American International Journal of Education and Linguistics Research

Published by American Center of Science and Education
Print ISSN: 2641-7987
Publications
Spearman's Correlation Coefficient on E-Interactive Learning by Splitting Based on Gender
Distance e-learners are expected to participate in an e-learning environment and interact with the content, colleagues and facilitators through distance education technologies. Learning environment goes a long way to determine student’s academic performance. Hence, this study tends to find out relationship between online interaction and distance e-learners. The purpose of the study was to analyze the correlation that exists between learner-content-interaction (LCI), learner-learner-interaction (LLI) and learner-instructor-interaction (LII) and academic performance of distance e-learners in a Nigerian university. Two research questions were designed to guide the study. A descriptive design of survey type was adopted for the study and a questionnaire was used to collect the quantitative data. The study was conducted in four selected study centres of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) and a total of 1,025 participants completed the survey-based questionnaire. The researchers used Spearman’s correlation to determine if correlation exists on each type of interaction. The findings of this study revealed that learner-learner-interaction was the only factor that was significant(r = .066, p-value = .034), with very small weak correlation out of the three types of interactions discussed in this study. Findings also revealed that all the three types of interactions were significant (LCI, r= .121** p=0.009; LII, r=.108*, p=0.018; LLI, r = .105*, p = 0.023) for female distance e-learners but none was significant for male distance e-learners.Based on the findings of the research, recommendations have been made which will assist Nigerian university policy makers and course developers with a view to improving the academic performance of distance e-learners.
 
Level of Academic Competence of Secondary School Students
Level of Self-efficacy of the Students
The Mean and Standard Deviation of Influence of Self-efficacy on Academic Competence of Secondary School Students
The study ascertained the level of academic competence of secondary school students in Osun State and also determined level of self-efficacy of the students. It investigated the influence of self-efficacy on the students’ academic competence. These were with a view to providing information on factor that could influence the academic competence of secondary school students. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population for the study comprised senior secondary school students in Osun State. The sample size comprised 600 respondents, selected using multistage sampling technique. One Local Government Area (LGA) was selected from each of the three senatorial districts in the State using simple random sampling technique. From each LGA, four senior secondary schools were selected using simple random sampling technique (12 schools in all) and from each school, 50 students were selected from senior secondary II using simple random sampling technique. Three instruments were used to collect information for the study, namely: Academic Competence Evaluation Scale (ACES), and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). Data collected were analyzed using percentages and ANOVA. The results showed that 9.41%, 60.21% and 30.37% of secondary school students in Osun State demonstrated low, moderate and high levels of academic competence respectively. The results of the study also indicated that there was a significant positive influence of self-efficacy on academic competence of the students (F =69.35; p<0.05). The study concluded that self-efficacy influenced academic competence of secondary school students in Osun State.
 
Stress factors on the basis of gender.
Test of significant difference on financial stress among AAUA undergraduates
Test of significant difference on psychosocial stress of undergraduates of AAUA.
Stress is a serious problem that students tend to contend with in the course of their academic pursuit. The study investigated stress factors and sustainable development among undergraduates of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko. Descriptive research of the survey type design was adopted for this study. The population of the study consisted of all the students of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko . Sample for the study was made up of 450 students selected through simple random sampling technique from the six faculties in the university. Questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. One research question was raised and three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that there was a significant difference in the academic stress of undergraduates of AAUA. The Second hypothesis showed that there was a significant difference in the financial stress of undergraduates of AAUA. The third hypothesis also indicated that there was a significant difference in the psychosocial stress of undergraduates of AAUA. It was recommended that stress among the undergraduates should be handled through the help of counselors, financial assistance through the university work study. Adequate counseling should be made available to teach interpersonal skills and social adjustment programme should be made available for undergraduates.
 
Frequency Distribution showing Responding Students' Personal Information
Chi Square summary showing difference in the perception of staff and students on the framework that can be used for staffing higher degree programme in adult education in Nigerian universities
Chi Square summary showing difference in the perception of staff and students on form of framework that can be used to ensure inclusiveness in managing higher degree adult education programme in universities
Chi Square summary showing difference in the perception of staff and students on strategies to be employed to popularise adult education among educators and researches in universities
Chi Square summary showing difference in the perception of staff and students on learning delivery techniques of lecturers/faculty in higher degree programme of adult education
The status accorded to adult education among universities-based educators and researchers appears to be very low. This may be due to scanty knowledge about the discipline and wrong perception held by the bureaucrats, policy makers and administrators within and outside the university system. The Hamburg Declaration in 1997 underscores the importance of adult education when it describes it as a key to the twenty-first century. Realising the fact that adult education is needed in this 21st century, it follows that provision of higher degree programme should be well staffed and properly managed in order to produce learners that will contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. Therefore, this study entitled: “staffing and managing human resources of higher degree programme of adult education in universities in Nigeria” is embarked upon. The aim of the study is to improve human and institutional capacity for required manpower in adult education for national development. The objectives of the study include: to identify and discuss framework for staffing higher degree programme in adult education in Nigerian universities; to find out how human resources for production of higher degrees students are sourced and managed; to assess framework for ensuring inclusiveness in managing higher degree adult education programme in universities; to explore strategies that can be employed to make adult education popular and acceptable among educators and researchers in universities; to explore motivational factors for students' enrollment in adult education higher degree programme; and to examine learning delivery techniques of lecturers/faculty in higher degree programme of adult education. The work employed research design of the survey type. Seven federal and state universities offering adult education at higher degree level were sampled. Statistical instruments were employed to analyse the data collected. All the results were decided at point 05 level of confidence with appropriate degree of freedom. The study revealed that 86.3% of the respondents opined that lack of understanding of the concept of adult education prevented people from enrolling into the course in the university, while 13.7% felt otherwise. Majority of the respondents (89.8%) held that Universities in Nigeria do not discriminate against any sex (male or female) when admitting students for any education programme including adult education, while 10.2% did not. There is significant difference in the perception of staff and students on the framework that can be used for staffing higher degree programme in adult education in Nigerian universities (X2=2.882, df=3, p > .05). There was no significant difference in the perception of staff and students on how human resources are sourced and managed for production of higher degree students in adult education programme (X2=3.741, df=3, p > .05). There was a significant difference in the perception of staff and students on learning delivery techniques of lecturers/faculty in higher degree programme of adult education (X2=9.336, df=3, p < .05). It is recommended that efforts should be made by the stakeholders to popularise the discipline of adult education with a view to making people to understand its meaning and usefulness to the growth of the society. Adequate budgetary allocation should be made by the owner universities to adult education so as to attract qualified staff, regular payment of salaries and comprehensive welfare programme.
 
This paper gives an Optimality Theory (Henceforth OT) account of advanced tongue root (ATR) vowel harmony in ÀÍKAan Edoid language that consists of four speech forms spoken in Akoko-Edo area in Nigeria. The ATR harmony manifests within as well as across morpheme boundaries. The ATR harmony across morphemes affects the subject pronouns, prefixes as well as demonstrative pronouns because they are underspecified for ATR value while object pronouns are underlyingly specified. It is further noted that ATR has a morphological effect on the items it affects as it triggers phonological allomorphy in them. In addition to right-to-left spreading analysis in the literature (Abiodun 1999, Ibikunle 2014, and 2016), this research further reveals that there are pieces of evidence for left-to-right spreading of harmonic value. More importantly, this analysis shows that OT is viable and problem-solving efficient compared with the Non-Linear or traditional generative account on Vowel Harmony system of the language.
 
Demographic Information.
The present study has been conducted to investigate the causes of English language speaking anxiety among EFL learners at Kandahar University. Furthermore, the second goal of the study to investigate the negative effects of speaking anxiety. This study uses a quantitative research approach. Similarly, the questionnaire had two parts the first part had comprised 14 items and the second part 7 items and applied randomly. Besides, the data analyzing was performed in SPSS (version, 24) and bring out the mean and standard division. Finally, the findings revealed those factors which caused EFL learners to feel anxiety during English speaking and numbered as follow: (1) I feel fear of making pronunciation mistakes, (2) I am afraid that my classmates will laugh at me when I speak English. (3) I feel worried during Performing communication orally. In addition, the following factors are the negative effects of anxiety on learners: (1) Anxiety limits my speaking fluency, (2) Anxiety causes me to become under pressure during presentation and (3) Anxiety decreases my oral performance and self-confidence.
 
Evidence abounds on the fact that literacy and education are important for a developed State. Also, there are global records on the movement to a knowledge based economy rather than a resource based. Thus, globally efforts are being put in place to achieve a considerable percentage of literacy among citizens if not for all because a nation that refuses to place high premium on the education of her citizenry may be toying with her level of development. Nigeria is endowed with a rich culture and indigenous education but colonization disrupted the system she would have built upon to sustain her own philosophy. She is a signatory to policy documents on the attainment of Education for All (EFA). However, despite the institution of several policies on the promotion of literacy education from pre-independence till- date, Nigeria is still battling with a large population of illiterates especially, among its females; gender inequality and less development is evident in the society. This is a reflection of inadequate attention to lifelong learning opportunities for the citizenry. Policy formulation without adequate commitment towards development from all stakeholders also pervades the Nigerian society. This, question arise, will Universal Basic Education (UBE) thrive, especially within the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) taking into cognizance, the past history and the present situation on the approach to enhancing lifelong and inclusive EFA in Nigeria? Can the Universal Basic Education enhance an equitable society which will create an enabling environment for an all-round oriented sustainable development with equal opportunities for all? More so, education is essential for societal development. This paper thus examine past education initiatives of the Nigerian government within the context of enhancing a lifelong well informed egalitarian society.
 
Competencies in English language are inevitable for the global market .Do you agree?
Now a day’s Globalization has become a familiar issue in terms of every area related to human civilization and particularly in the English language. English is the soul media of communication in the modern world and globalization has brought new dimensions in that field. The present study is an attempt to reflect on the contribution f globalization for spreading English language everywhere. During this research one questionnaire has been developed to collect relevant information on the issue. The paper includes analysis on the various contributing factors of globalization.
 
The purpose of this study is to identify the factors causing poor English language learning at high schools manly; ZahirShahi and Temoorshahi high schools. Furthermore, the quantitative approach applied in this study and the data have collected by Questionnaire, which had 11 items and made from the literature review and the data is analyzed with SPSS (Version 21) and clarified the mean and standard deviation. Based on the findings of this research, the main causes have been included namely; first, the lack of skillful teachers of English language at schools. Secondly, the lack of standard textbooks. Thirdly, lack of effective strategies for teaching this language.
 
Levels of Stigma Consciousness among Physically Challenged Students in Tertiary Institutions in Oyo State
One-Way Analysis of Variance of effect of stigma consciousness on the academic performance of physically challenged students
Results of Relative Influence of Self-Image on Stigma Consciousness of Physically Challenged Students
The study investigated the levels of stigma consciousness among physically challenged students in tertiary institutions in Oyo State. It ascertained the effect of stigma consciousness on the academic performance of physically challenged students. Also, the study determined the relative influence of self-image on stigma consciousness of physically students. Furthermore, it examined the influence of self-image on stigma consciousness of physically challenged students. These were with a view to providing information on the factors that could influence stigma consciousness of the physically challenged students. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The population for the study comprised physically challenged students in tertiary institutions in Oyo State. Three institutions (University of Ibadan, The Polytechnic Ibadan and Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo) were purposively selected within Oyo State because they have the physically challenged students. A sample size of 120 physically challenged students were selected from the institutions using proportionate random sampling technique. One adapted instrument with two scales was used to collect data from the students. The scales were “Stigma Consciousness Scale (SCS) and Self-Image Questionnaire (SIQ). Data collected were analysed using percentage, frequency counts, one-way ANOVA and multiple regressions. The results of the study showed that 4.8%, 88.6%, 6.7% of tertiary institutions in Oyo State demonstrated low, moderate and high levels of stigma consciousness respectively. The results showed that there was no significant effect of stigma consciousness on the academic performance of the physically challenged students (F (2.102) =0.059, p=0.943). It was also discovered that there was a significant positive influence of self-image on stigma consciousness of physically challenged students (N=105, t= 0.198, p< 0.05). Finally, the results showed that the self-image (β =0.019, F=1.98, p<0.05) contributed significantly in influencing stigma consciousness with coefficient of multiple regression (R2) of 0.164 at p < 0.05. It was concluded that self-image could influence stigma consciousness among physically challenged students in tertiary institutions.
 
The Study Examined Qualitative Aspect Of “O” Level West African Secondary School Certificate Practical Chemistry Syllabus And Identified Reaction Of Metals With Water As One Of The Concepts That Chemistry Teachers Avoid To Teach Due To Either Unavailability Of Chemical Regents Or Lack Of Teachers’ Competence To Handle The Topic. The Study Therefore Examined The Effectiveness Of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Leaving (POGIL) Strategy On Students’ Performance In Chemistry In Secondary Schools In Ondo State, Nigeria. A Pretest, Posttest Control Group Design Was Adopted With POGIL Being the treatment and lecture method as the control group. A total of 60 Senior Secondary School chemistry students (SSS 3) were randomly selected from Akoko South West Local Government Area of Ondo State Nigeria to constitute the study sample. Two intact classes comprising 33 students for POGIL group and 27 students for the lecture method group were taught separately in their respective schools. A 1 item instrument tagged Practical Chemistry Achievement Test (CAAT) with reliability co-efficient of r=0.78, p<0.05 was used to collect data. The results showed that POGIL was more effective (=12.63) than lecture method (=10.84), t=2.97, p<0.05. The study concluded that POGIL strategy is an effective method of teaching practical chemistry concepts in general and the qualitative aspect of practical chemistry in particular.
 
Process of Codification/Validation of Knowledge and Skills of learners/artisans.
Formal education is provided for a segment (children and adolescents) of the society. While workers in the formal sector enjoy professional and continuing education; those in the informal and non-formal sectors of the economy do not have any opportunity of taking part in any form of adult education. Many artisans, professionals and artists display dexterity in their various callings. This act of display may sometimes refer to as tacit knowledge, that is, knowledge that may be difficult to codify except through training of adult learners. If this group of people is not catered for in terms of adult learning, it may be difficult for them to make contributions to economic growth in the society. Therefore, the study entitled “Framework for Codification of Informal and Non-Formal Knowledge and Skills in the Formal Education System in Nigeria” is embarked upon. The purpose of the study is to identify and discuss framework for codification of knowledge and skills in the informal and non-formal sector; and to establish the probable benefit that may be derived from codification of knowledge and skills of informal and non-formal learners. The study was carried out using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Some artisans, professionals and artists were interviewed, using focus group discussion. Respondents were enthusiastic on codification of their knowledge and skills and award of appropriate certificates. Some of the framework identified in the study include: organising literacy competence to complement the tacit knowledge of the recipients; sensitisation of members of the public by the NNCAE; and collaborative efforts between NUC and departments of adult education in universities.
 
Unlike vowel insertion (epenthesis), consonant insertion is a rare occurrence in languages. It is against this backdrop that this study examines the occurrence of consonant insertion in Ì̩yí̩nnó̩ as claimed by Ibikunle (2008:122). He (Ibikunle 2008:122) claimed that, there is an insertion of voiced bilabial nasal [m] between two nouns while combining them to form new words. This paper shows that, the voiced bilabial nasal [m] found between two nouns in the lect is not the case of consonant insertion but rather, an associative morpheme (a genitive marker) [mὲ] which has lost its vocalic anchor as a result of hiatus resolution across morpheme boundary. Also, our study reveals that, after [mέ] has lost its vocalic anchor, the nasal feature of [m] got transferred to the (oral) V1 of the second noun across morpheme boundary.
 
School Based Management Inventories first edition (SBMI-1) was self-developed in 2014 to be a measure of the extent of involvement of stake holders in the educational administrations. The inventories examined factors such as power decentralization (for instance, decision that concerns the school administration do involves the community), provision of facilities (for instance., community assistance in the provision of basic facilities such as classroom buildings, renovations, among others.), monitoring and evaluation of the teaching, learning activities of the school system, recruitment and retrenchment (for instance., On account of necessity, how community recruit new staff to the school as ad hoc staff), and financial obligation in form of periodic expenses and income analysis by the community committee, efficient and effective practice of school based management in determining students’ academic performance in secondary schools. The measure also helps in monitoring school progress and effectiveness.
 
1 shows the demographic information of the respondents in categories of gender, level of education, age, and faculty.
This study reveals the causes that make the EFL students poor in speaking skills. The problem was EFL students’ poor speaking skills at Kandahar University. The study used quantitative approach by developing a questionnaire consisting 15 items based on five likert scales. Two faculties were the target population of the study, and data was collected from 100 students as a random sampling which 81 were male and 19 female students. The data was analyzed and interpreted based on mean and standard deviation through SPSS software (24) version. It was revealed by the present study that different causes like, feeling shyness during presentation, nervousness when speaking with strangers even with family members, weakness of speaking when whole class pay attention, no motivation from peers and feeling fearful when speaking with lectures affect EFL students’ speaking skills.
 
Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents by sex
Rating of teachers' awareness on global warming in Ado -Ekiti
Showing factors influence teachers' level of awareness on global warming in Ibadan
This study examines the Knowledge level of teachers in Ibadan on global warming, the factors influence it and how they perceived it. Questionnaire was used as the main instrument for data collection. It was designed to elicit information on the basis of research questions set for this study. A total number of 450 teachers were used as the sample size. Descriptive statistics such as simple percentages and frequency counts were used in the analysis of the research data collected. The study revealed that teachers have knowledge on global warming and aware of its threat to human existence. It was observed that the source of their knowledge on global warming by teachers include the media and attendance at conferences and workshops. As a result of the above findings, it was recommended that efforts should be made to make relevant and up-to-date information on global warming available to the teachers. Emphasis should be made to make the teachers participate in programmes that address adaptation policies on global warming.
 
The study included a number of axes that concentrated on using the sponges in the learning process as supportive means towards learning this particular skill which is considered rather difficult. A certain type of sponges where used to learn each stage of this skill. These types were different in shape and size, considering the height and potential of the individual sample, in order to help the learners master this skill in the best way possible. The learning group was given a 4-weeks course to learn the front-hand somersault using these supportive techniques, two credits a week. After 4 weeks, the results of each group were collected and compared (The original and the experimental group). The statistical results showed that the experimental surpassed the original one.
 
Perception of parents towards matriculation schools
According to the changes in parents attitude towards the school are following different types of syllabuses, namely, State board, CBSE, Matriculation and Delhi board. They are also following various types of teaching techniques using overhead projector, group discussion charts, models etc., They are more popularly used teaching aids in institution following, matriculation and CBSE syllabus. This helps the students to shine in their subjects. The teaching methods and curriculum are getting more attention in private schools. The parents are preferring matriculation and CBSE syllabi which have more subjects and more practical with computer knowledge. The objectives of the present study is to know the perception of parents towards matriculation schools. It is found that there is no significant association between socio economic profile of the respondents and their level of perception towards matriculation schools.
 
Teachers' perceptions on workload allocation in secondary schools
Teachers' workload distribution in private and public secondary schools
Teachers' perception on tasks performance in secondary schools
The study examined teachers' workload and determined its implication on students' academic performance in secondary schools in Akoko North East Local Government Area of Ondo State. Descriptive design of the survey type was adopted and a stratified random sampling was used to select 12 schools, which were 6 public and 6 private secondary schools, involving 132 participants who included 120 teachers and 12 principals. A self-constructed questionnaire titled "Teachers' Workload and Student's Academic Performance Questionnaire" (TWSAPQ), was administered. Five (5) hypotheses were tested using Pearson's product moment correlation (PPMCC) and T-test at p<0.05 level of significance. The results showed that there was a negative correlation between teachers' workload and students' academic performance (r-cal=-0.420), and a disparity between teachers' actual workload and workload policy standard (t-cal=27.219), also there was significant difference in teachers' workload between public and private secondary schools (t-cal=2.364). The findings indicated that teachers' workload is high in teaching activities (75.8%), data imputation (62.5%), and marking of students' scripts (76.7%), .and impacted negatively on teachers' instructional tasks performance and students' academic performance. It is hereby recommended that the State Government and proprietors of private secondary schools should employ adequate number of qualified teachers to meet the workload standard for effective teaching, while learning facilities should be upgraded to enhance workload implementation and improve students' academic performance in secondary schools.
 
Pupils' interest in speaking English in class
Feelings of the pupils when speaking with the following people in English.
Resources for speaking activities
The preferred topics to talk during speaking activities
Favorite types of English speaking activities
Abstract Speaking is considered as one of the most important skill in learning a language especially English but many language learners find it difficult and need much effort to produce acceptable utterances in English. The aim of this study is to investigate Psychological factors that become obstacles to spoken English among Malaysian primary school pupils, and suggest possible solutions from the student’s perspectives to overcome the obstacles. For conducting current research, a questionnaire was used to collect data and identify the factors that affect students speaking performance, and find out possible solution from the students’ perspectives. After the data analysed, it was noticed that majority of students were the victims of the common physiological factors such as fear in the class, shyness and anxiety. Most pupils did not have confident to speak because they felt fear to speak in English. While some other were felling shy and anxious when speaking in the class. Thus, pupils suggested solutions like interesting activities, encouraging learning atmosphere, a good rapport between teacher and students to help them to overcome these psychological factors that hinder them to speak in English. Key words; Speaking English, Physiological Factors, Primary School Pupils
 
Methods used in the reviewed studies
Participants involved in the reviewed studies
Findings of the Reviewed Studies
Alternative assessment has been the focus of many educational researches in EFL classroom. This study was carried out to highlight the definition, characteristics and effects of alternative assessment in EFL context by reviewing current research on assessment. The research consisted of a systematic review of the empirical studies on alternative assessment in EFL classroom. Focusing solely on online search, many studies were found but only (n=24) met the inclusion criteria involving a total of (n=1588) participants. Also, it aimed to scrutinize the methods, participants and findings of the selected studies as well as the locations where they were conducted. The findings indicated that most of the studies (18 out of 24) reported positive effects of employing alternative assessment on language learning skills in EFL classroom. The results also show that the dominant method employed in the articles was quantitative where students were the main focal point involved in the research as their participants. The study is further concluded with a discussion on definition, characteristics and effects of alternative assessment in EFL context.
 
Experts' view from experts as respondents
Teachers' view from teachers as respondents
Students view from students as respondents
The idea of using language as a tool of communication is the main principle of the communicative language teaching (CLT) approach. English for today (EFT) as a textbook was designed to develop the overall English language competence at a higher secondary level. This paper aims at justifying the suitability of EFT for implementing communicative language teaching in Bangladesh. This study shows English for today is not effective for creating communicative competence among its learners. Moreover, the tertiary students initially face challenges while enrolling in undergraduate programs under the medium of instruction is English. Data have been collected through classroom observation, interviews with teachers, students, and experts. Structured questionnaires for students, teachers, and experts have been used as tools for data collection. Finally, the paper concludes that revised abbreviations may be suitably adaptable to impose a communicative language teaching approach by overcoming the challenges in the large classrooms in Bangladesh.
 
Wardhaugh (1986) opines that when we speak, choices must of necessity be made of what we want to say, how we want to say it, the choice of words, sounds, (styles and other variables available within the speech community) that best unite (connect) what we say with how it is said. Based on the foregoing, the focus of this study is to identify and analyze the politeness strategies employed in the talk exchanges presented in Bíọ́dún and Káyọ̀dé newspapers’ review through critical evaluation. In addition, the study seeks to investigate what is implicated by an expression, other than what a speaker actually said by saying what he said. Brown and Levinson's politeness theory and Grice’s Cooperative Principle with its Maxims are adopted for analysis purpose. This study intends to show that Yorùbá culture places premium on social behaviour displayed and to reveal some of the culturally inherent linguistic and non-linguistic tools in the native speakers’ intuition as well as and repertoire of the people which they employ to meet the face want of interlocutors in communication situations.
 
Focusing is a universal syntactic phenomenon. That is, there is no language in the world that does not have a means of placing prominence on constituents for focus purposes. However, the formal expression of focus differs from one language to another. Some languages express focus morphologically by using distinct morphemes or elements while others employ suprasegmentally means. The paper, therefore examines the focus strategies in Ǹjò̩-Kóo. It gives a detailed description of different constituents that may be focused in the language and the changes that are triggered in the clause as a result of the focusing. Adopting the Minimalist Program of Chomsky (1995) and Cartographic analysis of Rizzi (1997) Split-CP projections within the clausal left periphery, the study investigates how focus clauses are derived in the language and reveals that the syntax of focus in the language involves two probes: focus (foc) and emphasis (emph) each of which can provoke displacement operations. The paper employs information and clause structure evidence to motivate the constituents being focused. It is also observed among other things, that the constituents that could be focused in Ǹjò̩-kóo are subject DP, object DP or object DP of preposition, possessor DP and a whole sentence, and that the language does not distinguish between sentence and verbal focus hence the same strategy is employed for both focus types.
 
This study aims to analyse the needs of Management students for English for Specific Purpose (ESP) course as well as to design an ESP course for the Management students. In addition, this research is carried out to answer the research questions; 1. What is the importance of the use of English in management program? 2. What are the most important language skills used in Management program? 3. What is the frequency of the language skills used in management program? 4. What is the level of students' performance based on the academic task? The findings of the study indicated that the use of English is very important as it is used in every task related to management. The students revealed that they have to give presentations in English and have discussions with peer in English. The listening skills are known to be least used in management program. Furthermore, the findings revealed that the students mostly have some difficulty in completing speaking tasks in their program.
 
The advancement of a smart society depends to a large extent on the standard of the higher education system. The fourth Industrial Revolution (FIR), or smart industry, is the trend related to artificial intelligence, changing various aspects of life, especially the education system. The flow of the smart industry, spurring Bangladesh to accept the technologies of the FIR. The drift of FIR will drop a strong impact on our graduates. The smart industry needs the efficiency of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Mathematics is a scaffold to the next industrial revolution. So, our university education system should be convenient to set up our graduates all around the smart world and overcome the industrial requirements; it is compulsory to adopt Outcome-Based Education (OBE). OBE templates were approved at the 157th meeting of the University Grants Commission of Bangladesh (UGC) on 06 February 2020. Recently, UGC has requested that all universities modify their undergrad educational plans depending on the Outcome-Based Education (OBE) layout. The purpose of this article is to look at the significance of skilled Mathematics alumni for the smart world, and we also examine the challenges of actualizing Outcome-Based Education (OBE).
 
Top-cited authors
Nazifullah Nijat
  • Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Hamza Atifnigar
  • Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Kanageswary Chandran
  • DARTNet Institute
Siva Letchumi
Vijayaletchumy Subramonie
  • R.E.A.L Education Group