American Bar Association journal. American Bar Association

Online ISSN: 0002-7596
Describes the new Massachusetts Mental Health Code, effective November 1, 1971. Developed jointly by doctors and lawyers over a 6-yr period, it replaced a mass of complicated and confusing laws (e.g., 124 sections in the previous code were reduced to 37 and the 9 procedures for commitment were reduced to 3). As the criterion for involuntary commitment, the concept of "the likelihood of serious harm" by reason of mental illness was introduced. Indefinite commitments were abolished, and pretrial commitments were restricted as to duration and procedures. Specific statutory rights were established for patients in mental institutions. Results during the 1st yr under the code were impressive. Involuntary commitments dropped sharply, and voluntary commitments greatly increased. Court-ordered hospitalizations of defendants in criminal cases were cut in half. In addition, medical and social effects which cannot be expressed in statistics are expected under the new code. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This article provides an overview of the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) before addressing its recent revisions for the post 2020 period.
Concern about climate change, controversy over hydraulic fracturing, a desire for energy independence and security—these and other factors virtually guarantee that we will obtain an increasing share of our energy from renewable energy projects. But there is no free lunch. Like all energy development projects, utility-scale solar and wind projects come with certain environmental costs. In particular, the large footprints of these projects can have considerable impacts on species listed as endangered and threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). 16 U.S.C. § § 1531–1544. Renewable energy developers generally agree with campaigns by environmentalists, government officials, and members of the public to prevent or reduce adverse impacts to protected species, but infrastructure and demand constraints can interfere with efforts to implement these aspirations. To meet conservation objectives in the face of these constraints, a nearly unanimous chorus of authors, speakers, policymakers, and public advocates advise us to " coordinate early, " " think large-scale, " and " plan comprehensively. " These ideas make sense in the abstract, but what do they actually mean? And how do we implement them to help imperiled species not just survive, but recover? This article aims to answer these questions by revisiting the ESA's mandates, evaluating agencies' current approaches to species conservation in the context of large-scale wind and solar projects, and providing suggestions for how to produce better outcomes.
States and local governments, saddled with the increasing costs of adapting to climate change, are turning to now-established public-tort theories to hold oil companies accountable.
Traditional "Waterfall" Software Development Approach
Agile Software Development Approach  
Number of Software-Related Patents Granted Per Year by the USPTO 12  
IP Rhythm within an Agile Environment  
Reprinted in 27 IPLS Proceedings 1 (State Bar of Michigan, 2016)
The Ninth Circuit’s latest decision in Sturgeon v. Frost may ultimately shape a long-simmering debate about the source and limits of federal authority over waters in Alaska.
This article examines the efforts of the Nigerian Competition Authority, the FCCPC in building social capital in a difficult regulatory environment, and lessons new competition authorities can learn from the strides of the FCCPC.
California's cap-and-trade program, which began in 2013, is part of a suite of policy tools originally designed to achieve the goal of the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), which is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. California is on track to achieve its 2020 goal and even more.
The article analyzes seawater desalination using renewable and alternative energy systems as a viable solution to adapt to climate change, provide freshwater needs, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Top-cited authors
Richard Bonnie
  • University of Virginia
Matthew J. Sanders
  • Stanford University
Rose Wentz
  • University of California, Davis
Omar Tarik Mohammedi
  • Law Firm of Omar T. Mohammedi, LLC and Fordham Law School
Tiffany Michou
  • Loyola Law School