American International Journal of Biology and Life Sciences

Published by American Center of Science and Education
Print ISSN: 2641-5615
Publications
Mean Squares for the Combined Effects of Grafting and Gibberellin Interactions on Some Growth Parameters on Okra in Two Different Seasons
Response of Grafting and Seasons on Some Growth Parameters on Okra
Response of Mutation and Seasons on Some Growth Parameters on the Okra
Response of Mutation and grafting, and seasons on Some Growth Parameters on the Okra
The effect of Gibberellin Hormonal Response and Grafting methods on the Growth and Yield of Okra was investigated, with the aim of inducing variability that could be exploited in the improvement of some quality traits in Okra plants. Gibberellin, grafting and a combination of grafting with Gibberellin) were applied on to the Okra seeds. The seeds of Okra were treated at four different concentrations of Gibberellin (0.1mM, 1.0 mM, 2.0 mM and 0.0 mM as control) after which some of the mutants were grafted using tongue grafting method at seedlings stage. The other set of seeds were not treated with the hormone but were grafted at seedlings stage. The results obtained revealed highly significant difference (P≤ 0.01) in the effects of Gibberellin on survival rates, number of fruits, and fruit weight. Similarly, highly significant differences (P≤0.01) were found between the treatments in Survival rate, except on the number of fruits and fruit weight, where no significant differences exist. More so, significant differences were found in the traits between the seasons except in fruit number. The result showed that Gibberellin and grafting improve important quality traits of Okra. The mutants and grafted Okra could be grown both during the rainy and dry seasons, while 0.1 mM concentration of Gibberellin and grafting improve some important quality traits of Okra that could be utilized for further improvement of Okra. However, the response of Okra to grafting was higher. Based on the findings, the study concluded that, grafting improves some important quality traits of Okra that are of high economic value and possible recommendations that could be made.
 
Showing DPPH free radical scavenging activity of plasma from rats treated with ethanolic extracts of M. lucida and P.guajava.
Antioxidant agents of plants origin have continued to attract interest because of the potential they hold in the maintenance of human health accompany with their minimal side effects. The present study sought to evaluate the comparative free radical scavenging activities of ethanol extracts of air dried Morinda lucida leaves (EMLL) and Psidium guajava leaves (EPGL) by measuring their ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide (NOˉ) radical, 2,2 azinobis-( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS*), and inhibit lipid peroxidation (LPO). Antioxidant activities of the extracts were also determined in the plasma of the rats fed with the extracts by assaying for antiradical activity against DPPH and NO radicals in vitro. In vivo antioxidant effects of the extracts were also evaluated in paracetamol treated rats. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups for this study. Group 1 received normal feed as control, group 2 received 14.30mg/kg b.w of paracetamol by gavage, groups 3 and 4 received 400mg/kg b.w of EMLL and EPGL each for 7 days plus paracetamol on the 8th day respectively. Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) status were assayed for in the kidney, liver and serum. Histopathological examinations of liver and kidney were also carried out. The results showed that EMLL and EPGL exhibited free radical scavenging ability in dose dependent manner towards DPPH, NO, ABTS radicals as well as inhibition of LPO. The results of evaluation of the antioxidant potentials of the extracts while in the plasma showed that they were associated with free radical scavenging activity in vivo. Paracetamol treatment caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in SOD and CAT activities, and marked increase (p<0.05) in MDA levels when compared with the control. However, compared with paracetamol only group, the extracts caused significant (p<0.05) increase in SOD and CAT activities and decreased MDA levels. Histopathological analysis of kidney and liver showed that the extracts were able to offer protection against paracetamol-induced kidney and liver injuries. The extracts therefore have strong antioxidant and cytoprotection abilities.
 
Distribution pattern of common illness among the primary school pupils in relation to age group
Percentage occurrence and distribution of bacterial pathogen in the diarrhoeic infections
This study shows the bacteriological investigations of Diarrhoeal diseases among selected children who were between the ages of 0 – 14 years. Stool samples from primary school pupils in Akoko South West Local Government Area in Ondo State, Nigeria were used for this purpose. The organisms were isolated and identified using cultural and biochemical test. Isolates obtained were subjected to some antibiotic susceptibility testing. Out of total number of 120 samples examined only 40 (33.3%) of primary school pupils were found to have Diarrhoea associated with bacteria in which 17 (42.5%), 15 (42.5%), and 8(32.5%) were from 0-4 years, 5-9 years and 10-14 years respectively. The Bacteria species isolated include Escherichia coli were the most predominant microorganism. This is followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillius cereus and Vibro cholerae respectively. As at the time of the study, there was significance difference between male and female gender with the male having high incidence of 55.0%. Among the antimicrobials used sparfloxacin and cefuroxime was most effective against Gram negative and Gram postive bacteria respectively. Also, most of the children tested were found to have common illness with clinical manifestations of diarrhoea followed by dysentery, abdominal pain and fever which may be accompanied with vomiting. Severity of infections varies with individual.
 
Azoles are one of a cyclic derivatives of chemical heterocyclic chemical and organic compounds including g a five member di unsaturated ring structure composed of bi nitrogen atoms at position (3 and 4) and one sulfur atom at position (1). Most of prepared work on the four thiadiazoles has been on the 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles. Physical, theoretical, and spectroscopic properties have been reviewed .
 
Microbes are an important component of the microbiology eco-system in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 bacteria , ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria take an important role in human health, like supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vit. K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal changes in the light of the use of antibiotics, illness, stress, aging, bad dietary habits, and lifestyle. Dysbiosis of the gut bacteria communities can cause many chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, and autism.
 
In our past studies , some imine compounds were prepared m investigated , spectral characterization , it gave good evidence for formation these compounds , but in this studying , these imine derivatives were screened against some types of bacteria and microbes.
 
Azo – cyclic derivatives are a part from a ring that has more than type of atoms. Nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur are often found along with carbon in heterocycles rings. Heterocycles derivatives are common in chemical chemistry, and many have fulfilled important physiological active in plant and animal kingdoms and have an important biological properties, such as, the antibiotic penicillin, sedative phenabarbital, and sugar replacing reagent saccharin, all having heterocycles ring.
 
According to general essential of colorant of azo derivatives and structure, releasing the substitution of the azo components by electron attracting groups produces required activity enables to get blue shades from structures .
 
To analyze the reasons for the extinction of dinosaurs by applying the elimination methods, to exclude the factors that could not cause the worldwide extinction of the dinosaurs. At last obtain a conclusion that because the Ice Age had come on the Earth and caused the changing of climate that it had been becoming cold and arid from warmth and moist, and caused the phyto-group had been changing, which the Pteridophyte and gymnosperm groups fell off or died out, but the angiosperm groups had been developing and expanding. The characters of photosynthesis of producers of the biosphere had been becoming to the seasonal and regional from the perennial and global, the total of oxygen had reduced sharply in the atmosphere, the density of oxygen had declined, and finally affected the breath of dinosaurs, and led to the extinction of dinosaurs. And as the main producers of biosphere, the pteridophyte and gymnosperm groups had fallen off or died out were the mainly reasons for the creature’s extinction at the later of the Cretaceous period.
 
Exponential model for SARS-COV-2 viability as a function of temperature (1)
he SARS-COV-2 pandemic, causing COVID-19 had a specific pattern of spread in Bulgaria during several waves from 15.06.2020 to 31.03.2021. The measures, which the health authorities took to prevent the spread in the kindergarten and schools, combined with several other factors, specific for Bulgaria made them the main driver of the pandemic. In this article we proposed heuristic framework as a strategy for health risk management, based on the properties of the virus and the properties of children’s immune system. Keywords: SARS-COV-2, COVID-19, Children, Health Risk Management, Heuristic Framework.JEL Classification Codes: I18.
 
Background. Significantly less is known about the immunoregulative cytokines, especially in allergic airway disease. This study aims to present the involvement of IL-35 and IL-10 in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic bronchial asthma (BA). Methodology. The study comprised 71 patients-AR, patients with concomitant AR and mild atopic BA, and healthy controls (HC). We examined the serum levels of IL-35 and IL-10, along with other instrumental examinations, between March and September 2021. Findings. Levels of the regulatory cytokines IL-35 and IL-10 were significantly lower in patients than in HC (87.19±11.90 vs. 96.12±1.79 pg/ml; and 30.26±17.55 vs. 111.56±65.03 pg/ml, respectively). Furthermore, threefold higher serum IL-10 levels were found in healthy subjects compared to patients (p = 0.006). No difference in the levels of interleukins was found between the studied groups. Conclusions. Our results indicate that elevated IL-35 and IL-10 may play an essential role in reducing the activity of underlying allergic inflammation in allergic respiratory diseases, although no difference in the levels of the studied cytokines was found between the different groups of patients. Therefore, we can speculate that the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-35 and IL-10 were involved in maintaining the healthy state of no inflammation.
 
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), a cluster of hematological cancers originating from lymphoid tissues is more frequent in developed countries than in the developing world. It is the 10 th leading cancer type in Sri Lanka and according to the recent Globacan cancer statistics in Sri Lanka, it has shown 2.9% mortality rate. In such a situation, early diagnosis, and effective monitoring of treatment used in NHL ought to be a huge task to increase the recovery of patients and to reduce mortality rate among them. The absence of a well-recognized system which governs the cell proliferation and survival in NHL baskets developing therapeutic targets. FMS like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)/ligand (FL) system is responsible for the hematopoietic cell proliferation, cell survival and certain intracellular activities that takes place in the normal condition, especially for lymphoid cells. In this review, we study the presence of FLT3 (CD 135) on lymphoid cells in NHL to investigate the possibility of using FLT3/FL system for novel drug targets for NHL.
 
(A) which statistically there was no different. However, when the % R efflux of the treated cells with 80mM KBS was compared with the % R efflux (12.42%) obtained from the 5.4mM KBS treated cells in figure 3, there was much higher difference in the % efflux as shown in (B). This shows that the % efflux (20.60%) of the 5.4mM KBS was abnormally high.
Rubidium efflux assay using flame atomic absorption spectrometry is employed in analyzing potassium channel activity. Calibration using standards of known R concentrations (10-100µM) in tubes was done at the beginning and end of each analysis. R standard curves were constructed from the data obtained from the analysis of the R standards in both the tubes and 96 well plates. HEK293 cells expressing the alpha subunit of BK channel were incubated with R for 4 hours after which the cells were washed and then treated with higher concentrations of KBS (50mM / 80mM) or NS1619 (0.003-100µM) for 10 minutes. The supernatant was removed and the cells lysed with 0.1%v/v triton. The percentage efflux was then determined from values obtained after analyzing the supernatant and lysate using flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that there was consistency during each analysis as the R standard curves constructed from the data obtained overlapped with no significant difference indicating precise calibration and internal validation. For the loaded cells (un-treated), the average concentration of R in the supernatant was 14.47µM while that in the lysate was 56.24µM and statistical analysis showed there was a significant difference with p<0.0001. The treated cells with higher concentrations of KBS in comparison with 5.4mM KBS gave a percentage increase in R efflux of 47.8% for50mM KBS with significant different of p<0.0001 and 80.11% increase with significant different of p<0.05 for 80mM KBS. The treated cells with 0.1, 0.01 and 0.003µM NS1619 gave a percentage increase in efflux of 13.98%, 29.95% and 23.69% respectively. This research indicated the viability of using flame atomic absorption spectrometry for rubidium efflux assay to test for compounds activating effect on BK channel. Abbreviation: BK (calcium activated potassium channels), Rubidium ion (R). Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), potassium chloride buffer saline (KBS), NS1619(1-(2′-hydroxy-5′-trifluoromethlphenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-2(3H) benzimidazolone)
 
Sub-Saharan Africa has experienced unprecedented technological advancement, just like several other regions of the world. This improvement in technology lends credence to the proliferation of android mobile phones, laptops computers and the Internet facilities that enhance interaction on the social media which in turn generates momentous alterations in the ways the residents of the region construct their daily lives. From epidemiological perspective as well as the viewpoint of change and development, via these information technologies, rendering health-related care and services to the residents in the remote places of the region and gaining access to vital information that prompts prevention and control of diseases are now feasible unlike before the advancement. Therefore, telemedicine symbolizes a health innovation in the region. In the light of this, this paper systematically reviewed the extent to which telemedicine has gained acceptance among the residents of the region; and the socio-cultural factors and practices that promote and decelerate the general acceptance of telemedicine in the region. To accomplish the objective, the review was done meta-analytically and meta-synthetically to explore recent relevant studies. The paper discovered that reduction in the cost of gaining access to health information, harnessing online health and medical services, are among the benefits derived from telemedicine while fake online information, impoverished network service delivery, financial incapacity, theft, technical faults, underutilization of the technology devices and cyber-crime are among the factors that militate against wide acceptance of telemedicine in the region.
 
Allergens and skin prick tests in patients with AR.
IL-5 (pg/ml) in serum samples of healthy controls, all patients and AR, AR vs. BA. Data are presented as mean ± SD or SE
Background: A lot of evidence exists on the relationship between the upper and lower respiratory airways based on epidemiological, clinical, and pathophysiological levels. However, new aspects of allergic inflammation and released cytokines play a crucial role in this interaction. This study aims to explore the role and involvement of IL-5 in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and newly diagnosed allergic bronchial asthma (BA) with a mild course, manifested after many years of previous persistent AR. Methods: This prospective study included 67 patients with allergic inflammation of the upper respiratory airways, manifested by AR, and involvement of the lower airways, clinically presented as mild atopic BA, recruited between 2020 and 2021. Results: AR patients were 35 (40.23%), and patients with a combination of AR and newly diagnosed BA-32 (36.78%). Twenty healthy controls (22.99%) were also included. The most common type of sensitization was to grass pollen 43 (64%) and tree pollen-birch 32 (48%). We did not find significant differences between the serum levels of healthy individuals and patients included in the study. No associations between the IL-5 levels and parameters of functional lung tests or skin prick tests were found. However, we have identified the following dependencies: IL-5 levels were lower in the patients than in the healthy subjects; however, non-significantly. This difference is more prominent when comparing the AR group of patients to the AR with BA group. Conclusions: Despite the known role and active involvement of IL-5 in allergic diseases, not always IL-5 levels can be found elevated in serum samples of AR and AR with BA patients. Therefore, other mechanisms may play a significant role in airway inflammation, primarily when one allergic disease occurs after another.
 
A diverse range of active therapeutic constituents i.e. antioxidants from medicinal plants of Solanaceae family are responsible for anticancer & antibacterial activity. The study was aimed to investigate phytochemicals i.e. alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, and steroids qualitatively in selected plants of Solanaceae family. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of the aqueous extracts of the plants were determined quantitatively by the Folin-Ciocalteus reagent method and modified Aluminium Chloride assay respectively.Flavanoids present in the extracts of Solanumnigrum(fruit and leaf), Daturainoxia (leaf) and Capsicum annum (fruit) samples were 0.39 ± 0.030, 0.42 ± 0.020, 0.51 ± 0.04, 0.34± 0.030µgmL-1 respectively, whereas phenolic contents were 94± 1.2, 107± 1.5, 96± 1.3, 87± 1.9 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent respectively. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. nigrum, D. inoxia and C. annum showed bactericidal activity against strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus with (MIC)2mgmL-1 and 5mgmL-1. Highest free radical scavenging of DPPH activity 81.3% was exhibited by 2mgmL-1 methanolic extract of D. inoxia. Docking of Murine with Saponin, Flavone, phenol showed hydrogen bond of length 2.47 Å, 1.98 Å, 2.285 Å respectively while two H-bonds with 1.96 and 2.56 Å bond lengths of alkaloids. Representative trends and in silico assay results explain the synergism among flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenols. The phytochemicals provide antibacterial activity, antioxidant property as well as anti-cancerous bioactive compounds such as alkaloids and tannins, justifying their therapeutic efficacy in the field of cancer medicine.
 
The Purpose of the research: The study aimed to document the Asteraceae species in the study area. The study also examined the species diversity and medicinally important plants. Data, Materials, and Methodology: The work is based on fresh materials collected during thirty-six field visits to Paba Upazila of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh was carried out from November 2018 to October 2019 to cover the seasonal variations. Plant parts with either flower or fruits collected using traditional herbarium techniques to make voucher specimens for documentation. The results: The result shows in all, 44 species under 35 genera of the family Asteraceae were reported, out of which 40 (90.90%) were used medicinal applications for the treatment of more than 59 diseases. Major findings: The findings of the study that 25% of species were very common, 43.18% were common, 25% species were rare and 6.82% species were very rare in the study area. Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) Robinson is the only climbing species. Blumea laciniata (Roxb.) DC. and Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc. has been reported for the first time in Paba Upazila of Rajshahi. The present study will help in identifying the major Asteraceae species for further investigation and also beneficial to develop the herbal drug development.
 
Who regulate(s) wastes generated at health care
Color coding awareness and practice
Safe management effort and container labelling
Where do you discard your BMW?
Based on biomedical waste management and handling, should not be stored beyond?
Biomedical wastes management is one of the most important issues in public health centers and it is a crucial issue for environmental sectors as well. Wrong and inappropriate management treat the life of human beings in Kandahar City. Currently the population of this city has exponentially increased than ever because of the immigration of many people from neighboring provinces. This research was conducted in 15 districts of Kandahar public and private health care centers to identify the current biomedical waste management in Kandahar city. The qualitative and quantitative date was collected through a questionnaire from public and private hospitals, clinics and health care centers. In addition, discarding, segregating, labeling, transporting and disposing system of biomedical waste were observed. The result showed that 65.3% newly hired biomedical waste staff not received training or instruction. Furthermore, the result indicates that 44% generated biomedical wastes are regulated by municipality and color coding is not followed accordingly. Current biomedical waste is not appropriate based on designed international standards and the criteria suggested by world health organization.
 
The aim of this work is to introduce bacteria into the matrix of natural phosphate to catalyze the phenol oxidation in the wastewater.This electrode, designated subsequently by bacteria-NP-CPE, Showed stable response and was characterized with voltammeter methods, as cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and DRX. The experimental results revealed that the prepared electrode could be a feasible for degradation of hazardous phenol pollutants in the wastewater.
 
Self-medication is a global phenomenon in which individual takes a drug or a substance for the treatment of self-diagnosed ailment. Methodology: We conducted a survey on self-medication of students of University of Central Punjab in Lahore. 50 survey forms were completely filled. The data collected was entered and processed on IBM SPSS statistics, version 21.0. According to this survey we discussed the advantages and disadvantages of selfmedication. And we took a brief insight on self-medication related problems and how to overcome those problems. Results: Among these students most of them were using OTC dugs as a form of self-medication. Like analgesics, antipyretic and antibiotics. And they were getting these drugs without prescriptions. Most of them have easy access to health care clinics. They were using self-medication as per as their previous experience to treat ailment. According to this survey self-medication has its own advantages such as easy access to medicines, helps to prevent the ailments that do not require a doctor. But the adverse consequences of such practices should always be emphasized to the community and take steps to curb it. Conclusion: This review focused on the self-medication of allopathic drugs, their use, its safety and reason for using it. It would be safe, if the people who are using it, have sufficient knowledge about its dose, time of intake, side effect on over dose, but due to lack of information it can cause serious effects such as antibiotic resistance, skin problem, hypersensitivity and allergy. There is need to augment awareness and implement legislations to promote judicious and safe practices. Improved knowledge and understanding about self-medication may result in rationale use and thus limit emerging drug resistance or toxicity issues.
 
Top-cited authors
Mst. Farhana Easmin
  • University of Rajshahi
A.H.M. Mahbubur Rahman
  • University of Rajshahi
Fakunle Sunday
  • Redeemer's University
Tsvetelina Velikova
  • University Hospital Lozenetz
Hristiana Batselova
  • Medical University of Plovdiv