American International Journal of Business and Management Studies

Published by American Center of Science and Education
Print ISSN: 2641-4937
Publications
This study investigates Omani O&G project’s performance and analyzes the most common time and cost overrun causes. In addition, the effects of delays are examined further along with the key enablers for efficient project delivery. This study adopts a mix method of research to improve the level of credibility of the study. A sample of 160 respondents is employed following both quantitative and qualitative method where a well-structured questionnaire was used for interviews with the concerned personnel. Following the quantitative method, this study revealed that 8% of the respondents, says the projects have completed ON time where the response rate was 80%. Besides, the qualitative part backed up this data as most of them have experienced delay of 3 months to 2 years of delay. For cost, 3% of the respondents have experienced projects finishing ON budget and the interviewees have expressed that the average cost overrun is between 10%-30%. In terms of time overrun group factors, the top group time-overrun factors among all the three parties are management factors, where it is ranked first by all stakeholders. The sub-group factor that affects more is the project planning and control. Poor understanding of scope of work during tendering factor is ranked first with main contractor and second with both the client and engineering firms. This factor is most factors that has similar ranking between all. As matter of fact is the only factor that exists between in the top 10 among all stakeholders. This study claimed that understanding the scope of work of the project properly and giving its time to be grasped by the contractors is one of the key solutions to tackle the top factor of this research. Also, the SOW must be detailed as possible to avoid any conflict between the parties, one of the recommended details to have WBS included.
 
4 Stationarity Test for Assets Quality and Return on Asset
6 Granger Causality Test Output Assets Quality and Return on Assets
This study investigate the relationship between asset quality and deposit money banks performance in Nigeria over a period of 30 years ranging from 1986 to 2016, utilizing time series data collected from the Nigeria deposit insurance corporation annual reports and accounts, CBN financial stability report and CBN statistically bulletin for various years. The variables of study includes return on asset (ROA) proxy for Deposit Money Bank performance in Nigeria, ratio of non-performing loan to total loan (NPL), ratio of liquid assets to total assets (LAT) and ratio of liquid assets to short term liabilities (LAS) as measures of asset quality. The study utilizes both the descriptive and econometric techniques to analyze the time series data. The result shows that there is a short run relationship between asset quality and deposit money bank performance in Nigeria. Also, the co-integration result reveals the presence of a long run relationship between asset quality and deposit money bank performance in Nigeria while the granger causality result shows evidence of causality between asset quality and deposit money bank performance in Nigeria. Based on this we conclude by saying that maintaining sound assets quality position is critical to the long term performance, survival and sustainability of DMBs in Nigeria.
 
Input and Output variables for MPI Analysis
Descriptive Statistics
Malmquist Productivity Index Summary of Annual Means (Year wise)
Generation-wise Productivity Performance Change of Private Commercial Banks
Efficiency measurement and productivity performance analysis now become a point of interest for many researchers'. Because it is established that efficient and productive banks could ensure superior performance by achieving the objective of wealth maximization. Board of Directors issues have also become an integral part of corporate governance studies. This study is conducted to know the bank efficiency and productivity change for the representation of women directors on board. This study examines the productivity and efficiency performance of twenty-two (22) listed private commercial banks in Bangladesh based on the Malmquist Productivity Index (Total Factor Productivity) over the period of 2007 to 2016. A low degree of relationship found between women directors representation in a board and productivity performance. But, there are significant differences found in productivity performance among the different generation banks.
 
The online platforms used by the participant schools Figure 3 shows us the platforms used by schools to conduct online classes. Zoom, Google classroom and Meet is being used the most.
Parents gratification with children's online classes
The sudden upsurge of Covid 19 pandemic has caused an immense effect in all the sectors throughout the world. Likewise, the education sector is no exception. Many countries around the world have decided to keep the educational institutions closed as an attempt to stop the pandemic from spreading. As a result of the outbreak of this pandemic the government of Bangladesh has declared a general holiday since March 23, 2020. In this scenario, most of the educational institutions have called off their on-campus activities and chose online platforms to continue their academic activities. Although the virtual classes initially began at only a few private institutions, the number started to rise gradually. There is an increase in the number of learners and institutions using the internet to continue the learning journey as the days are passing by. This paper aims to discuss the problems and prospects of online teaching in Bangladesh presenting a comparative picture between the mainstream education and International Baccalaureate curriculum applying during pandemic lockdown. This paper uses Abdul Kadir Molla International School to present a partial picture of the online teaching scenario in Bangladesh. The paper discusses some challenges such as unavailability of digital devices, unstable internet connection, lack of teachers training etc. Some queries, concerns and thoughts along with some recommendations are put before your discussion.
 
Between Bangladesh and China bilateral trade volume during 2000 to 2015. Source: The World Integrated Trade Solutions database
Bangladesh's Top six Exported product to China US$ (thousand)
The predominant of multilateral international business between Bangladesh and China has expanded significantly in current times. The business friendship between two partners in improving across will deliver much assistance to the economy of both nations. However, some of the researchers have properly explored the familiarity between these countries. The initial objective is to emphasize and highlights the international export trade between these two partners, particularly, the opportunities in and importance of principal aptitude of trade. To detail the business model, we here apply the trade intensity index. The findings have been used to find strong areas for future contributions between these two partners to strengthen the economy and to seek diplomacy involvement for ongoing trade and monetary prosperity.
 
The aim of this study was to empirically examine the association between staff training& development and Organizational performance of deposit money banks in Rivers State. The study applied cross sectional survey design in structured questionnaire to collect data from 66 personnel of designated positions of any accessible branch of the 22 deposit money banks. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient tool was employed with the help of SPSS Version 21.0, in statistically analyzing data. Results revealed that staff training and development have positive and significant relationship with organizational performance. Consequently, the study concludes that staff training and development are strategic assets in equipping employees with the necessary tools to improve productivity. The research recommends that banks that want to improve productivity are encouraged to invest more on staff training and development; particularly mentoring and job orientation.
 
Variable Measurement and Description
Unit Root Test of ADF and PP
Co-integration Test
The study examined the effect of Non-Performing Loans on the financial performance of commercial banks in Nigeria between the periods of 1985 to 2016. The study employed the multiple regression techniques to analyze data collated from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin and Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) publications for various years. The result of the study shows that Non-Performing Loans to Total Loans ratio (NPL/TLR) and Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) had statistically negative significant effect on Return on Asset (ROA). These result shows that a high level of non-performing loans would reduce the financial performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. Consequently, the study recommends that the regulatory authorities in Nigeria should create and support an environment where commercial banks in Nigeria can have a strong risk management practices.
 
This study examined the effect of systemic risk on the dynamics of stock prices in Nigeria capital market. The objective was to investigate the dynamic effect of systemic risk on stock prices traded on the floor of Nigeria stock exchange. Time series data was sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin from 1990-2017. Stock prices were modeled as the function of prices risk, liquidity risk, interest rate risk and exchange rate risk. Multiple regression with ordinary least square properties of co-integration was used to examine the relationship between the dependent and the independent variables. The study found price and liquidity risk have positive effect on stock price while interest rate and exchange rate risk have negative effect on stock prices of equities traded on Nigeria stock exchange. It concludes that systemic risk has significant effect on stock prices and recommends, among others, that the management of the capital market should ensure that the operating environment is risk minimum to ensure appreciable stock prices by developing strategies and policies aim at managing the systematic risk in the operating environment and engage a regular environmental impact assessment on systemic risk, to avert it’s negative effect on stock prices.
 
This study examined the effect of systemic risk on the dynamics of stock prices in Nigeria capital market. The objective was to investigate the dynamic effect of systemic risk on stock prices traded on the floor of Nigeria stock exchange. Time series data was sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin from 1990-2017. Stock prices were modeled as the function of prices risk, liquidity risk, interest rate risk and exchange rate risk. Multiple regression with ordinary least square properties of co-integration was used to examine the relationship between the dependent and the independent variables. The study found price and liquidity risk have positive effect on stock price while interest rate and exchange rate risk have negative effect on stock prices of equities traded on Nigeria stock exchange. It concludes that systemic risk has significant effect on stock prices and recommends, among others, that the management of the capital market should ensure that the operating environment is risk minimum to ensure appreciable stock prices by developing strategies and policies aim at managing the systematic risk in the operating environment and engage a regular environmental impact assessment on systemic risk, to avert it’s negative effect on stock prices.
 
Correlation Matrices of coefficient of the variables
Effect of Financial Leverage on Return on Assets
There are two components of corporate capital. This paper examined the effect of debt financing on the financial performance of quoted firms in Nigeria stock exchange using time series data from 2000-2017. The objective was to examine the controversial findings of scholars on the effect of capital structure on corporate performance of firms. Return on assets and return on equity was modeled as the function of debt equity ratio, debt ratio, equity ratio, total liability ratio and long term debt ratio. Multiple regressions with the aid of statistical package for social sciences were used as data analysis techniques. Model one found that a correlation coefficient (r) of .872 this implies that a very strong correlation exists between return on assets and explanatory variables. The coefficient of determination (r²) is .678 which shows that 67.8% of the variation in Return on Assets is attributable to the variations in the financial leverage. Also, the F- value calculated of 8.338 has a correlation corresponding value of .004 which implies a good model utility. The test of significance conducted as shown in the tables above states that ROA has a calculated value of 242.032 and a corresponding significance value/probability value of .014. The positive sign of t-value (1.653) shows the direction of the variables. This therefore implies that when a financial leverage is well used, this leads to a better, reliable and fairer financial result that is objective and represent the true state of affairs in the food and beverage companies proportionately. Model two found that a correlation coefficient (r) of .772 this implies that a very strong correlation exists between return on assets and explanatory variables. The coefficient of determination (r²) is .639 which shows that 63.9% of the variation in return on equity is attributable to the variations in the financial leverage. Also, the F- value calculated of 7.644 has a correlation corresponding value of .004 which implies a good model utility. The test of significance conducted as shown in the tables above states that ROE has a calculated value of 568.906 and a corresponding significance value/probability value of .003. The positive sign of t-value (3.310) shows the direction of the variables. This therefore implies that when a financial leverage is well used, this leads to a better, reliable and fairer financial result that is objective and represent the true state of affairs in the food and beverage companies proportionately. We recommend that management of the firms should work very hard to optimize the capital structure in order to increase the returns on equity and assets and that Management of Nigerian firms should increase their commitments into capital structure in order to improve earnings from their business transaction.
 
This analysis was carried out on the title of “Transforming Workers to Winners by Creating the High Performance Organizations”. The main aim of this article was to identify the factors that determine the continuous success of high performance organization. Then to get this objective the paper was organized into introduction, body & conclusion of the reviewed empirical data. Accordingly the empirical data was assessed and finally the conclusions drawn to show directions for business organizations how to make winners their employees.
 
This study examines financial deepening, financial intermediation and Nigerian economic growth. The main purpose is to examine the relationship between financial deepening and Nigerian economic growth while the specific objectives are to examine the impact of interest rate, capital market development, rational savings, credit to private sector and broad money supply on the growth of Nigerian. Secondary data of the variables were sourced from the publications of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) from 1981-2017. Nigerian Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) was used as dependent variable while Broad money supply (M2), Credit to Private Sector (CPS), National Savings (NS), Capital Market Capitalization (CAMP) and Interest Rate (INTR) was used as independent variables. Multiple regressions with E-view statistical package were used as data analysis techniques. Cointegration test, Augmented Dickey Fuller Unit Root Test, Granger causality test was used to determine the relationship between the variable in the long-run and short-run. R2, F – statistics and β Coefficients were used to determine the extent to which the independent variable affects the dependent variable. It was found from the regression result that Broad Money Supply, credit to private sector have position effect on the growth of Nigerian Real Gross Domestic Product while National Savings, Capitalization and Interest Rate on Nigeria Real Gross Domestic Product. The co-integration test revealed presence of long-run relationship among the variables, the stationary test indicated stationarity of the variables at level. The Granger Causality Test found bi – variant relationship from the dependent to the independent and from the independent to the dependent variables. The regression summary found 99.0% explained variation, 560.5031, F – statistics and probability of 0.00000. From the above, the study concludes that financial deepening has significant relationships with Nigerian economic growth. We recommend that government and the financial sector operators should make policies that will further deepen the functions of the financial system to enhance Nigerian economic growth.
 
This Paper examined the role of HRM factors in achieving Quality of work life in the organization. The main objective of this paper therefore was to determine any significant relationship that main exist between HRM factors such as Engagement , Talent Management , Compensation, learning and development on the one hand and quality of work life on the other. The study adopted cross sectional design and employ survey as the research strategy to elicit responses from respondents in UBA PLC. The study employed the use of questionnaire as the main research instrument. It was revealed from the hypotheses tested that HRM factors are significantly related to work life balance, and therefore HRM factors are major determinants of quality of work life in the organization.
 
The study investigated the impact of macroeconomic variables on private investment in Nigeria for the period 1990 to 2016. To achieve these objectives, the study tests for the study modeled private equity and private real investment as the function exchange rate, financial sector development, and interest rate, openness of the economy, real gross domestic product, inflation rate and broad money supply. Ordinary least square method of data analysis was used. From model one, the study found that real gross domestic product have positive but insignificant effect, openness of the economy have positive and insignificant effect, interest rate have positive and significant effect, financial deepening have positive and insignificant effect while interest rate, inflation rate and exchange rate have negative effect on private real investment. The coefficient of determination (R2) proved that the independent variables can explain 62 percent variation on private real investment; the f- statistics found that the model is significant while the Durbin Watson statistics proved the presence of serial autocorrelation. The effect of macroeconomic variables on private equity investment was presented in model two. The study found that openness of the economy; real gross domestic products, broad money supply, and interest rate have negative and insignificant effect on private equity investment except openness of the economy with significant effect. Inflation rate, financial sector deepening and exchange rate have positive and insignificant effect on private equity investment except financial deepening with significant effect. The R2 proved that the independent variables can predict 66.9 percent variation on private equity investment. The f- statistics found that the model is significant while the Durbin Watson statistics proved the presence of serial autocorrelation. We conclude that macroeconomic variable have significant effect on private investment in Nigeria. We recommend that interest rate must be able to encourage higher private investment by increasing the real interstate on private savings or household savings so that larger amount of income would be saved to accumulate more capital and hence private investment. Policies should be formulated by investors and government to discourage factors that affect negatively private investment.
 
The impact of monetary policies and their implementation by the exchange rate covered the economic condition of Ghana. The social inclusion and conversion factors change the implemented policies of nations, where the real price, trade, technology, a price rate, and price level of ratio take an important part of growth. The reform of the financial sector favors the free-floating of the exchange rate and global trade under the premise of flexible exchange rates. The tragedy of country growth and exchange rate toward a trajectory of growth with the growth-enhancing effect through social inclusion, conversion factors, price level ratio, exchange rate, merchant rate, export, and trade services. The research study is based on the secondary study and social inclusion equity indicators with public resources, building human resources and social protection for economic development has determined. Different evidence and trade indicators classify the monetary policies. The significant influence of growth and internal policies has affected trade and exchange rates with growth and reserve policies. The results have computed by linear regression and it proved that social inclusion and alternative conversion factors impact on global trade and create short term binary relationships.
 
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cooperative union on coffee value chain performance, the case of TorbanAnfillo coffee union of Oromia region. For this study, data was collected from members of the union and a random sampling technique is employed in order to give equal chance for each union members/respondents. The role of cooperative union on coffee value chain is weak in the study area due to socioeconomic factors, organizational related issues, financing and marketing factors. Therefore, governmental and nongovernmental organizations', as well as all concerned body must support in provision of finance, education, training and consultancy service for the cooperatives union, primary cooperatives and management members and employees of the cooperatives at each primary and secondary level are important to further enhance the performance of TorbanAnfillo union in coffee value chain.
 
Maslow"s Hierarchy of Need Theory
Job Risk Level in Private Sector Due to COVID-19
The percentage of the employees about own job place environment
The ratio of the number of the respondents about the institutional policy
Job insecurity is one of the vexed questions here in COVID-19 pandemic situation. Private sector employees are agonizing mostly due to this problem. In the midst of July within three months of the crisis, about 13 percent people have become unemployed in the country due to Covid-19 pandemic. The educational institutions are closed in Bangladesh from 17 March, 2020 due to this crisis. So the private education sector job holders are in a precarious situation in terms of their job security. In this study we investigate the vacillation of job security for the private education employee. In this purpose we questioned on 100 private education sector employees such as School College and University to find out the actual scenarios. Most of the private educational institution depends on its own income from the student’s tuition fees; hence they trouble to manage it for the deadlock condition and their employees are also in a financial dilemma. Though some of them are started online programs but in true picture they will suffer as the ballgame advancing. Bangladesh government announces thirty thousand core incentives to face the economic hazards. The particular employees in this stratum are benefited in trivial brink. Some lay off strategy can save both the victimized party.
 
In the Covid-19 pandemic, which emerged in the last quarter of 2019 and spread all over the world in a short time, individuals became more conscious about activities that could harm people and nature, and discussions on protecting the environment started; brought the concept of green business strategy to the fore in businesses. In the pandemic that continued in 2021, it is not clear which strategies businesses will follow after the pandemic, depending on the uncertainty, complexity and variability in the business world. This This study investigates whether a green business strategy is important for businesses that continue their activities after the Covid-19 pandemic or will continue their activities after the pandemic. Accordingly, one of the qualitative research methods, the case study method was applied in the study. Green business strategy has been explained by making a literature review, and the green practices that have become increasingly important in businesses to protect the natural environment are explained. The green business strategy is an important strategy for surviving the pandemic crisis, and when implemented across the entire enterprise, it appears to facilitate decisions and initiatives that improve the environment.
 
Globalization has shortened the world & made life easier. It also results in liberalization of trade. Hence, world trade or global trade acts as a coordinator of foreign trade of different countries. Due to the behavioral and structural position, world trade is also responsible for spreading crises and infectious diseases. Nowadays the world is facing a perilous situation for the worldwide spreading of the COVID-19 pandemic. The acceleration of this pandemic causes the deceleration of the normal life of the nations. The leaders of most of the countries implement restrictive policies to protect their citizens from this pandemic, i.e., lockdown, travel restrictions. Consequently, COVID-19 produces an economic impact through the interruptions of personal income, world trade, and demand & supply chain. After the last financial crisis 2008-09, the world is again facing a destructive fall in world trade. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of world trade during COVID-19 and the present situation of this whether it is in stagnation or recovery. The paper uses secondary data from different journals, websites, newspapers, and blogs for analysis purposes. This paper concludes that the world merchandise trade's recovery is stronger than the world services trade. The reasons for sluggish world services trade is the restricted international travels & tourisms. There is no equal merchandise trade recovery for all the countries. Some countries are winners & some are losers.
 
ing: Sky Garden is a new organization that provides comprehensive grieving therapy. Where, in order to increase the company's performance, excellent Human Resource Management must be implemented in line with current circumstances. The goal of this study is to look at the function of human resource management in the implementation of HRD for new Sky Garden companies using the McKinsey Model. Given this, Sky Garden attempted to evaluate the McKinsey 7S model in depth, as well as its application to Resource Management, in order to determine the company's success in surviving in this business. Man from the Sky Garden. The McKinsey 7S technique was used, which included Share Value, Strategy, System, Skill, Style, Staffing, and Structure. The findings of this research reveal that the McKinsey model has a significant impact on Sky Garden HR's performance as well as the company's overall success.
 
Background-PT Sangyo Jaya Abadi (SJA) is a subsidiary of PT Kuroshio Jaya Abadi (KJA) that uses Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines and Digital Tracking of Production as its business development. The main purpose of the establishment of PT SJA is to make the company more focused, facilitate proper planning, and create efficiency in controlling future operational activities, as well as create a brand image by expanding market share and improvement in facing the Industrial Revolution 4.0. PT SJA produces parts and tools needed by the manufacturing industry, by orders from the customersor orders from PT KJA and works on direct requests from automotive companies and other oil and gas companies. Besides, SJA also performs machine maintenance and repair parts and tools.
 
The objective of this study is to examine how emotional intelligence (EQ-Emotional Quotient) factors affect human decision-making behavior on participating in extracurricular activities. Primary data was collected from a survey of 413 Ho Chi Minh University of Banking students. The study used the statistical software SPSS20.0 and AMOS 20.0 to test proposed relationships. The research results confirm that emotional intelligence, involving four main factors (REC-Emotional recognition; USE-Using emotions; UND-Understanding emotions; MAN-Managing emotions) affects the students decision-making behavior towards extracurricular activities.
 
The Department of Public Governance which is a Department in the College of Arts and Sciences of Cebu Normal University, continually aspires to reach the highest level of accreditation among government school. Lately, it received the award of Level IV phase II of the accreditation, the Highest award in the country given to a University. As part of the continuous compliance with its present status, is the Tracer study of its graduates both in the undergraduate and Graduate Programs. Lastly, masculinity and femininity dimension deals with the prevailing values and priorities. In masculine cultures, achievement and accumulation of wealth is valued and strongly encouraged; while in feminine cultures, maintaining good interpersonal relationships is the priority. This leads us to understand why men desire for money which can be found in some countries, in serving the government.A descriptive method of quantitative and qualitative research was used in the study. This seeks to describe the future status of those students who studies Public Administration. This method involves classifying and collecting of the data. Its main goal is to let students of Public Administration knows there status after taking up the degree. Top 3 choices are the Government Administrator, Lawyer and Executive Assistant and Community Worker and Human Resource Specialist. The first and last choices are both Clerical works, they ensures that an office runs smoothly and efficiently. It involves the day-today administrative tasks of an office, such as answering phones, scheduling appointments, sending faxes, and filing documents. The second is Lawyer and Executive Assistant they consult with clients and are more likely to go beyond the initial consultation and represent the client in courtroom proceedings.
 
Financial Capability (Financial inadequacy of the Company)
Capital Structure or Debt ratio (Total Liabilities to Total Assets)
Cash-Flow Ratio (Total Liabilities to Net Cash from Operations)
Logit Regression of Financial Capability and Competitive Advantage
The sugar industry contributes about 15 percent to Kenya's agricultural GDP and supports an estimated 25 percent of the country's population. Achieving financial outcomes requires an organization to accurately balance its expenditure within the limitations of its income stream. Financial plans and budgets must be flexible enough to allow for spending patterns to be adjusted as needed and be fully aligned to the organization's strategic and service planning. Memba and Nyanumba, (2013) established that the main causes of financial distress are endogenous variables as compared to exogenous variables. Financial Structure, leverage ratio and cash flow ratios affect the financial performance of the firm. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of financial capability on competitive advantage of sugar companies in Western Kenya. Dynamic Capabilities and Finance theories underpinned this study. The target population was composed of six sugar companies. The study adopted descriptive and correlation research designs. The primary data was collected using a questionnaire pretested for validity and reliability and used a purposive sample survey to obtain the empirical data to determine the linkages between variables. The respondents were 727 senior and middle level managers. Out of 88 questionnaires sent out, 64 questionnaires were received back giving a response rate of 73%. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The result of the logit and correlation analyses and hypothesis testing indicated that availability of financial resources does not result in direct competitive advantage of the firm but it depends on how these funds are strategically utilized. With the exception of West Sugar Company, the rest of the sugar firms under study are heavily indebted and insolvent as brought out by the secondary data.. The Government should intervene and establish an environment for the sugar industry to enjoy competitive advantage in the COMESA free trade area.
 
Benefits of SRM
SRM issues in the food manufacturing SMEs
The Tanzanian food industry is one of the most critical sectors in the country. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are the largest processors of food. Although SMEs mostly deal with processing food, they still face challenges, especially with their suppliers. Though previous researchers have investigated partnership issues in SMEs, little has been reported on the factors that impact the supplier relationships found in food manufacturing SMEs. This study employed a qualitative design where semi-structured interviews with 13 experts were conducted to identify the factors that impede SRM in Dar es Salaam. The findings reveal that poor relationship management, poor storage facilities, poor transportation and inadequate production capacities are the main challenges affecting SRM within these firms. To overcome these challenges, it has been recommended to improve the supplier relationships through being transparent, fostering trust and sharing quality information with the suppliers on time. Furthermore, investment in technology has been recommended to reduce costs and to enhance the information sharing between suppliers and SMEs. Government support is required with regard to financial aid and the improvement in the infrastructure to facilitate the easier flow of goods from SMEs to the customers.
 
It shows the monetary investigation in west countries the big flow in economy by the gross value change effects, also the value of debt policy with debt management strategies to control the budgetary risk of long-term economy from sustainability. The intellectual policies of inflation, GDP, trade, and services and merchandise trade has affected on the West African country's monetary policies. The implication of trade by a lag of exchange rate indicators has a positive and significant effect. The estimated results reflect the dynamic implication of trade with liquidity and proper monitoring policies. The GDP, gross value (GVA), debt policies, equity of public administration, trade in service and merchandise trade is positive and significant, all are significant. We suggest the optimum control of liquidity with trade service policy recommendations in different countries. The research method was based on 5 countries from the 16 countries of western African and elaborated by their individual indicators with the least square method. The gross value of debts and public administration controlled the development aim of an entire state with strategic and planned environment for state and reduce the level of inflation in small and enterprise section and the results analyzed the policy makers implement planned in implication of trade with domestic currency and long run endogeneity. The results analyzed the monetary policies affecting the level of growth of an individual country.
 
description and measurement of variables
estimation of constraints that influence agricultural entrepreneur intention to participate in venture capital financing program Model2 Logistic regression Number of obs. =95 LR chi2(6) =39.14 Prob>chi2=0.0000*** Log likelihood = -12.39691 NicknameR2=0.6122
This study is part of the debate on the MFIs financing adequacy of agricultural entrepreneur. It aims to highlight the determinants of the self-exclusion of agricultural entrepreneurs to funding through MFIs. Because, if some agricultural entrepreneurs apply and obtain credit from MFIs, many of them do not borrow from MFIs despite their extreme lack of funds. Based on insights of Attali and Yann (2007), this study also assesses these entrepreneurs' propensity to adhere to venture capital financing. The study is based on data collected in Cameroon from March to April 2017 on a sample of 150 agricultural entrepreneurs. Econometric estimates reveal, in accordance with Hugon's homo-africanus theory (1993) that: first, membership of tontines, bankruptcies of MFIs and the lack of material guarantees contribute significantly to the self exclusion of agricultural entrepreneurs from borrowing to MFIs. Second, the analysis reveals a strong propensity of agricultural entrepreneur's adhesion to venture capital financing. These results indicate that MIFs must try for self appropriation of venture capital because, it can be used either as a complement or as an alternative to rural credit for agriculture. Moreover, venture capital is acknowledged as a palliative to two main problems deal with ordinary loans in African context: the lack of material guarantees and information asymmetry.
 
Respondents" Gender
It is a well-known fact that customer satisfaction is the key to successful business organizations. The service quality is a major factor that contributes to both customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. This study examines the role of customer satisfaction in retaining customer loyalty in Sabadou Transfer Agency in Kankan. The rationale of this study was to carry out empirical testing to study the level of services quality and customer satisfaction in private money transfer companies. The aim was to identify the factors that influence the level of customer loyalty. The underlying SERVQUAL model with five dimensions was used to evaluate the impact of quality service on customer satisfaction and loyalty. The sample comprised 120 customers of Sabadou Transfer Agency, based on random sampling method. Data were collected through questionnaires from a random sample 120 customers of Sabadou in Kankan. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, these data were analyzed through simple statistics analysis. The decisive finding of this research was that there was a significant correlation between quality of service and customer satisfaction, and that both factors serve as indicator to customer loyalty. The finding shows that quality of service and customer satisfaction significantly correlate with customer loyalty. As a result, the study concludes that the intentions for a customer to switch to a new company depend on the service quality level and satisfaction. Hence,maintaining high quality services give satisfaction to customers whereas low quality services lead to a decline in customer satisfaction, which also may result to customer disloyalty.Key words: Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, Service Quality, Sabadou
 
Variable Control Coefficients
Stages of the Entrepreneurial Process
Control Coefficients
Analysis of the Variables
Analysis Model Coefficients
Strategic Agility, a concept that is needed more than in the past, is emerging to keep up with rapid changes nowadays and to analyze complex strategies. The attitudes and behaviors of the senior management are related to the extent to which employees are supported, in other words, what the organizational climate of the enterprise is. Accordingly, this study was conducted to examine whether the innovative organizational climate had a mediating effect on the relationship between strategic agility and internal entrepreneurial behavior. The study population consists of employees of aviation enterprises (airlines, airports, ground handling enterprises, etc.) in the aviation sector in Turkey. According to the findings obtained in the study, it was concluded that strategic agility in enterprises partially positively affected internal entrepreneurial behavior. The findings obtained indicate that the aviation enterprises evaluated within the scope of the study should be supported by the internal entrepreneurial behaviors of employees for them to be strategically agile.
 
Strategic Agility, a concept that is needed more than in the past, is emerging to keep up with rapid changes nowadays and to analyze complex strategies. The attitudes and behaviors of the senior management are related to the extent to which employees are supported, in other words, what the organizational climate of the enterprise is. Accordingly, this study was conducted to examine whether the innovative organizational climate had a mediating effect on the relationship between strategic agility and internal entrepreneurial behavior. The study population consists of employees of aviation enterprises (airlines, airports, ground handling enterprises, etc.) in the aviation sector in Turkey. According to the findings obtained in the study, it was concluded that strategic agility in enterprises partially positively affected internal entrepreneurial behavior. The findings obtained indicate that the aviation enterprises evaluated within the scope of the study should be supported by the internal entrepreneurial behaviors of employees for them to be strategically agile.
 
This investigation is a quantitative explanatory study. This research was done on the sampling technique used, namely accidental sampling, of the PT Alpha Sistem Kreasi employees. In this study, 60 PT Alpha Sistem Kreasi employees sampled. Measure the research variables using a closed and structured research questionnaire tool with an interval scale. The analyzes of data in this research are the Structural Equation Model (SEM) with the alternative Partial Least Square. Use the alternative PLS method because it is based on predictive measures with variable indicator non-parametric properties using the WarpPLS 7.0 statistics.The end of this investigation, the effect on satisfaction of the role of conflict is positive. A positive effect on satisfaction can be found in the working environment. Satisfaction to have a positive impact on employee performance. The role conflict affects performance positively. The working environment has no performance effect. The effect of role conflicts on performance by job satisfaction is indirect. The working environment has an indirect effect on performance by job satisfaction.
 
The emergence of relationship marketing as a strategic imperative, has affirmed the assertion that building close relationships between business-to-business (B2B) partners, is paramount in modern day’s competitive environment. However, the actual application of robust relationship marketing strategies evades most organisations since the value of relationship marketing is often underrated. A non-probability convenience sampling technique was adopted and data were gathered using self-administered structured questionnaires among B2B concrete construction customers (n=560) in Gauteng province. Statistical techniques employed in the study include exploratory factor analysis, correlations and regression analysis. The study confirmed the reliability and validity of the measuring instrument. Through multiple regression analysis, the results show that flexibility, information sharing, involvement and fear of relationship loss are significant predictors of B2B relationship quality. Moreover, relationship quality seems to strongly predict B2B civil and building contractors’ relationship commitment towards their relationship with CPMs. The study contributes to the literature by developing a framework of relationship intention measures, relationship quality and commitment in a South African B2B construction industry setting. Offering astute overall relationship quality and increased relationship commitment levels to customers who exhibit high relationship intentions could provide the requisite impetus to concrete product manufacturer supplier’s competitive advantage. Key Words: Relationship intentions, Concrete product, Relationship quality, Relationship commitment, Business-to-business.
 
One of the major problems confronting financial institutions most especially microfinance institutions is the increasing incidence of loan defaults and consequence loan losses which manifested in their financial performance with huge uncollectible loans and advances. This study assessed the effects of credit management on financial performance on microfinance institutions in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Specifically, we examine the effect of client appraisal on the efficiency of microfinance banks in Adamawa State. The methodology employed in this study is the survey method in which both primary and secondary sources were used in the collection of data. A multi-stage sampling method was adopted in selecting a sample of 21 respondents from a total population of 52 credit officers. Questionnaires were used in the due collection of data from the respondents. Descriptive statistics (simple percentage) and inferential statistics (regression analysis) were used to analyze the data collected and in testing the hypotheses. The study showed that client appraisal has a positive effect on efficiency and productivity.
 
Box Chart The box chart showing the data distributions of the most valuable environmentally friendly cryptocurrencies is presented in It has been observed that Holo and Signum currencies have a gap close to zero. Besides, the Tron currency has a narrow opening. The median values of Cardano, IOTA, Ripple, and Stellar Lumens were below average. Accordingly, it can be concluded that these currencies started to increase with a higher acceleration after the second half of the 34 months. At this point, it has been concluded that the currency with the greatest difference between the median and average values is Cardano. Therefore, this currency has the highest increase momentum among environmentally friendly cryptocurrencies.
Line Graph The line chart of environmentally friendly cryptocurrencies is presented in In particular, it is observed that Cardano, IOTA, and Ripple currencies have a distribution similar to each other and show an increase in value in the second half of the 34 weeks. The boxplot showing the data distributions of the most valuable cryptocurrencies other than environmentally friendly cryptocurrencies is presented in Figure 3.
Box Chart It has been observed that the currencies BNB, XRP, Dogecoin, and Polygon have a gap close to zero. Besides, the Ethereum currency has a narrow opening.
Line graph Figure 5 shows the line chart of Ripple, Dogecoin, and Polygon cryptocurrencies. In the first half of the thirty-four weeks, while the cryptocurrencies progressed steadily, they seemed to diverge in the second half. Polygon showed the highest acceleration in this period. It is observed that Bitcoin and Wrapped Bitcoin currencies have a similar distribution. In Figure 6, the line graph of these two currencies is given. In addition, the median values of these currencies remained below the average.
Environmental friendly and traditional cryptocurrency correlation
Because of global warming, problems such as climate change and the destruction of natural resources have reached such a level that individuals, institutions, and states cannot remain indifferent. At this point, taking only technical measures are not sufficient and it is necessary to use sustainable methods in all areas of life. In this context, financial systems have also become sensitive to environmental awareness by following environmentally friendly policies and developing sustainable products. It has been included in the environmentally friendly approaches that are maintained globally. This study examined environmentally friendly cryptocurrencies with a very recent history, a limited number of trades, and the seven most valuable classical cryptocurrencies listed on the crypto money exchange between July 2019 and April 2022. As a result, a statistically significant and strong correlation was found between the values of the two groups of cryptocurrencies. In this case, it has been concluded that investors use the investment reflexes acquired in classical cryptocurrencies in their approach to environmentally friendly cryptocurrencies, which are a relatively new investment tool. In addition, environmentally-friendly crypto money users and investors will increasingly continue to be interested in these currencies. With the increase in such a demand, the crypto money used today will inevitably be energy and environment-friendly.
 
The background of this research is a change in consumer behavior from traditional hotel room reservations to modern online reservations. The purpose of this study is to understand the factors that influence the intention to book hotel rooms online through websites. The study was conducted on 152 respondents who had previously booked hotel rooms online through the official website of hotels in Indonesia, especially around the Greater Jakarta area. The analysis method uses quantitative data with the SEM analysis method using Lisrel Version 8.8 to test the significance level of perceived value and attitude directly to intention to book and through the mediation of the trust variable. The value factor receive and attitude had a positive and significant effect on the intention to order directly, while the trust factor as a mediating variable had no significant effect on the intention to order. The level of trust is not a significant determining factor, possibly because consumers already have their own perceptions of the hotel and the hotel has its own superiority value in the eyes of consumers. The implications of this research can be used as a consideration to understand what considerations consumers use regarding booking hotel rooms online through websites.
 
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of human capital attributes on the employability readiness of the engineering graduates of the High Education Institutes in Oman. The study adopted self-directed structured questionnaire distributed to a sample of engineering students and graduates from a number of colleges and universities. The study used the structural equation modelling (SEM) for analyzing the collected data. The findings of the statistical analysis of the study showed that Omani graduates signify professional ethics and morality, teamwork including respecting others, cooperating, negotiating, persuading, and contributing to discussions, Communication skills including listening and questioning, Capacity for lifelong learning including openness to new ideas, Creative thinking of the ability to develop and apply appropriate solutions, and Problem solving skills of the ability to analyze facts and situations as the top required skills of Readiness for Employability. Specifically, study findings showed Human capital attributes factor has high influence on the Readiness for Employability of the graduates in Oman. Finally, the study’s implementations and recommendations could be transferred to the Gulf and Arab or other countries’ contexts having similar settings of HE systems and similar issues of skills gap and employability concern of their graduates.
 
The aim of this study is to examine the effects individual attributes on the Employability Readiness among engineering graduates of the High Education Institutes in Oman. The study adopted self-directed structured questionnaire which was distributed to a sample of engineering students and graduates from a number of colleges and universities. The study used the structural equation modelling (SEM) for analysing the collected data. The findings of the statistical analysis of the study showed the most influential individual attributes on graduates’ readiness for employability are workshop attendance that affect the attainment of the technical skills of the graduates, family motivations, and graduates’ career orientations that help graduates to identify future career requirements and future career opportunities, and graduates’ personal learning targets. Also, class attendance, academic excellence, financial sources, and parents’ career position showed high important effects as well. The findings of this attribute which consist of the individual attributes of personnel’s’ values, attitudes, abilities, and work-life balance enhance the graduates attainment of the adaptability and flexibility attributes for their future readiness for employability. Therefore, study findings showed Individual attributes factor has high influence on the Readiness for Employability of the graduates in Oman. Finally, the study’s implementations and recommendations could be transferred to the Gulf and Arab or other countries’ contexts having similar settings of HE systems and similar issues of skills gap and employability concern of their graduates.
 
This research aims at keeping our planet safe which we are harming day by day by the advancement of modern civilization. In modern age, we are now vastly dependent on bank sector for our important activities. As a result, banks in Bangladesh are performing digitalize and effective activities to maintain a sound economy due to emphasize public services for profits. In this study the authors found that profit should not be earned at the expense of the world's most pressing environmental problem which can be caused a climate change through global warming. Western countries have already thought out of the box and introduced green banking for sustainable development. Sampling framed and statistical tools used by researchers and reveals that green banking (GB) is not only corporate social responsibility (CSR) but also in broader sense of corporate environmental responsibility (CER). It also explains the main objective of green banking is to keep the world livable without any significant damage. Specifically, we already have seen the light. But we have to adopt this idea for all commercial Bank either public or private.
 
This study aims to explore the relationship between the variables of customer engagement, self brand image congruity, brand familiarity, customer brand engagement, relationship quality, and brand loyalty. This study focuses on customer brand engagement, such as customer engagement, brand self-image congruence, and brand recognition. This study wants to see customer behavior generated by customer brand involvement through relationship quality and brand loyalty. This research was conducted on users of mobile phone brands that have a good reputation in Indonesia, such as the iPhone and Samsung, using a purposive sampling method. using SPSS as a method to test the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. In testing the hypothesis using the Lisrel SEM analysis method, the results obtained indicate that customer involvement, self-brand image alignment, and brand familiarity are proven to play a role in increasing customer brand engagement. Customer brand involvement can mediate the relationship between customer engagement, self-brand image alignment, and brand familiarity with relationship quality and brand loyalty. Relationship quality affects brand loyalty among mobile phone users in Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research can be used as a consideration by brands and market strategists to design strategies to develop long-term relationships and build customer loyalty. KEYWORDS-Customer involvement, self brand image congruity, brand familiarity, customer brand engagement, relationship quality, brand loyalty.
 
Case Description.
Total Percent Tendency.
Framework of Data and General Analysis Methods (Extended and adjusted based on Abdi, 2003).
This article reviews the empirical literature concerning consumers' choice of private label foods, discusses the most commonly used empirical research models, and applies value-oriented approaches to analyze consumer demand for premium products. Studies were selected for review based on food categories, country of origin, use of specific research models, and similarities in the type of data gathered. Some studies provided evidence that product price and consumer income predict the purchase of private label foods, whereas others found that specific demographic variables such as education level and age are significant predictors. A few studies demonstrated that quality, variety, and premiums attract consumers. Primarily, however, consumer acceptance of private label foods has risen because such foods have changed their image. Once perceived as low-priced, low-quality products available in limited categories, private label foods have repositioned themselves as reasonably priced, higher-quality products available in wide varieties. The author draws these conclusions from prior studies on how consumers perceive and select private label brands (PLBs) and their requirements. Beyond that, however, the findings suggest that PLBs satisfy consumers' inherent demand for diversification, although the results vary. Retailers use private label branding to differentiate themselves in competition with manufacturers and intermediate rivals, and the marketing for such products differs across countries, cultures, consumer habits, and product categories. This article offers managerial insights into future marketing strategies, and its examination of functional products advances the field of applied econometric research and enriches brand marketing theory.
 
Pro-poor growth is good for poverty eradication if it can be achieved. Brazil is a good example of a country where growth was pro-poor between 1981 and 2014 but the pro-poor growth was reversed in 2015. The paper examined what led to pro-poor growth between 1981 and 2014 and what may have been responsible for the reversal in 2015. The dynamic ordinary least squares method was used to analyse Brazilian data from World Bank Development Indicators between 1981 and 2014 for the determinant of pro-poor growth. Regression analysis shows that job creation was responsible for the pro-poor growth between 1981 and 2014. Moreover, rise in unemployment rate in 2015 was responsible for the reversal in the pro-poor growth. The result has good policy implication for poverty and inequality reduction in Brazil.
 
Fix n Clean is a startup company engaged in repair services in Indonesia. The repair service market in Indonesia is quite large and the demand for this business is very potential to be created. Therefore Fix n Clean performs financial and risk analysis by performing financial calculations and analysis as well as looking at the existing risks. The method used uses elements of financial planning contained in the framework and risk management with the ISO 31000:2018 approach. From a financial perspective, the analysis carried out includes an investment feasibility analysis as well as an analysis of financial performance needed to identify the prospects of an investment plan and as a basis for making decisions to reject an unprofitable investment. In terms of risk, the analysis carried out includes risk identification and risk treatment. The results of the financial analysis show that Fix n Clean investments can be made. The results of investment analysis can assist management in making strategic decisions and the results of risk management can mitigate risks so that the business can run well.
 
According to BPS statistics, DKI Jakarta's population increased by 10,467,629 people in 2018 and by 10,557,810 people in 2019. This figure is expected to rise every year until it reaches 10,887,800 by 2023. However, this growth was not accompanied by an increase in life expectancy, resulting in a high mortality rate. The goal of this quantitative research is to look at the impact of financial ratios over a five-year period. The major data utilized is from Sky Garden's financial statements for the years 2022 through 2026. Data is acquired in two ways: instantaneously or gradually over a period of time. Time series studies serve as a baseline and the foundation for determining implementation time. The Current Ratio, Quick Ratio, and Cash Ratio all suggest that Sky Garden has the capacity to pay down its obligations from years 1 to 5. The DAR and DER findings for Sky Garden are both 100 percent. Indicating that the company's assets and equity are secure. Year 1 had a net profit margin of 21.11 percent, year 2 had a net profit margin of 25.12 percent, year 3 had a net profit margin of 27.78 percent, year 4 had a net profit margin of 32.54 percent, and year 5 had a net profit margin of 36.15 percent. After subtracting the cost of products sold, GPM represents a percentage of sales profit. The value of the Opm Sky Garden has increased from year one to year five.
 
The coworking spaces are now alternative locations and workspaces for many professions. PT Space Digital Indonesia (PT SDI) is a startup company with the Space-Con brand that is committed to the coworking space industry. It proposes the concept of coworking spaces by using containers and targeting the market share of buffer cities (satellite cities) in some parts of Indonesia as business locations. Targeted customer segments are the creative actors of the industry such as digital nomads, start-ups, and MSMEs. Companies need to plan strategies and perform business model analysis. Strategy methods use Value Proposition Canvas, IFE, EFE, VRIO, CPM, SWOT, IE Matrix, QSPM, Porter's Generic Strategy, Lean Business Canvas Model. The results of this analysis may assist in identifying the appropriate business model. The right strategy and business model will enable newly created start-ups to be competitive and sustainable.
 
Negative celebrity endorsement is a fluid area in celebrity endorsement literature with scholars having diverse opinion on the acceptable way of dealing with its outcomes. There seems to be a paradigm shift of consumers accepting negative information as positive in influencing purchase intentions. The study conveniently sampled 552 respondents and found out that, consumers are highly influenced by celebrities with negative information or scandals. Again, the outcome of the study proved that, congruence or product-fit is important in the endorsement process and therefore, firms must make sure celebrities endorse products that are deemed relevant to their area of specialization. Lastly, the values and beliefs of a celebrity is important in giving a cultural identity to the celebrity.
 
The quality of engagement influences young athletes' attention, interests, and passion in the specific sport of participation (Alvarez et al., 2009). Simultaneously, the dropout rate is primarily due to an increasing lack of zeal (Gill et al., 1983; Weiss & Petlichkoff, 1989). It is estimated that about 38 million kids are involved in youth sports each year in the United States (Williams, 2016). The National Collegiate Athletic Association(NCAA) estimates that more than 480,000 compete as NCAA athletes, and a selected few compete at the (professional [and/or] Olympic level). Today, the likelihood of an NCAA athlete earning a college degree is significantly high (educational attainment is 86% in Division I, 71% in Division II, and 87% in Division III1
 
This paper introduces a model to manage a knowledge shifting processeswhen a company changes their vision and mission following with extending their strategy, business process and organization design because of the environment issues and regulations. This paper based oncase study in PertaminaAnEnergy Company in Indonesian as one of the Developing Country.This paper used a quantitative research conducted by survey.The findings showed that in extending business scope causes the knowledge shifting processes that generate new knowledge which is different with the existing knowledge in current business. The extending businessprocess itself divided into 3 phases: first phase change vision and mission, second phase change strategy, business process, and organization design, and the third phase change and shift the knowledge. The knowledge shifting process will become a successful factor in conducting the new business. The knowledge shifting process consist of two factors: managing existing employees with new knowledge and managing new employees with new knowledge. In managing the existing employees hopefully they will have new knowledge the factors consist of change mindset, willingness to learn, collaboration and age. In managing the new employees we can hire new employees with new knowledge and we can choose new employees with diversified educational background and diversified experiences matching the extended business scope. This paper viewed the knowledge shifting process from the perspective of Knowledge Based View (KBV) theory.
 
Theaim of the paper is to explore the importance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) sector in developing countries. From the results of the study it was observed that SMEs are essential to the economy development. The researcher used qualitative research methods to conduct a secondary research on the topic. Several academic journals, published online papers and books were used to achieve a high level of understanding and exploring for the topic. This paper glanced at the literature review and established a base for exploring the importance of small and medium enterprises sector in developing countries. The hypotheses presented in this study are tested, and the findings are presented. The presented findings discovered that SMEs are key player in ending developing economy problems such as poverty, unemployment, etc. but it can not be done without the government"s support to SMEs and protection from developing economy problems like inflation, black market, etc.
 
Measurement accuracy assessment and descriptive statistics
Correlation analysis results and discriminant validity measures
Results of structural equation model analysis
─ It is no use having organisational vision, goals and objectives without the careful strategic alignment of how to integrate the different functional activities to achieve set goals and objectives. A healthy organisation requires an integration strategy to contribute to the continuous success of the organisation. The ability of small to medium enterprises (SMEs) to integrate business activities across the supply chain and with customers will no doubt achieve competitive advantage over competitors. The purpose of this study is to determine supply chain influence on the mediating role of supplier and customer integration toward enhancing SMEs return on investment within the southern Gauteng region. A quantitative method of data collection was adopted and SMART-PLS (3.0) software for structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse statistically the measurement and structural model. Based on the theoretical review, a research framework detailing the hypothesis relationship between the research constructs was developed. From the research findings, the results provide support for the proposed positive relationships between the constructs with the evidence that supply chain relationship among SMEs is a connecting thread with the potential of integrating both suppliers and customers for the purpose of reducing operating cost and improvement of final product to customers.
 
Top-cited authors
Inim Victor
  • Nile University of Nigeria
Idachaba Odekina Innocent
  • Ahmadu Bello University
K. M. Anwarul Islam
  • The Millennium University
Rashid Waseem
  • University of Education, Lahore
Sajid Hussain
  • Bahauddin Zakariya University