in rats treated with 50 mg/kg of zinc acetate (746.2 ± 5.95 minutes) increased significantly compared to the control group (251.2 ± 5.48 minutes). The three doses of zinc acetate produced a dose-dependent reduction (p < 0.05) in food intake (9.67 ± 0.61, 9.17 ± 0.62 and 5.00 ± 0.39) respectively compared to the control group (18.33 ± 0.67). Pre-treatment with metoclopramide (5HT3 & D2 blocker/5HT4 serotonergic agonist) significantly increased faecal pellet output in zinc acetate treated rats (4.80 ± 0.20) when compared with rats treated with zinc acetate alone (2.67 ± 0.67).The study concluded that zinc acetate reduced gastrointestinal tract propulsion in rats evidenced as increased intestinal transit time of rats and reduced faecal pellet output via stimulation of 5HT3 and 5HT4 serotonergic and dopaminergic receptors. Keywords: Zinc Acetate, Gastrointestinal Propulsion, Serotonergic Receptors and Transit Time
 
The aim of this paper is isolating rare actinobacteria from new ecological source as corrosive lesion at concrete infrastructure and screening their ability to produce biological products. Ten pure actinobacteria isolates were isolated from corrosive lesions at concrete infrastructures of irrigation channel using cement extract media at different pHs (9-12) and incubated at 30°C for 7d. All of the isolates produced variable levels of cellulase and lipase, and nine of them displayed variable levels of alkaline protease and amylase products. Only Four isolates produced extracellular alkaline phosphatase in liquid media. The antagonistic activities of these isolates were screened against four pathogenic microorganisms including Gram positive and negative bacterial species and two species of fungi. Only the isolate ROR40 exhibited antagonism activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli , whereas nine isolates showed different degrees of antagonism activities against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophyte. The potential isolate (ROR40) to produce extracellular alkaline phosphatase was selected and identified depending on phenotypical, physiological and molecular according to partial sequences of 16S r RNA gene. It had 98% similarity with Pseudonocardia alni 20049 and P. alni 44104. Finally the isolate is named Pseudonocardia sp. ROR40 (Genbank accession no KJ 725072). The isolate produced extracellular alkaline phosphatase in liquid medium at optimum conditions were pH 8.5 of production medium, 37 °C for 4d. in stand incubator. Conclusion: Our study would be the first instance in comprehensive characterization of concert deteriorating actinobacteria for producing commercially valuable primary and secondary metabolites and it may facilitate us to isolate and characterize more bioactive species.
 
Extracellular DNA-containing substances can be used as a marker of the balance between two processes: elimination of cells with critical number of lesions and repair of genetic material due to the work of adaptive systems. The idea of using this criterion was inspired by the results of measuring exDNA in blood plasma of chronically irradiated individuals. Here we used material obtained after gamma-irradiation (total dose 0.5 Gy) and subsequent culturing of PHA-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The culture medium and exDNA isolated by various methods were treated with DNase and pronase. The concentration of free exDNA isolated by phenol extraction was an individual sign. The culture medium supernatant contained considerable amounts of exDNA in the form of nucleoprotein; cleavage of the protein component of this nucleoprotein considerably increased the size of fragments (from 1 to 20 kb) and reduced their resistance to DNase.
 
Bulls at fattening shade.
Farmers field days.
Ingredients and chemical composition (%).
Growth performance of Borana bulls at on-farm level.
Evaluation and demonstration study was conducted at Kemo-Gerbi kebele of Adami Tulu Jidokombolcha district on two to three year old Borana bulls with the objectives of evaluation and demonstration of bulls fattening technologies at on-farm level. One Farmer’s Research Extension Group (FREG) was formed for fattening the bulls. Twenty bulls were purchased from Borana zone by farmers for the fattening trials. Two feeding treatments (T1= crushed maize grain (20%) + wheat bran (45%) + 35% Noug seed cake and T2 = wheat bran (65%) + cotton seed cake (35%)) were evaluated at on- farm. Eight hour grazing was common for both treatments. The animals were randomly assigned for dietary rations and data on live weight change of the animals were taken using weight chart tape (developed by JICA project). Finishing weights, total weight gain and daily weight gain of the bulls were not different (P>0.05) between the treatments. Bulls fed on treatment one attained an average daily weight gain of 0.83 kg per bull; while bulls fed on treatment two gained 0.76 kg per bull per day. Total gross margin of treatment one (53,154.5 ETB) was higher than treatment two (49,467.75 ETB). Cost-benefit analysis showed that feeding option number one (T1) is more profitable than bulls fed on T2. However, fatteners can use any of the feeding options depending on availability of the ingredients in their area.
 
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of addition of potassium iodide and thyroxin to sea bream fingerlings diets containing fenugreek as growth promoter on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, biometric measurements indices, some serum constituents and histological characteristics of sea bream intestine. The 1st group was considered as a control which fed on the basal diet (C) for 84 days. The experiment was designed to determine the effects of using 2% fenugreek/kg diet (F), 2% fenugreek+0.05mg thyroxin/kg diet (FT4), and 2% fenugreek+0.1g potassium iodide /kg diet (Fi). The results of the present study showed that the best growth performance and feed utilization values were recorded in fish fed diets supplemented with F. The lowest growth performance and feed utilization values were recorded in fish fed diet supplemented with iodine when compared with corresponding values in case of C group. Histological analysis showed satisfactory values in F and FT4 groups compared to the control.
 
Adrenomedullin (AM) is a novel hypotensive peptide that also exerts powerful anti-inflammatory effects. We recently showed that AM significantly reduces the clinical severity of acetic acid-induced colitis, an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in rats. In the present study, we examined the effect of AM in two alternative rat models of IBD. We found that 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced megacolon development in the saline-treated group, but AM treatment reduced the macroscopic damage caused by TNBS. In the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model, treatment with AM reduced diarrhea and bloody stool scores, but did not reduce body weight. Histological analysis revealed that in both the TNBS and DSS models, colon inflammation was much more severe in the saline-treated group than in the AM-treated group. These findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties of AM make it an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of IBD in rats.
 
Distribution of adolescent girls by age group
Distribution of adolescent girls by education level
Distribution of adolescent girls by level of food intake
This study deals with the nutritional profile of adolescent girls on the basis of data collected from sample survey of 300 respondents from Khagrachhari district in Chittagong hill tracts region of Bangladesh by cross sectional method. This study found that about 66.00% of adolescent girls lived in rural and only 34.00% lived in urban area of Khagrachhari district. About 93.00% of adolescent girls were tribes and only 7.00% were Bengali. According to the BMI level 41.33% of adolescent girls were underweight, 35.00% normal, 8.33% overweight and 6.67% obese. Their nutritional status were very poor because 65% adolescent girls intake low food, 15.67% undergo married during adolescent period. Among the adolescent girls the percentage of non school going was 11.60 and above class eight were only 21.67. The light spark of this study is 28.34% of the adolescent girl's intake diet more than the normal (1900 kcal. per day), 63.40% maintains hygienity. Study also shows that nutritional awareness developed 43.33% through mass media such as Television, Radio and Newspaper. Friends and family members also play a vital role to improve their nutritional awareness.
 
Composition of nucleotide of samples and reported accession on NCBI.
PCR amplification with matK primer.  
Nigella sativa seed is one of the spices, which is referred by Prophet Mohammed as a herb of blessing, which can cure everything other than death. Therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa seed has been very well studied by many researchers, but its use in cosmetic science is not very well studied. Nigella sativa seed is intensively studied for its chemical composition. It is reported to contains Thymoquinone, Nigellimine-N-oxide, Nigellicine, Nigellidine, Nigellone, Dithymoquinone, Thymohydroquinone, Thymol, Arvacrol, 6-methoxy-coumarin, 7-hydroxy-coumarin, Oxy-coumarin, Alpha-hedrin, Steryl-glucoside, Tannins, Flavinoids, Essential fatty acids, Essential amino acids, Ascorbic acid, Iron and calcium. Presence of these natural actives makes Nigella sativa seed as great medicinal herb. Nigella sativa seed has antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-aging, hair growth promoter, sun protection, anti cancer activity, which make it a novel ingredient for many cosmetic preparations. This review brings the comprehensive compilation of researches on Nigella sativa seed in the area of cosmetics and related fields.
 
Total heterotrophic bacterial load from Nkwo-Ezzangbo abattoir
Total heterotrophic bacterial load from Abakaliki abattoir  
Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of P. aeruginosa&E. coli from Abakaliki abattoir  
Antibiotic resistance pattern of Streptococcusspp fromEzzangbo-abbatoir
Antibiotic resistance pattern of Streptococcusspp fromAbakaliki-Abbatoir  
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) describe the microbial invasion and subsequent multiplication on a part or the entire urinary tract. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) has become the most common bacterial infections in humans, both at the community and hospital settings. The present study was a hospital-based surveillance conducted in four selected hospitals in Afikpo to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria from suspected urinary tract infections. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the urine of pregnant women with UTI attending the outpatient clinics between April-August 2013. A total of 200 clean midstream urine samples were collected and a general urine microscopic examination and culture were carried out, information on their age, gestational age, gravidity, parity, level of education and residence were also collected. Susceptibility testing panels of the following antibiotics: Gentamycin, tetracycline amikacin, ampicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, cotrimaxasole and cefaloxine were tested against the isolated organisms using disc diffusion method. The bacteriologic agents of UTI isolated from the patients showed that Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism (50.0%) and it is followed by Staphylococcus aureus (17.3%), Proteus mirabilis (5.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.7%) and Enterococcus faecalis (1.8%). The distribution of UTI among the ages of the antenatal patients showed that age group within the range of 27-32 years recorded the highest incidence of UTI, whereas those of them above 39 years showed the least incidence. Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin and Erythromycin were the most active antibiotics, while the isolates were highly resistant to cotrimoxasole, cefaloxine and nalidixic acid. Urinary tract infection is a major health problem among pregnant women. Urinalysis with culture and sensitivity test is the major diagnostic measure, while health education with regular antenatal and personal hygiene is recommended as precautionary measures to UTI.
 
Top-cited authors
A.H.M. Mahbubur Rahman
  • University of Rajshahi
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
  • Trivedi Science
Alice Branton
Dahryn Trivedi
  • Trivedi Global, Inc
Cao Ngoc Diep
  • Can Tho University