American International Journal of Humanities Arts and Social Sciences

Published by American Center of Science and Education
Print ISSN: 2643-0061
Publications
The study included a number of axes that concentrated on selecting the exercises used in the educational process by the physical education professors and mixing them using wires and plastic nets. These methods help achieving the goals of the educational exercises. The educational exercises included all the technical stages of the Javelin, and have simultaneously concentrated on its difficult aspects, since some of the stages require more than spears and medical balls, but rather tools that help the students learn the initial applications from holding the javelin to the release step, and help the students be precise with the track of the spear through the movement of the plastic, spear-like sticks in certain measurements through parallel-fixed wires, and curved-fixed as well. These tracks well help the students focus on how to perform in the technical stages without much thinking about carrying the tools or the gravity, and concentrate on struggling with steering the spear while running. After mastering the fixed tracks, the Javelin is now performed on the plastic nets. Then, the student do the Javelin using the legal tools on the legal field. The educational exercises along the helping tools were applied on the experiment group for four weeks, an average of two educational units per week. Then it was compared with the original group, and as the statistics show, the experimental group has exceeded the original group. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3376371
 
Rabindranath Tagore’s Chokher Bali and D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers are two famous novels in the early 20th century from two different social culture. Both these novels have particular important issues in them to be discussed. As in Chokher Bali we find Tagore has presented his idea in feminism, man-woman relationship, woeful condition of widow in his contemporary society etc. In the same way in Sons and Lovers Lawrence has talked about critical mother-son relationship, social bondage among the characters, description of nature, problems in the lives of working class etc. Though Chokher Bali and Sons and Lovers are from different social context but they can be compared through the commonly discussed issue in them that is complex mother-son relationship and the impact of motherhood to the sons. This paper is going to discuss the impact of excessive motherly affection to the life of son, similarities and dissimilarities in mother-son relationship in Chokher Bali and Sons and Lovers. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3381310
 
Indigenous Nigerian society respect and believe so much in her elderly. Males and female elderly are transmitters of traditional norms and values in a sustainable manner in each community. As such, they are the sage and kingmakers appointing, decision makers through careful and flawless selection from character check overtime, delving into family history and divination of the traditional oracle. After coronation, such leaders are never corrupt; they live up to expectation by promoting the wellbeing of the masses. However, this practice has been eroded by colonization and westernization for a democratic way of appointing leaders through voting; as such countries design voter education for her citizenry. This study thus examined voter education as a determinant of voting pattern of indigenous elderly women in Akoko land through these research questions: (i) what is the demographic characteristics of the elderly women in the study area? (ii) What kind of voter education programmes is available on the selected radio stations? (iii) What is the level of participation of the women on the programme on radio? (iv) To what extent has the women benefited from their participation in voter education programme on radio? (v) How has the voter education received influenced the voting pattern of the women? The study adopted the descriptive survey research through multi stage sampling technique by purposively selecting sixty indigenous elderly women from areas of the four Local Government ( Okorun, Ese, Agbaluku, Iwaro-Oka, Supare, Oba, Erusu, Okeagbe. Findings of the study showed that voter education in the study area impacted minimally on the respondents resulting in their skewed knowledge and voting pattern (Grand mean 2.71+2.46+2.19+2.13=116.9/4=29.2). It is recommended among others that voter education should include indigenous education, a larger coverage and quality.
 
There is no doubt that the murder of Jamal Khashoggi has brought about dramatic changes in the politics of the Middle East, and the key players; U.S., Saudi Arabia and Turkey are all playing different roles in shaping opinion in the region in the aftermath of the murder. While Turkey continues to push for justice for the murder of the journalist, the U.S. is seen to be divided between support for Saudi Arabia and call for justice, and Saudi Arabia on its part is pushing hard to see that it overcomes all attempts to undermine its government and leadership. This article argues that the murder of the journalist has pushed Saudi Arabia into taking steps that would ensure its survival and dominance in the region. The Saudi regime appears to be stepping up its power in the region and has reached out to neighbors and renewed its ties with its Gulf partners and wider Middle East, including Syria to neutralize all attempts by Turkey to undermine its regime. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3376365
 
The Ownership of Schools
Educational Facilities Provision and Maintenance Projects by the Ekiti-South West LG Council and Community-Based Development Associations
The aim of Education for the 21st Century is to enable every person to attain all-round development in the domains of ethics, intellect, physique, social skills and aesthetics according to his/her attributes so as to contribute to the future well-being of the nation and the world as a whole. The aim of the study was to assess the provision and maintenance of educational facilities in Ekiti State, Nigeria with a focus on the Ekiti-South West LGA and Community-Based Development Associations in the study area. This study adopted the survey research method and used three different sets of a questionnaire to collect research data from the authority of the Ekiti South-West LG Council officials, Community Development Unit of the LG Council and the 61 (CBDAs) officials were available in the study area. The findings among others revealed that majority of the secondary schools were privately-owned, while the primary and nursery/primary schools were Community-owned. However, the present monthly allocation from Federal Government to LGCs is grossly inadequate, and it is not enough to embark on provision and maintenance of educational facilities. Given the findings, there were need to improve the schools through additional appropriation and maintenance of the existing schools; finally, the governments and other stakeholders should inculcate good maintenance culture on our educational facilities for effective management with the intention of promoting high-quality education for the well-being of the nation.
 
t -test showing main effect of treatment on participants' environmental knowledge, attitude and practice
t -test showing main effect of location on participants' environmental knowledge, attitude and practice
t -test showing the interaction effect of treatment and school location on participants' environmental knowledge, attitude and practice
Water pollution has been a major problem facing people living in riverine area all over Nigeria. This has become life threaten to majority of people living in the area as well as visitors to the area. A descriptive action research design was adopted foe the study and 3 instruments were developed for the collection of data. The population of the study comprises of all secondary school students in riverine area of Ondo State while 200 respondents were randomly selected from 10 schools 5 on the land and 5 on water. The questionnaire titled Environmental knowledge scale (EKS) Environmental Attitude scale (EAS) AND Environmental practice scale (EPS) were used to collect data for the study. Data generated were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and T. test. The result of the study shows that there was significant effect of treatment on participants’ knowledge, attitude and practice towards water pollution and that location of school doesn’t have significant effect on participants’ behavior after the treatment based on the findings, it is therefore recommended that participation programme be encouraged at a level of education for solving environmental problems that is peculiar to any community. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3376474
 
The Constitution of Bangladesh ensures the equal rights and status of women in public life. But nondiscrimination over women in the private sphere is not guaranteed. Consequently, there are significant disparities between men and women in all realms of life. Lack of equal access to economic opportunities, education, health services and their lesser role in decision making perpetuate women’s subordination to men and susceptibility to violence. The notion of the society about girl children within the family itself builds up a mindset that girls ought to be less important than the male children. The multiple forms of discrimination against girls begin at home and continue to the end of their lives. This imbalanced foundation of knowledge, fully biased in favour of the males of the family, spreads through the society in general, resulting in tremendous forms of violence and injustice to women as a whole. The article highlights the key reasons of oppression over women such as physical, sexual and psychological abuse that cuts across lines of income, class and culture and its ultimate consequences. This article evaluates the loopholes in the existing criminal justice system of Bangladesh concerning violence against women with mentioning necessary possible way outs.
 
infrared spectrum of the compound4-mehoxy actamide
infrared spectrum of the compound C5
Our study deals with preparation of two types of imine compounds differ in the type of terminal group, where one of them has a terminal carboxyl group COOH while the other contains methoxyOCH3 as a terminal group. In the first part of this research it was Identification by spectroscopy methods using infrared IR and nuclear magnetic resonance H NMR spectrum, besides elemental analysis shows the exact chemical structure of the expected synthesized compounds. In the second part was the study of liquid-crystalline behavior by polarized optical microscopy POM and differential scanning calorimetry DSC that showed a liquid crystal phase in the compounds that has odd number of carbon atoms in the terminal chain compounds in the first series, while the second series compounds showed liquid crystal phase in the compounds that containing even number of atoms of carbon in the terminal chain. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3376373
 
Junior Secondary Social studies teachers awareness and Knowledge of the demands of Security Education
Percentages, Means and Standard Deviations for Junior Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Competence to Teach Selected Security Education Topics
This study analysed Social Studies teachers’ readiness to teach Security Education. 720 practicing Social Studies teachers drawn from 72 Junior Secondary schools in the South Western Nigeria were administered with a structured questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using simple non-parametric statistics. Findings showed that the teachers have a significantly low knowledge and awareness of the components of the Theme-Security Education. However, the teachers’ readiness to acquire additional useful knowledge and skills required for handling Security Education alongside their area of specialisation (Social Studies) was found to be significantly high. The teachers perceived the inclusion of Security Education in the reviewed Curriculum as a development that will create a significantly higher workload for them. Nevertheless, their response showed a relatively high degree of negative disposition towards the handling of the newly introduced Security Education theme in National Values class Based on these findings necessary recommendations focusing on the need for training and organizing workshops for curriculum implementers were suggested.
 
A sample of a creative map (source: ThinkBuzan.com)
Analysis of Variance of students' mental ability by Treatment and Attitude
Estimated Marginal Means of Treatment and Control group
The study investigated the effect of creative map on senior secondary biology students’ mental ability. Three research questions were raised and answered. The research design was a quasi-experimental pretest, posttest control group design. Two randomly selected schools involving a total of 71 biology students participated in the study. Biology Achievement Test (BAT) and Attitude towards Biology Questionnaire (ABQ) served data collection process. The sample were grouped into three ability levels (High, Medium and Low) using BAT before and after treatment administration. The experimental group was taught using creative map package while the control group was exposed to lecture method. Data collected was analyzed using frequency count, mean and Analysis of Variance. The result (F(1,61) =38.44; p<0.05, partial η2 = 0.39) revealed a positive influence of creative map on students’ mental ability with an upward movement from low and medium ability to high ability group. The study recommends the usage of creative map which offers to student the avenue to self-manage and actively participate in learning while enjoying equal platform to proceed with learning. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3376490
 
Turkey’s attempt to join the European Union has remained as controversial as ever, even at this point when countries like U.K are leaving the EU, Turkey’s membership to the Union has remain a concern and is being discussed in many circles. This paper tries to analyze Turkey’s attempt at becoming an EU member, and looks at the chances of Turkey’s membership and the implications that may accompany it, for Turkey and for Europe or the world. The research contends that membership for Turkey cannot be completely ruled out irrespective of what consequences it would have for Turkey or Europe. The change in perception on both the side of Turkey and the EU justifies such a position. The paper it is expected will contribute to the existing debate about the EU and its expansion, Brexit and its implication for Europe, the world and Turkey, and how countries like Turkey might fit. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3376367
 
In contemporary multicultural Britain, the concept of social cohesion has been a pressing priority for not only politicians and sociologists but also for the various British ethnic minorities. Race riots like those of 2001 in Northern Britain and the events of 7/7 in London (2005) put into question the allegiances of different British ethnic populations. They equally shed light on the real or perceived lack of social and cultural communication between the established British host population and the British ethnic and immigrant communities. Hence, social cohesion came to the fore as the new jargon of governance in contemporary Britain.This article analyzes on the concept of social cohesion and its applicability within an officially declared multicultural community like that of Great Britain. The concept will be reviewed, defined and approached from different liberal political perspectives (Robert Dahl’s pluralist approach and Arend Lijphart’s consociationalism to the more recent Will Kymlicka’s group-differentiated citizenship) while paying special attention to the British context. Bhikhu Parekh’s conception of the different theoretical approaches to the issue of social cohesion that are pertinent to liberal capitalist societies in general and the British context, in particular, is investigated. The aim of this study is to highlight the complexity of the normative accounts of the political scientists regarding the challenges that face multicultural Britain in coming to terms with its endeavour of creating “unity within diversity”. The 2002 White Paper and security speech of David Cameron (2011) political discourses are analyzed and evaluated to decipher how they understood national identity in relation to cultural diversity and social cohesion. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3376484
 
Figuer1:Millivora capensis dermis,epidermis papilla(1).papillary layer(2). Hematoxylin and Eosin.400x
Figuer3: Millivora capensis dermis, Appear large artery, Tunicaintima (endothelium) (1). Tunicaintima (smooth fibers)(2).Tunica adventitial(c.t) (3). Hematoxylin and Eosin.200x
Figer4:Millivora capensis hair follicles primary ,consist of hair medulla(1). Internal sheath(2).hair cortex(3). hair follicle.that surroundy by sebaceous gland(5).Hematoxylin and Eosin.200x
Figuer6: Millivore capensis,sweat gland, compsed of simple tupular or saccular, alveoli(1) that lined by low cubudal epithelium(2).Hematoxylin and Eosin.200x
Figuer8: Millivora corpscule(1)in Millivore capensis medium size artery(2). Hematoxylin and Eosin.100x
The present study was conducted on the dorsal skin of three (Millivora Capenesis)., Dermis were collected from healthy animals,formalin fixed and carried out routein histological procedure,then section at thicness six micrometer and stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin stain . Histologically,the dermis was composed of the papillary and reticular layers , the papillary layer was formed from loose connective tissue, composed of a bundant collageneous fibers, few elastic fibers, net work of blood capillaries, large artery , large vein and meissner , and pacinian corpscules (tactile corpscules) , the deeper layer of dermis was contain dense connective tissue that included skin appendages such as hair , sebaceous glands , sweat glands , there was two types of hair follicles , primary and secondary follicles , the sebaceous glands which surrounded the hair follicles , these glands were alveolar glands , while sweat glands were simple saccular glands that lined by low cuboidal epithelium from another hand , the ducts of sweat gland was lined by stratified cuboidal epithelium .the meissner corpscule was singly located in the papillary layer of the dermis, while the pacinian corpscule was found in the reticular layers ,our findings were showed these corpscules as onion shapes.The dermis of Millivora Capenesis consist of papillary and reticular layers with skin layer appendage; Sweat gland, sebaceous glands, primary and secondary hair follicles with meissner and pacinian corpscules. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3376377
 
Cross tabulation showing difference in the use of mother tongue and English language when disseminating information on climate change among rural dwellers
Mean and standard deviation summary showing the difference in the use of mother tongue and English language when disseminating information on climate change among rural dwellers on the basis of sex
Climate change has undoubtedly brought with it many seemingly intractable challenges and is already having significant impacts in Nigeria, and these impacts are expected to increase in the future. Rural dwellers environmental behaviour is not all that positive, because the language used in disseminating environmental issues, is mostly English and not the indigenous language. Information disseminated in English Language in most cases is not easily comprehended, because most of the rural dwellers are not literate in it. The instrument used is a self-constructed test. The study adopted the quasi experimental method. Purposeful sample was used to select two groups, with twenty people in each group. The two groups were taught the causes and effects of climate change, one group was taught using English Language and the other group using Yoruba. A test was administered to each group to determine their level of comprehension. Data were analysed using mean and standard deviation. Yoruba group are more in-depth in their knowledge of climate change than English group. The use of mother tongue is germane in the dissemination of information regarding environmental sustainability, however climate change messages will be most effective if there is mix of English Language and Yoruba Language as there is no segment of the society that will be left out. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3376478
 
This paper investigates the complex developments of identity in contemporary Africa considering that the emergence of identity politics is a consequence of the extraordinarily rapid and profound upheavals and transformations of human society at the turn of the 21stcentury. Contemporary world has considerably opened up and extraordinarily shrunk in specific historical circumstances. The act of migration particularly, is one that profoundly changes the individual, transforming the relationship of the migrant with his home country and new host country and then impacting their identity as a result. The expanding use of the term, identity politics, is scrutinized in this work and attempts are made at delineating its unwieldy parameters. This in turn reflects the socio-political composition of African societies.
 
The purpose of this research is to identify those factors that students are motivated toward English language learning. Furthermore, the study applied quantitative approach and the instrument was questionnaire to collect the data, and the questionnaire have been adopted, the software for analyzing the data were SPSS and calculated the percentage for the findings. Moreover, the major findings revealed as follow; first, English helps/will help me meet foreigners, second, English will be helpful for my career, third; English helps/will help me in my travel overseas and fourth; Studying English can be important for me because it will help me to further my studies. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3376488
 
Orphans' Level of Motivation for Higher Education 1. I like going to university because there is plenty of opportunities to enjoy life.
The purpose of this study was to find the level of orphans’ motivation for higher education and factors contributing their motivation for higher education. Since Kandahar is one of the historically and strategically important provinces of Afghanistan in which four-decade war have adversely affected different aspects of lives of its population. Orphan and education seem two contradictory terms in a country like Afghanistan with four-decade war history. The study is descriptive in nature where a quantitative questionnaire was designed to collect data from randomly selected 112 students studying in 10th, 11th and 12th of Shaikh Zaid orphanage and from 15 graduates through snowball sampling method. The findings revealed that orphans are motivated for higher education transportation, financial problem, daydreaming, distraction during study are the major challenges that prevent orphans from getting higher education. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3382821
 
The study investigated commonly used abbreviated words among the sampled population. It also determined the difference between those that abbreviated words and those that did not abbreviated words. The study revealed the list of abbreviated words in the study. And also ascertained which gender abbreviated words most. These were with a view to provide information on the implications of SMS language on English Language writing and learning of the students. The study adopted quantitative survey research design. The population for the study Comprised 83 senior secondary school students in Olorunda Local Government, Osun State. The sample size comprised 100 respondents, selected using multistage sampling technique. One Local Government Area (LGA) was selected from thirty Local Governments in the state using simple random sampling technique. From the LGA, four senior secondary school was selected using simple random sampling technique and from each school, 25 students were selected from senior secondary school II using simple random sampling technique. The students were taught for forty minutes on how to write a letter devoid of using abbreviated words and after the lesson, the students were asked to write a letter to their father informing him about social amenities in your school. Those letters were collected, marked and converted to data for this study. Data collected was analyzed using simple percentages. Those letter were collected, marked and converted to data for this study. The result showed commonly used abbreviated words by the respondents such as, pls (please) 9 times by 9 students, u (you) 26 times by 10 students , and fyn (fine) 5 times and so on. The result also revealed 51 students (representing 61.4%) did not abbreviated words in the letter writing and 32 students (representing 38.6%) abbreviated words in the letter. The result showed that female gender was the gender that abbreviated words most in the letter with 49% and male with 35%. Lastly, the result also revealed percentage of students that used abbreviated words 38.6% of the students used abbreviated words while 61.4% of the 100% total population did not used abbreviated words The study concluded that use of abbreviated words did not have effect on English language learning and writing among secondary school students in Olorunda Local Government, Osun State.
 
This paper discussed the increasing danger of population explosion in Nigeria and its implication to available food supply and social infrastructures. The objective of the paper is to show that over population is the reason for high level of illiteracy, wide spread unemployment, poverty and violent crime. The study reveals that with the rate of population increase in Nigeria if nothing is done, time will come when it will result to environmental hazards, malnutrition and other infectious diseases. It observed that while other countries of the world like China and India with increasing rate of population like Nigeria are making serious efforts through Laws and legislation to combat this population increase. The Nigerian leaders are not putting any effort to fight this menace rather what is taking centre stage in Nigeria is this issue of corruption and embezzlement of government funds. The paper was of the opinion that this attitude of our leaders is what has resulted to unemployment armed robbery, kidnapping, underdevelopment and crises of killing and marginalization. It concluded by suggesting a way forward which includes reduction in early marriages which leads to increase in child bearing, corruption and poverty. Finally, it recommended that the government should encourage the people to do away with outdated customs and traditions which make it possible for people lay more emphasis on male children to the extent that unless they have male children, they will not be satisfied. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3382455
 
Over The past four hundred years, Shakespeare has played a significant role within a European framework, particularly, where a series of political events and ideologies were being shaped. The birth of the nation during the late 18th and 19th centuries, the first and second world wars, the process of European unification during the 1990s, are a case in point. This part challenges the idea of an all-encompassing universal Shakespeare by demonstrating that Shakespeare and his plays transmitted across different histories, languages, and traditions meant something significantly different in these geographical contexts. Rejecting the existence of a universally absolute and singular Shakespearean meaning, I attempt to demonstrate that Shakespeare is always what he is imagined to be in a cultural and historical context. The various local and national appropriations and the universality of the cultural icon, “Shakespeare”, clash in the daily practice of interpreting, performing, and teaching his plays. This paper discusses Shakespeare’s appropriation and performance in East Germany. It focuses on the theatrical production and its cultural context in this country.
 
In Morocco, artificial reservoirs often constitute the principal source of water supply. Yet, they faced natural risks such as the siltation, this phenomenon is increasing in all dams around the world. As a result, governments are constantly looking for innovative solutions and encourages studies in this field. In this perspective, we are trying to valorize the mud from the reservoir of one of the oldest and most important dams in Morocco; the Lalla Takerkoust dam, which is suffering from high sedimentation rates. This study is subdivided into two parts, a social part where we conducted questionnaire surveys, and a technical part, where we carried out a series of physicochemical and mechanical analyses on sediment samples collected from the Lalla Takerkoust reservoir. The results obtained show that the sediments of the studied reservoir can be used in several domains, which the local population can use to improve their living standards by setting up social enterprises. Salhi S., Boujrouf S. et Gourfi A., 2021, VALORISATION DES MATERIAUX DE LA VASE DU BARRAGE DE LALLA TAKERKOUST-MAROC Une approche pour le développement territorial et social Résumé Au Maroc, les ouvrages hydrauliques constituent souvent l'origine de l'alimentation en eau, or ces derniers sont affrontés a des risques naturels tels que l'envasement de leurs retenues, ce phénomène s'accroit dans l'ensemble des barrages du Maroc avec une perte annuelle de 50 Mm 3. De ce fait, le gouvernement marocain cherche de façon permanente des solutions innovantes et encourage les études en ce domaine. C'est dans cette optique que nous réfléchissons comment et par quelle possibilité peut-on valoriser la vase du barrage de Lalla Takerkoust (ancien Cavagnac). Le but recherché et de voir comment atténuer ce problème aussi bien que trouver une autre source d'amélioration des conditions de vie de la population locale. À cet effet, l'étude est divisée en deux volets, un social sur lequel nous avons mené des enquêtes par questionnaire, et un deuxième technique réalisé en mobilisant une série d'analyses physico-chimiques et mécaniques sur des échantillons des sédiments prélevés de la retenue du barrage de Lalla Takerkoust. Les résultats obtenus montrent que la vase du barrage peut être utilisée dans plusieurs domaines, que la population locale peut, en servir, afin d'améliorer leurs niveaux de vie par le montage des entreprises sociales.
 
For the past four decades, internal disputes that sometimes led to armed conflicts have left its fingerprints on the internal political development of the Iraqi Kurdish movement. In all rounds and until nowadays, two political segment groups dominated the conflicts; a group led by Masoud Barzani and the other led by Jalal Talabani. This article is explained the background of the PUK-KDP conflict and the events that led to the start of its latest round of civil fighting some years ago, and the events that followed from it until the beginning of the Washington agreement negotiations that started by the visit of David Welch to the Kurdish region and his US government invitation of the two Kurdish leaders to lead delegations of their parties for peace talks in Washington. In this article, the researcher will attempt and lay down the framework and history of the conflict, the peace process, the regional and international mediation attempts and the events that led to the Washington Agreement in addition the events that followed the agreement. This study shows the root of internal conflict of the Iraqi Kurds and the reason behind of the Iraqi Kurdish civil War. The reason for choosing this study is that its emergence as a starting point to outline the roots of the Kurdish civil war in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The rationale behind picking out this period is that it appears as the cutting-off point for discussing the Iraqi Kurdish political history is the emergence of the Kurdish opposition party that has changed the Kurdish political landscape in the region. Before starting the Iraqi Kurdish civil war between the KDP and PUK. This study is presented a significant account of confidently not publicized details about these parties. Particular attention is given to relation between the Barzani and Talabani groups’ since 1964, Talabani connection with the Iraqi governments, Kurdish political challenges, the neigbhouring countries involvement in the Kurdish civil war, the peace process, as well as the regional and international reactions to the Kurdish civil war. .
 
For the past four decades, internal disputes that sometimes led to armed conflicts have left its fingerprints on the internal political development of the Iraqi Kurdish movement. In all rounds and until nowadays, two political segment groups dominated the conflicts; a group led by Masoud Barzani and the other led by Jalal Talabani. This article is explained the background of the PUK-KDP conflict and the events that led to the start of its latest round of civil fighting some years ago, and the events that followed from it until the beginning of the Washington agreement negotiations that started by the visit of David Welch to the Kurdish region and his US government invitation of the two Kurdish leaders to lead delegations of their parties for peace talks in Washington. In this article, the researcher will attempt and lay down the framework and history of the conflict, the peace process, the regional and international mediation attempts and the events that led to the Washington Agreement in addition the events that followed the agreement. This study shows the root of internal conflict of the Iraqi Kurds and the reason behind of the Iraqi Kurdish civil War. The reason for choosing this study is that its emergence as a starting point to outline the roots of the Kurdish civil war in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The rationale behind picking out this period is that it appears as the cutting-off point for discussing the Iraqi Kurdish political history is the emergence of the Kurdish opposition party that has changed the Kurdish political landscape in the region. Before starting the Iraqi Kurdish civil war between the KDP and PUK. This study is presented a significant account of confidently not publicized details about these parties. Particular attention is given to relation between the Barzani and Talabani groups’ since 1964, Talabani connection with the Iraqi governments, Kurdish political challenges, the neigbhouring countries involvement in the Kurdish civil war, the peace process, as well as the regional and international reactions to the Kurdish civil war. .
 
هدف البحث الى التعرف على العلاقة بين البيئة الابتكارية والنمو الاقتصادي في البلدان المتقدمة ومقارنتها بتلك في البلدان الناشئة، اذ ان الابتكار يعد من اهم العناصر في النمو الاقتصادي ويكتسب اهمية متباينة بين المجموعتين وتكمن فرضية البحث بأن هناك اثر للابتكار على النمو الاقتصادي طويل الأمد ووفق الاليات والمحددات الخاصة بالنمو الاقتصادي، وبالاستناد على بعض المؤشرات المختارة الخاصة بالبيئة الابتكارية كمتغيرات مستقلة اما الناتج المحلي الاجمالي فهو المتغير التابع ومعبرا عن النمو الاقتصادي ومستوى اداء النشاطات الاقتصادية، توصلت الدراسة الى ان هناك علاقة موجبة طويلة الأمد بين الابتكار والنمو الاقتصادي بشكل أكبر في البلدان الناشئة.
 
Gender Composition of Drug Abuse: A Comparision
Drugs and substance abuse is a global problem that affects almost every country in the world, both developed and developing, and now has become a worldwide public health crisis. Substance abuse has always been perceived as a male problem especially in India. Historically, women using substances have always been disapproved in Indian society. But in past few years, there has been now a drastic change seen by many substance abuse kinds of research and reports which clearly indicates the rising graph of Women substance abuse. There is substantial evidence to support women-specific methods in deterrence, treatment, harm lessening, research, and policy on substance abuse and addiction. However, due to the non-recognition of women substance abusers, the studies on women substance abusers population are sparse. The main aim of this study is to analyze the issues and role of substance abuse among women in Kashmir valley and after being addicted how they are excluded from their family members, relatives, kin's and finally from their society.
 
10 Province with the Highest Prevalence of Drug Abuse in Indonesia (2017)
Multi-stakeholder Intervention in Efforts to Eradicate Drug Abuse in Laksamana Sub-district
Laksamana Sub-district located in 2 nd ring of Pertamina RU II Dumai operational area. In the last two years, a series of community development programs have been carried out in this district, as part of Pertamina RU II Dumai's commitment to participate in overcoming social problems. However, drug abuse is not a simple problem. There are many parties who have interests, especially from local government such as the BNN, BKKBN and Detention Centre. This study focuses on Pertamina RU II Dumai's CSR strategy to deal with rampant drug abuse in Dumai City generally, especially LaksamanaSub-district through a multi-stakeholder approach. As a result, premier and tertiary interventions were carried out on vulnerable groups such as children, youth, housewives and even former drug abusers. Meanwhile, CSR programs are synergized with local government and community groups programs. These programs focus on (1) developing child-friendly open spaces, (2) increasing education through reading corners, (3) increasing the competence of prisoners, (4) and developing economic center.
 
Feminist and critical scholarship situates sexist discourse in hate speech as creating, perpetrating and justifying dominance and violence against women. This paper is insightful to the increased public awareness and support to address the alarming rate of virulence of speech and actions on social, political and ethno-religious spaces in Nigeria that deflects attention from sexist hateful words and actions. This discourse challenges sexist hate speech as false perceptions that have institutionalized social hierarchies animated by sexual prejudice, stereotypes and the basis for women exclusion in development in private and public spaces. The article analyzes the multiple dimensions of intersectional realities of sexuality, gender and other social categories that are shaped by social practices like spoken or written words, actions and power relations undermining equity and women inclusion. The paper examines the invisibility of legal and constitutional frameworks that particularly address sexist epithets as validating the permissibility of sexist speech.
 
This article is an attempt to highlight the role played by the family known as Fodiyo family and their contributions toward the study of Arabic syntax and morphology in West Africa with particular references to Sheikh Abdullahi bin Fodiyo and Sultan Muhammad Bello. The two personalities played crucial role in these two fields and wrote important books for the study of such discipline, this is what this paper is going to discuss. And it will outline the followings:-Biography of the two personalities; Effort of Sheikh Abdullahion the studies of syntax and morphology in West Africa; Effort of Sultan Muhammad Bello on the studies of syntax and morphology in west Africa; Conclusion.
 
Bound test Estimators (involving Pool, FE, Diff. GMM and Sys. GMM)
The study demonstrated the impact of disaggregated public expenditure on unemployment rate in selected African countries with panel data spanning from 2000 to 2017. The data were majorly sourced from the World Bank Indicator. The study employed Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) techniques for empirical analysis. The findings of two-step system GMM showed that expenditure on infrastructure and education reduce unemployment rate, while expenditure on defense and health increase unemployment rate in the region. The short-run elasticity estimate showed that infrastructure and education expenditures reduce unemployment rate by 9% and 1.83%. A unit rise in defense and health expenditure increase unemployment rate by 5.2% and 84.5%. The long-run elasticity of infrastructure and education expenditure reduce unemployment rate by 3.8% and 7.89 %, while the long-run defense and health expenditure elasticity's increase unemployment rate by 22.22% and 364.58% in the selected African countries. The policy implication is that, the positive relationship between expenditure on health and unemployment could be attributed to mismanagement of government funds due to corruption, while that of defense and unemployment could be high rate of insecurity and crimes in the region. Therefore, the study recommended among others a drastic measure to further improve the education sector through adequate investment in education that will help in skills, development and training.
 
Apres le partage de l’Afrique occidentale depuis le XIXème siècle entre les grands empires colonisateurs européens, il y avait deux administrations coloniales dans cette sous-région. Les analyses historiques ont fourni des détails en ce qui concerne les méthodes de gouvernance pratiquées en Afrique par ces deux puissances coloniales. Alors que l’administration française préférait la méthode directe, tout en réduisant le rôle des institutions africaines précoloniales au minimum, l’administration britannique, de sa part, préférait une sorte de gouvernement colonial indirect. Cette différence de nature de la politique coloniale des deux grandes puissances européennes dans l’Afrique occidentale a eu ses conséquences au niveau de la politique linguistique, ainsi qu’au niveau du contact des locuteurs des deux langues européennes avec les locuteurs des langues africaines dans cette sous-région. Cette communication vise à élaborer les caractéristiques de la politique linguistique en Afrique, tout en expliquant les différentes politiques linguistiques qui existent, mais avec l’accent sur les politiques linguistiques des deux grandes puissances européennes dans la sous-région de l’Afrique Occidentale.
 
The main objective of the present paper is to explore the relevance of Ambedkarism (thoughts of Ambedkar) and how it brings political consciousness among backward sections. B.R. Ambedkar advocates the path for emancipation through his personal experiences and he gave three mantras: 'educate', 'agitate' and 'organize'. The idea of 'education' would be main objective of this paper because education is one of the key mantras. Education makes a person to a complete human being. Therefore, Ambedkar express that the socio-political status of shudra (SC/ST/OBC) had been socially and economically backward only because there was a severe lack of education. The present paper would explore the connection between political consciousness and Ambedkarism (thought of Amberdkar), because his thought does not accept any religious discrimination, apartheid, caste-discrimination, orthodoxy, superstition, ignorance, etc. in any form and this concept seeks the path of socioeconomic and political upheaval through education.
 
Separation of strategic approaches and morals prompted various business outrages and untrustworthy practices in working environments. This encouraged researchers and practice holders to examine significance of ethical quality at work environment. In particular, the job that moral chiefs play in advancing positive representative practices is urgent. This examination article has featured the part of moral innovators in molding whistleblowing goals of their subordinates. Alongside, this exploration article has likewise researched the part of good character. An aggregate of four speculations, analyzing the immediate impact of moral initiative on moral personality and whistleblowing expectations and meditational job of good character https://www.acseusa.org/journal/index.php/aijhass 21 were proposed. This exploration article embraced a period slacked research article plan and gathered data from representative friend dyads at three focuses on schedule. Number of respondents was 214; Cross-sectional technique was used for data collection. Respondents were selected from different services organizations from Multan. Data was analysed on SPSS and AMOS. Results were obtained by applying reliability test, ANOVA, Correlation test, and regression test by using PROCESS Macro. Results gained verified that the role of ethical leaders in shaping moral identity of employees as well as their whistleblowing intentions. The findings suggest that employees working under ethical leaders are inclined to stand up against malevolent and unethical practices taking place at their workplace. Thus, organizations must hire leaders with higher ethical inclinations and also train the existing leaders about importance of ethics. Moreover, this research article has highlighted multiple avenues for future research.
 
It is commonly acknowledged that many thinkers have predicted a drop in mainstream religious participation and traditional belief, and a retreat of religion from the public sphere in favor of reason and rational thinking. However, religion did "return from exile" with ferocity partly after the Iranian Revolution and remarkably after the 9/11 attacks and the Arab Spring heralding the gradual decline of secularization theory. This comeback of religion does not mean the end of secularism, but rather the conflation or marriage between religion/Islam and secularism forcing Islamic discourse to enter a new phase of post-Islamism and secular discourse to enter a new era of post-secularism. In addition to deconstructing the afore-mentioned concepts and highlighting the role of performance of protest in mobilizing the protesters during the Arab uprisings, my paper is concerned with investigating the issue of spirituality in performance studies and highlighting the reformulation of religion's place in the Arab public sphere in the post-Arab Spring era. It also argues that the multi-faceted, hybrid and revolutionary post-Islamist public sphere has contributed to the emergence of youth religiosity as a model that is independent of the ideological establishment.
 
The author exposes an idea of universal sustainability, which capturing on a whole the interconnected processes of sustainable changes in society. Applying this conceptual idea opens the door for ripen implementation of overall social strategy at global and national levels in the coming decade.
 
The quest for improved performance of commercial banks suggests that employees should be more involved in their works. The degree of job involvement depends on a number of factors one of which is employees' psychological make-up. Using ten randomly selected commercial banks and 1,200 respondents, the author examined the relationship between employees' self-efficacy, need satisfaction at work and job involvement. Result showed that job involvement positively correlated with self-efficacy and need satisfaction at work. In other words, employees with high self-efficacy are more involved in their jobs than those who have low self-efficacy. In the same manner, employees who have their needs satisfied at work are more involved in their jobs than those who did not get their needs satisfied. Individually, need satisfaction at work contributed 10% (β = .10); and Self efficacy contributed 6% (β = .06) to job involvement of employees from Commercial bank workers in Nigeria. This has hypothesized self efficacy and need satisfaction at work jointly and independently predicted job involvement of the employees (R 2 = .16; F = 69.362; P<.05). Therefore, to improve the performances of commercial banks in Nigeria, employees' self-efficacy and need satisfaction at work should be enhanced.
 
In todays global world the need for business to collaborate in knowledge management has become more important since more than ever before, the returns companies gain increasingly have been related to their intellectual assets, and not the tangible assets they manage. However, in practice, implementing such collaboration has been challenging. Thus the aim of this study is to examine these challenges associated with Collaborative Knowledge Management (CKM) in the rural banking industry in Ghana. The study is quantitative with 105 employees surveyed. The study results indicate that challenges indeed exist and amongst them are: Mistrust; fear of loss of autonomy; different business cultures with different power structures; different funding cycles causing different creditworthiness; difficulty in combining skills due to different knowledge levels; and finally difficulty in coordinating affairs with full management commitment. However, the study also revealed that the individual respondents opinions on challenges are contingent upon their demographic features. In view of these, it is recommended that management must commit itself to the task through communication and put into place the appropriate rewards and incentives for knowledge management activities. Also employees need to develop knowledge management skills through training in order to participate effectively. The conclusion is that without an appropriate culture and management commitment, the challenges connected with implementing collaboration in knowledge management should not be underrated.
 
Plus de 55 ans après l’indépendance de plusieurs pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest, la sous-région reste très divisée et les différences commerciales, linguistiques et culturelles accentuent cette division. Malgré tous les efforts qui ont été déployés pour réduire ces barrières, le progrès enregistré demeure très modeste. Face à la mondialisation, nos pays sont contraints de fusionner leurs économies en blocs compétitifs et forts. Aussi manquent-ils le pouvoir de prendre part aux échanges internationaux effectivement, en tant que puissance régionale. On se demande pourquoi les pays d’Afrique occidentaux dotés de ressources matérielles et humaines enviables ne parviennent pas à se rapprocher les uns des autres pour constituer un front commun. Pourtant l’unité fait la force. On constate que le besoin de surmonter ces obstacles est évident mais le désir de s’unifier manque encore à cause des barrières linguistiques héritées du colonialisme. C’est un fait bien connu que les langues sont indispensables dans le succès de l’intégration politico-économique. Le partage de la même langue peut briser toutes les frontières, neutraliser les soupçons, faciliter l’amitié et l’entente. Cette communication porte sur le rôle de langue française pour briser la barrière linguistique dans la sous- région d’Afrique. Les mots clés : La barrière linguistique, l’intégration, la mondialisation, le bloc, la puissance régionale.
 
Plus de 55 ans après l’indépendance de plusieurs pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest, la sous-région reste très divisée et les différences commerciales, linguistiques et culturelles accentuent cette division. Malgré tous les efforts qui ont été déployés pour réduire ces barrières, le progrès enregistré demeure très modeste. Face à la mondialisation, nos pays sont contraints de fusionner leurs économies en blocs compétitifs et forts. Aussi manquent-ils le pouvoir de prendre part aux échanges internationaux effectivement, en tant que puissance régionale. On se demande pourquoi les pays d’Afrique occidentaux dotés de ressources matérielles et humaines enviables ne parviennent pas à se rapprocher les uns des autres pour constituer un front commun. Pourtant l’unité fait la force. On constate que le besoin de surmonter ces obstacles est évident mais le désir de s’unifier manque encore à cause des barrières linguistiques héritées du colonialisme. C’est un fait bien connu que les langues sont indispensables dans le succès de l’intégration politico-économique. Le partage de la même langue peut briser toutes les frontières, neutraliser les soupçons, faciliter l’amitié et l’entente. Cette communication porte sur le rôle de langue française pour briser la barrière linguistique dans la sous- région d’Afrique.Les mots clés : La barrière linguistique, l’intégration, la mondialisation, le bloc, lapuissance régionale.
 
Bamaya dance being performed
This paper uncovers both Ghanaian and the Chinese various traditional dances in as much as multicultural comprehension is concerned. There is no denying of the fact that, China has a lot of rich and genealogical traditional dances as applicable to Ghana. Both countries have a peculiar historical traditional ways of doing things most especially dancing, in so far as their respective jurisdictions are concerned. Traditional dancing is not left out of the witness box when accounting for the genealogical analysis on both China and Ghana. Gone were the days when traditional dancing brings people together as one and also even provides a platform for people in meeting their life partners. This handful significance is still in existence.
 
The article deals with different symbols expressed in different fables. A fable is a short allegoric story which has animals, birds, humans and various natural phenomena as characters and it mainly ends with a moral . One of the main functions of fables is didactics. Symbolic expressions represent main parts of fables. Animals are represented with humans' features. Different symbols acquire different characteristics in various cultures. If a snake can be a kind creature in Georgian culture, Aesop considers it as an evil creature. If a donkey is foolish for Aesop and for Greek culture, Sulkhan-Saba sometimes considers it as a sly and clever creature. One of the dominant characters for all the cultures is a cat. If a cat is a creature, that never changes its nature for Aesop, Sulkhan-Saba considers it as a wise and prudent creature. But we cannot refuse that Aesopian cat can also be prudent and wise. For Dodsley a cat is greedy, but for Thurber a cat is self-confident and selfish creature.
 
Customer loyalty is an essential component of the entertainment industry. Some would argue that it is essential to all industries. The Walt Disney Company has mastered customer loyalty by developing strong connections with their guests. Other industries can benefit from incorporating Disney techniques and craft appropriate services into their operations. It has been argued that for business organizations the most important emerging, market cohort to build loyalty programs is the Millennial cohort, because of its' size and unique perspective. This paper investigates consumer values of both Millennials and Baby Boomers. Three brands, representing 3 different industries, are identified and described in terms of how Disney strategies can be applied to meeting the needs of appropriate target audiences. Results of the study indicate that the Millennial consumer expectation is significantly different from the Baby Boomer expectations (e.g., more emphasis on social contribution, and nature, less on price). Businesses need to recognize the different expectations of market place segments and provide appropriate products and services to meet those expectations.
 
Plantain fibre is a natural fibre obtained from the pseudo stem of plantain plant. Usually in Nigeria the pseudo stem constitutes huge waste which posses a great challenge for the farmers to dispose after harvesting the fruits. But these waste pseudo stems can generate useful fibres that are biodegradable. This paper is focused on extraction of fibre from plantain (musa paradisiaca) pseudo-stem that fruits have been harvested from. The waste Pseudo stems were obtained from plantain plantations in Anambra state of Nigeria. The fibres were extracted manually without the addition of chemicals and dyed with organic dye to enhance its aesthetic appearance. Thereafter it was braided into long ropes, then with macramé, weaving and sewing techniques these ropes were used in producing different interior decoration accessories such as macramé flower hangers, flower basket, curtain tie backs, table mats and ornamental flower pots. This will help to highlight the different opportunities it presents for the production of interior decoration accessories. Nigeria as one of the largest plantain producing countries in the world has so much waste of plantain pseudo stems. Therefore the use of plantain fibre for the production of interior decoration material will convert these wastes to income generating materials that will provide alternative source of income to subsistent farmers and unemployed youths in Nigeria.
 
Major pineapple producing countries in the World, 2016
List of top ten pineapple producing states of India in 2015-16, with concentrated pockets of Pineapple producing districts.
Export of Pineapple from India in the Last Ten Years
Pineapple, popularly known as Ananas is a very delicious tropical fruit of the Bromeliaceae family. The growing season of pineapple in India is from July - September. India is the sixth largest producer of pineapple, contributing more than 10 percent of the total pineapple producing area of the world. It is a cash crop and hence, it has the capacity to enrich the national economy if cultivated in judicious manner. Thus, the present paper is aimed to highlight the growth and extension of pineapple production in India in last fourteen years. The study incorporates time series data from 2001-02 to 2015-16. The study revealed remarkable increase in area and production from 77 to 109 thousand hectare and 1182 to 1924 metric tonnes respectively. About 40 percent of the total production is contributed by five north-eastern states, while 24 percent of the production comes from only two states of south India. The study also reveals that the total export value of pineapple from India has increased twelve folds from 16 million to 198 million. There is lack of adequate farm management techniques, lack of financial assistance for buying chemical and bio fertilizers, which is hindering the progress of pineapple processing industries, there is an urgent need to adapt and apply modern techniques of pineapple production in India
 
English instructors at Jazan University continuously claim that students who join university often suffer from extremely poor English. Students find it difficult to communicate with their teachers. This study assumes that the main problem can be attributed to little vocabulary size. Nation and Beglar’s (2007) “Vocabulary Size Test” is used to investigate the students' vocabulary size in first and second 1000 most frequent words in English. 525 preliminary year students from three different colleges participated in the study. Results revealed remarkably low achievement in the test with the majority of students. The study suggests that the adoption of vocabulary-rich syllabuses will enhance overall proficiency in English and hence better chances of success at university.
 
Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) is the buzzword facilitating employers and employees in learning today. The internet along with sophisticated technology is helping self-motivated learners largely. Coursera, edX and Udacity are the most popular companies offering online courses. Steadily and systematically, the technical and academic platforms developed by MOOCs are used for the advantage of training employees in the workplaces. The bridge between academic education and corporate training are becoming blurred. Lectures taught by world class professors are used for training employees in organizations. The discussion here focusses on the growth, benefits and challenges of using MOOCs as a technology in training employees. Keywords: MOOCs, Corporate, Training, Employer, Employee, Learning
 
LISS III Image (2005) of Kakora & Kanauldiya Gad Basin
Linear aspects of the drainage network of the study area
Linear aspects of the drainage network of the Suwari Basin
Bifurcation Ratio of Suwari Basin
Bifurcation Ratio of Kedar Ganga Basin
Abstract: Bhagirathi valley presents a well-developed watershed in which snow, glaciers, running water and mass gravity movements are the important factors in sculpturing surface geometry. The surface configuration of the Gangotri area can be analyzed with the help of different morphometric techniques like relative relief, dissection index, drainage density, drainage frequency and average slope, nature of long profile, sinuosity index etc. to find out the morphological characteristics of Gangotri Glacier area. The evaluation of landscape is an important and growing aspect of earth science. Evaluation is defined as the 'act or result of expressing the numerical value of judging concerning the worth of an object. In this paper, an attempt has been made to visualize the extent of variations in landform contrasts and it has been done by adopting advanced and current quantitative techniques in particular in the course of application of standard methods-pre field, field and post field methods in fluvial geomorphology. Keywords: Morphology; Gangotri Glacier; landscape evaluation; Sinuosity Index; Bifurcation Ratio
 
Graphic representation of technological pedagogical content knowledge (From http://tpack.org) 
The present study is aimed to find out the level of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) of Pre-service teachers. The study also finds out the effect of gender and streams on TPACK of Pre- service teachers. For this purpose a sample consist of 131 pre-service teachers of department of Education, Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh were selected by using Simple Random Sampling technique. TPACK scale developed by Hosseini, Z., & Anand, K.(2012)was used for data collection purpose. Data were analyzed by Mean, Standard Deviation, t-test and ANOVA. The findings of the study revealed the fact that on TPACK scale Pre-service teachers have high mean score in Technological Knowledge and low mean score in Technological Content Knowledge. The present study indicates that, both male and female differs in Technological Knowledge, but overall TPACK of pre-service teachers have no difference on the basis of gender. Similarly there exists no significant difference in Technological pedagogical Content knowledge of pre-service teachers among different streams (science, art and social-sciences).
 
منذ عقود كثيرة تعاملت الكثير من المذاهب الفكرية المتعلقة بدراسة العلاقات الدولية مع ظاهرة الاتحاد الاوربي باعتبارها: النموذج الامثل، الذي شهدته العلاقات الدولية منذ عقود طويلة، وكانت قد شكلت هذه التجربة الاوربية، النموذج المثالي لباقي مشروعات التكامل الاقليمي في العالم، وبالخصوص في الشرق الاوسط وافريقيا وأمريكا اللاتينية، التي سعت الى محاكات هذه النموذج الاوربي الناجع.
 
Top-cited authors
Sreeleakha Prabhakaran
  • Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies
Aphu Elvis Selase
  • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Karwan Guli
  • University of Zakho
Shibli Naaz
  • Aligarh Muslim University
Zebun Khan
  • Aligarh Muslim University