Forty-seven healthy male subjects were studied twice using a randomized, placebo-controlled design. Each subject took an 8-day course of two of the following four regimens; 300 mg ranitidine, 800 mg cimetidine, 40 mg famotidine or placebo (identical either to 300 mg ranitidine or 800 mg cimetidine). The systemic bioavailability of ethanol (integrated 6-h plasma ethanol concentration, peak plasma ethanol concentration, and the time to peak plasma ethanol concentration) was measured after the oral ingestion of 0.8 g of ethanol per kg body weight, given one hour after an evening meal on Day 8 of each regimen.
There was no significant difference of integrated 6-h plasma ethanol concentration, peak ethanol concentration, or time to reach peak ethanol concentration after dosing with either ranitidine, cimetidine or famotidine or placebo.
Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) often occurs following pancreatic surgery.
To demonstrate the superior efficacy of pancreatin 25 000 minimicrospheres (Creon 25000 MMS; 9–15 capsules/day) over placebo in treating PEI after pancreatic resection.
A 1-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre study with a 1-year, open-label extension (OLE). Subjects ≥18 years old with PEI after pancreatic resection, defined as baseline coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) <80%, were randomised to oral pancreatin or placebo (9–15 capsules/day: 3 with main meals, 2 with snacks). In the OLE, all subjects received pancreatin. The primary efficacy measure was least squares mean CFA change from baseline to end of double-blind treatment (ancova).
All 58 subjects randomised (32 pancreatin, 26 placebo) completed double-blind treatment and entered the OLE; 51 completed the OLE. The least squares mean CFA change in the double-blind phase was significantly greater with pancreatin vs. placebo: 21.4% (95% CI: 13.7, 29.2) vs. −4.2% (−12.8, 4.5); difference 25.6% (13.9, 37.3), P < 0.001. The mean ± s.d. CFA increased from 53.6 ± 20.6% at baseline to 78.4 ± 20.7% at OLE end (P < 0.001). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 37.5% subjects on pancreatin and 26.9% on placebo during double-blind treatment, with flatulence being the most common (pancreatin 12.5%, placebo 7.7%). Only two subjects discontinued due to treatment-emergent adverse events, both during the OLE.
This study demonstrates superior efficacy of pancreatin 25 000 over placebo in patients with PEI after pancreatic surgery, measured by change in CFA. Pancreatin was generally well tolerated at the high dose administered (EudraCT registration number: 2005-004854-29).
Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) treatment with pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN)/ribavirin (RBV) is often limited by preexisting medical, psychiatric and psychosocial contraindications. However, limited data exist in general patient populations.
To evaluate the percentage of HCV-infected patients in the general US population who may have contraindications to PEG-IFN/RBV.
The General Electric (GE) Centricity dataset was used to screen the US population between 2004 and 2009 for HCV infection and contraindications to PEG-IFN/RBV. HCV diagnosis and contraindications were identified using ICD-9-CM codes or laboratory values. Only patients with an encounter 180 days prior to HCV diagnosis were included. Demographic differences were calculated using Pearson's chi-squared test. Frequencies and percentages for absolute and relative contraindications to PEG-IFN and/or RBV were determined and proportions and rates/1000 person-months were calculated.
A total of 15 561 021 patients were screened, and 45 690 (0.3%) were HCV-positive and were evaluated. Those with contraindications were significantly younger, female, White, not currently married and receiving Medicare or Medicaid coverage (all P < 0.0001). 17.3% had at least one contraindication to PEG-IFN/RBV (5.5 events/1000 person-months); bipolar disorder (6.5%), anaemia (Hgb < 10 g/dL; 5.9%), pregnancy (1.9%) and neutropenia (neutrophils <750 cells/mm3; 1.2%) were most frequently cited.
Approximately, 17% of HCV-infected patients in the general US population had at least one contraindication to PEG-IFN/RBV. Most contraindications were relative and potentially modifiable. Clinical assessment of contraindications as relative and/or modifiable should be considered and used to determine if patients could benefit from current PEG-IFN–containing triple therapy or future PEG-IFN– or RBV-free regimens.
Andrographis paniculata is an herbal mixture used to treat inflammatory diseases. An extract of the herb, HMPL-004, inhibits TNF-α and IL-1β, and prevents colitis in animal models.
To determine the efficacy and safety of HMPL-004 in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis.
A randomised, double-blind, multicentre, 8-week parallel group study was conducted using HMPL-004 1200 mg/day compared with 4500 mg/day of slow release mesalazine (mesalamine) granules in patients with mild-to-moderately active ulcerative colitis. Disease activity was assessed at baseline and every 2 weeks for clinical response, and at baseline and 8 weeks by colonoscopy.
One hundred and twenty patients at five centres in China were randomised and dosed. Clinical remission and response were seen in 21% and 76% of HMPL-004-treated patients, and 16% and 82% of mesalazine-treated patients. By colonoscopy, remission and response were seen in 28% and 74% of HMPL-004-treated patients and 24% and 71% of mesalazine-treated patients, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two treatment groups.
HMPL-004 may be an efficacious alternative to mesalazine in ulcerative colitis.
The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an effective triage marker following single time point paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, but has not been evaluated following staggered (multiple supratherapeutic doses over >8 h, resulting in cumulative dose of >4 g/day) overdoses.
To evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the SOFA score following staggered paracetamol overdose.
Time-course analysis of 50 staggered paracetamol overdoses admitted to a tertiary liver centre. Individual timed laboratory samples were correlated with corresponding clinical parameters and the daily SOFA scores were calculated.
A total of 39/50 (78%) patients developed hepatic encephalopathy. The area under the SOFA receiver operator characteristic for death/liver transplantation was 87.4 (95% CI 73.2-95.7), 94.3 (95% CI 82.5-99.1), and 98.4 (95% CI 84.3-100.0) at 0, 24 and 48 h, respectively, postadmission. A SOFA score of <6 at tertiary care admission predicted survival with a sensitivity of 100.0% (95% CI 76.8-100.0) and specificity of 58.3% (95% CI 40.8-74.5), compared with 85.7% (95% CI 60.6-97.4) and 75.0% (95% CI 65.2-79.5) , respectively, for the modified Kings College criteria. Only 2/21 patients with an admission SOFA score <6 required renal replacement therapy or intracerebral pressure monitoring. SOFA significantly outperformed the Model for End-stage Liver Disease, but not APACHE II, at 0, 24-and 48-h following admission.
A SOFA score <6 at tertiary care admission following a staggered paracetamol overdose, is associated with a good prognosis. Both the SOFA and APACHE II scores could improve triage of high-risk staggered paracetamol overdose patients.
The administration of parnaparin sodium as oral colon-release tablets (CB-01-05 MMX) has been proposed as a novel approach for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC).
To assess the efficacy and the tolerability of 8 weeks' oral daily administration of 210 mg of parnaparin sodium compared with placebo in subjects treated with stable-doses of oral aminosalicylates.
This multicenter, randomized, double-blind proof of concept trial compared the efficacy of CB-01-05 MMX 210 mg tablets to placebo in 141 subjects with mild to moderately active left-sided UC treated with stable-doses of aminosalicylates. The efficacy was assessed by clinical activity index (CAI), endoscopic index (EI) and histological score (HS).
A total of 121 subjects (61 in test group and 60 in control group) formed the per protocol (PP) population. After 8 weeks of treatment, clinical remission was achieved in 83.6% of the CB-01-05 MMX group, and in 63.3% in the comparator group (P = 0.011). This effect was also significantly evident in the test group at week 4 (P = 0.028). A significant difference was also detected in rectal bleeding, (disappeared respectively in 75.4% and 55.0%; P = 0.018), and in mucosal friability (recovered respectively in 80.3% and in 56.7%; P = 0.005).
CB-01-05 MMX was safe and significantly effective in treating subjects with mild-to-moderate left-sided UC treated with stable-doses of aminosalicylates.
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been rarely evaluated as a primary endpoint in the assessment of the effect of probiotics on the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
To study the effects of fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 and yoghurt strains on the IBS in a multicentre, double-blind, controlled trial.
A total of 274 primary care adults with constipation-predominant IBS (Rome II) were randomized to consume for 6 weeks either the test fermented milk or a heat-treated yoghurt (control). HRQoL and digestive symptoms were assessed after 3 and 6 weeks on an intention-to-treat population of 267 subjects.
The HRQoL discomfort score, the primary endpoint, improved (P < 0.001) in both groups at weeks 3 and 6. The responder rate for the HRQoL discomfort score was higher (65.2 vs. 47.7%, P < 0.005), as was the decrease in bloating score [0.56 +/- (s.d.)1.01 vs. 0.31 +/- 0.87, P = 0.03], at week 3 in the test vs. the control group. In those subjects with <3 stools/week, stool frequency increased (P < 0.001) over 6 weeks in the test vs. control group.
This study suggests a beneficial effect of a probiotic food on discomfort HRQoL score and bloating in constipation-predominant IBS, and on stool frequency in subjects with <3 stools/week.
There is currently no treatment available to manage acute pain attacks in IBS patients regardless of subtype.
To evaluate efficacy and safety of the GLP-1 analogue ROSE-010 in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) through a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Eligible patients (n = 166) meeting Rome II criteria were randomly assigned to receive single subcutaneous injections of ROSE-010 100 microg, 300 microg and placebo in a cross-over design. Safety was assessed from spontaneously reported adverse events and measurement of vital signs. Patient-rated pain relief and intensity were measured on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. The primary efficacy variable was proportion of patients with >50% maximum total pain relief response from 10 to 60 min after treatment. Secondary endpoints included the maximum summed pain intensity difference, time to meaningful pain relief and patient ratings of satisfaction with treatment.
Twice as many patients were responders in the primary efficacy endpoint after both ROSE-010 injections compared to placebo (24%P = 0.011, 23%P = 0.005, and 12% after 300 microg, 100 microg and placebo injections, respectively). Similar results were obtained for the proportion of patients with total pain intensity response. Times to meaningful and total pain relief were shorter for both doses of ROSE-010 compared with placebo. Compared with placebo, more patients (P < 0.05) were satisfied with ROSE-010 and considered ROSE-010 better than previous IBS medications used.
ROSE-010 was well tolerated and provided fast and effective relief of acute pain attacks on demand in IBS patients.
A sensation of abdominal swelling (bloating) and actual increase in girth (distension) are troublesome features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is more common in patients with constipation, especially those with delayed transit.
To establish whether a fermented dairy product containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 reduces distension in association with acceleration of gastrointestinal transit and improvement of symptoms in IBS with constipation.
A single centre, randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel group study in which patients consumed the test product or control product for 4 weeks. Distension, orocaecal and colonic transit and IBS symptoms were assessed on an intention-to-treat population of 34 patients.
Compared with control product, the test product resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage change in maximal distension [median difference - 39%, 95% CI (-78, -5); P = 0.02] and a trend towards reduced mean distension during the day [-1.52 cm (-3.33, 0.39); P = 0.096]. An acceleration of orocaecal [-1.2 h (-2.3,0); P = 0.049] as well as colonic [-12.2 h (-22.8, -1.6); P = 0.026] transit was observed and overall symptom severity [-0.5 (-1.0, -0.05); P = 0.032] also improved.
This probiotic resulted in improvements in objectively measured abdominal girth and gastrointestinal transit, as well as reduced symptomatology. These data support the concept that accelerating transit is a useful strategy for treating distension.
A previous study has suggested that Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 shortens the colonic transit time in women.
To confirm this effect and to determine whether modifications of the faecal bacterial mass and/or faecal secondary bile salts may be the explanation.
A double-blind, cross-over study was performed. Thirty-six healthy women were studied in four consecutive 10-day periods. During periods 2 and 4, they ingested three 125 g cups per day of a fermented milk which was either a product containing B. animalis DN-173 010 or a control without bifidobacteria. Periods 1 and 3 were run-in and washout periods, respectively. The total and segmental colonic transit times were assessed using a pellet method. In 12 subjects, all stools were collected and analysed for pH, faecal weight, bacterial mass and bile acids.
The total and sigmoid transit times were significantly shorter during dosing with B. animalis compared to the control period. The other transit times, faecal weight, pH, bacterial mass and bile acids were not significantly affected.
B. animalis DN-173 010 shortens the colonic transit time in healthy women. This effect is not explained by modifications of the faecal bacterial mass or secondary bile acids.
Elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) reflect hepatocellular injury in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Increased apoptosis and activated caspases are present in these patients. PF-03491390 inhibits multiple caspases and lowers serum AST and ALT levels in patients with chronic liver diseases.
To determine if treatment with an oral pancaspase inhibitor could reduce serum AST and ALT in patients with HCV.
Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-dose study in 204 patients treated with placebo or PF-03491390 (5, 25 or 50 mg) orally twice daily (b.d.) for up to 12 weeks. Serum AST and ALT were monitored weekly.
Significant reductions in serum AST and ALT were observed within 1 week of initiating PF-03491390 in all treatment groups (P < 0.0001). These reductions in AST and ALT were maintained throughout the 12 week treatment period and returned to baseline levels when PF-03491390 was discontinued. Increasing the dose did not further lower AST or ALT. The most frequently reported adverse events were headache and fatigue.
PF-03491390 significantly reduced serum AST and ALT levels in patients with chronic HCV, and was well tolerated over 12 weeks.
The pharmacological effects of a novel CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist, S-0509, on gastric acid secretion in dogs remain unknown.
To evaluate the antisecretory effects of S-0509 on gastric acid secretion and to compare such effects with famotidine or atropine in dogs stimulated with various gastric stimulants.
Ten beagle dogs with a denervated Heidenhain pouch and three beagle dogs with an innervated gastric fistula were used. Gastric acid secretion was stimulated by either continuous intravenous administration of pentagastrin, carbachol or histamine, or oral administration of a peptone meal or beer.
In the Heidenhain pouch model, both intravenously administered and orally administered S-0509 significantly inhibited the gastric acid secretion stimulated by pentagastrin, peptone meal and beer. Nonetheless, the drug had little or no effect on carbachol-stimulated or histamine-stimulated acid secretion. Famotidine extensively inhibited all gastric acid secretion stimulated by the above stimulants in a non-selective manner. Atropine also significantly inhibited the acid secretion stimulated by pentagastrin, peptone meal, beer or carbachol, but was not able to inhibit stimulation due to histamine. Oral administration of peptone meal or beer significantly increased the plasma gastrin level. Similarly to the Heidenhain pouch model, even in the gastric fistula (GF) model, S-0509 significantly inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion, yet the drug had no effect on carbachol-stimulated secretion.
S-0509 is a selective CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist in dogs that inhibits gastric acid secretion stimulated by pentagastrin and gastrin-releasing substances, but does not inhibit histamine-stimulated and carbachol-stimulated acid secretion.
S-0509, 2-[(tert-butoxycarbonylmethyl) [(m-(carboxy-phenyl)-ureidomethyl-carbonyl]] aminobenzo phenone, was developed as a potent and selective CCKB/gastrin receptor antagonist that does not affect the central nervous system.
We evaluated the effects of S-0509 on gastric acid secretion and duodenal ulcerogenic and healing responses in rats comparing it with L-365,260, another CCKB/gastrin receptor antagonist.
S-0509 (0.1 approximately 10 mg/kg, i.d.) was able to dose-dependently decrease basal acid secretion and inhibit the acid secretory responses induced by both pentagastrin (60 microg/kg/h, i.v.) and peptone (10%, i.g.) but not histamine (4 mg/kg/hr, i.v.) or carbachol (60 microg/kg/h, i.v.). L-365,260 (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.d.) caused only partial a suppression of the acid secretory response to pentagastrin but not to other stimuli, including peptone treatment. On the other hand, a duodenal ulcerogen, mepirizole (200 mg/kg, s.c. ) caused an increase in acid secretion and resulted in penetrating ulcers in the proximal duodenum, and these ulcers gradually healed over 3 weeks. S-0509 significantly inhibited both the acid secretory (> 1.0 mg/kg, i.d.) and ulcerogenic (> 3 mg/kg, p.o.) responses induced by mepirizole when it was given as a pre-treatment. It also promoted significantly the healing of these ulcers (> 3 x 2 mg/kg, p. o.) when it was given twice daily for 14 days. In contrast, L-365, 260 (30 mg/kg) tended to reduce the severity of mepirizole-induced duodenal ulcers, with a slight inhibition of acid secretion, but it caused no influence on the healing response of these ulcers.
These results confirmed that S-0509 is a selective CCKB/gastrin receptor antagonist with potent antisecretory action in vivo conditions, and further demonstrated that this agent not only prevents the development of duodenal ulcers but also shows healing promoting action on duodenal ulcers, probably through the blockade of CCKB/gastrin receptors.
Compared with currently available NSAIDs (which inhibit COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms of cyclooxygenase), MK-0966 (a specific COX-2 inhibitor) is expected to cause less gastrointestinal toxicity.
To compare the effect on the upper gastrointestinal mucosae of a high dose of MK-0966 with that of conventional doses of ibuprofen and aspirin.
Healthy subjects (n = 170; age range 18-54 years) with endoscopically normal gastric and duodenal mucosa were randomized to either MK-0966 250 mg q.d. (n = 51), ibuprofen 800 mg t.d.s. (n = 51), aspirin 650 mg q.d.s. (n = 17), or placebo (n = 51) in this 7-day, double-blind, parallel-group study. The mucosae were evaluated by endoscopy using a predefined scale; scores could range from 0 to 4. The primary end-point was the percentage of subjects who developed a mucosal score >/= 2 (i.e. the development of one or more erosions). To evaluate COX-1 activity, serum thromboxane B2 levels were determined in a subset of the population.
The percentage of subjects who developed a mucosal score >/= 2 in the MK-0966 group (12%) was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than that in the ibuprofen (71%) and aspirin (94%) groups, and was similar to that in the placebo group (8%). Only ibuprofen and aspirin significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced baseline thromboxane B2 levels. All treatments were generally well tolerated.
In this acute short-term endoscopic study, MK-0966 250 mg q.d. (a dose at least 10 times higher than that demonstrated to reduce the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis) produced significantly less gastrointestinal mucosal damage than either ibuprofen 800 mg t.d.s. or aspirin 650 mg q.d.s. and was comparable to placebo in this regard.
Mesalazine as maintenance therapy in ulcerative colitis is used worldwide and has been proven to be effective. However, the optimal dosage remains to be defined.
To establish whether daily treatment with 2.4 g of oral mesalazine is more effective than 1.2 g in preventing disease relapse.
A total of 156 patients with ulcerative colitis in remission were randomly treated for 1 year with 2.4 (n = 80) or 1.2 (n = 76) g/day of mesalazine. Activity of disease was assessed by periodical clinical, endoscopic and histological examinations.
After 12 months, 24 of 80 patients (30%) on 2.4 g and 20 of 76 patients (26%) on 1.2 g were still in remission (P = N.S.). Patients in 2.4 g group remained in remission for a longer time than those in 1.2 g group (P < 0.001). Among clinical variables considered in the study, course of disease prior to enrollment (< or = 3 or > 3 relapses/year) was found to influence response to therapy.
A daily dosage of 2.4 g of oral mesalazine seems to better at preventing and delaying relapses of ulcerative colitis than 1.2 g. The course of disease seems to be crucial in choosing the optimal dosage of mesalazine in a maintenance regimen.
Despite widespread use of aminosalicylates as maintenance treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC), patients still report troublesome symptoms, often nocturnally.
To compare the efficacy and safety of balsalazide (Colazide) with mesalazine (Asacol) in maintaining UC remission.
A randomized, double-blind comparison of balsalazide 3 g daily (1.04 g 5-ASA) and mesalazine 1.2 g daily for 12 months, in 99 (95 evaluable) patients in UC remission.
Balsalazide patients experienced more asymptomatic nights (90% vs. 77%, P=0.0011) and days (58% vs. 50%, N.S.) during the first 3 months. Balsalazide patients experienced more symptom-free nights per week (6.4+/-1.7 vs. 4.7+/-2.8; P=0.0006) and fewer nights per week with blood on their stools or on the toilet paper, mucus with their stools or with sleep disturbance resulting from symptoms or lavatory visits (each P < 0.05). Fewer balsalazide patients relapsed within 3 months (10% vs. 28%; P=0.0354). Remission at 12 months was 58%, in both groups. Similar proportions of patients reported adverse events (61% balsalazide vs. 65% mesalazine). There were five serious adverse events (two balsalazide, three mesalazine) and four withdrawals due to unacceptable adverse events (three balsalazide, one mesalazine), of which one in each group was also a serious adverse event.
Balsalazide 3 g/day and mesalazine 1.2 g/ day effectively maintain UC remission and are equally well tolerated over 12 months. At this dose balsalazide prevents more relapses during the first 3 months of treatment and controls nocturnal symptoms more effectively.
The systemic and hepatic haemodynamic effects following terlipressin (Glypressin) administration were studied. Bolus intravenous injections of 1.25 and 2 mg significantly decreased wedged hepatic vein pressure gradient by 29% and 31%, respectively. With each dose there was a small increase in mean arterial blood pressure but after 1.25 mg of terlipressin, estimated hepatic blood flow fell by only 11% (not significant) compared to 24% after 2 mg, while the cardiac index fell by 12% compared to 29%. The adverse haemodynamic effects of terlipressin were diminished by a decrease in dosage, without any alteration in the beneficial effect of the drug upon portal pressure. Whether the smaller dose will be effective in arresting variceal haemorrhage remains to be determined.
INVESTIGATORS: This multicentre study was conducted by 29 principal investigators in 11 countries.
To compare the safety and efficacy of oral mesalazine (Mesasal/Claversal, 5-ASA) 1.5 g b.d. in comparison with placebo in the maintenance of remission in 286 patients with Crohn's disease.
Patients had to score less than 150 in their Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and had to have had one period of clinical activity (CDAI > 150) within 18 months of the study start. Patients were randomized to receive 5-ASA 1.5 g b.d. daily or matching placebo for 12 months. Study visits were scheduled for months 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12, or when symptoms suggested a relapse of the disease. Relapse was defined as a CDAI score greater than 150, with at least a 60-point increase from the baseline index score. None of the patients used glucocorticoids or immunosuppressants during the trial.
In the first group, 207 patients with Crohn's colitis or ileocolitis were randomized: there were 101 females and 106 males, in age range 18-71 years. A total of 106 patients (51 in the 5-ASA group and 55 in the placebo group) were withdrawn from the study due to adverse events, insufficient therapeutic effect, or for other reasons. This left 101 patients (51 in the 5-ASA group and 50 in the placebo group) who completed the 12-month trial. In the second group, 79 patients with Crohn's ileitis were randomized to treatment. There were 53 females and 26 males, age range 18-66 years. A total of 41 patients (19 in the 5-ASA group and 22 in the placebo group) were withdrawn from the study. This left 38 patients (17 in the 5-ASA group and 21 in the placebo group) who completed the 12-month trial. The primary efficacy variable was the CDAI. A protocol-eligible analysis and an intent-to-treat analysis were performed. No statistical differences were noted between the two analyses. In patients with Crohn's colitis or ileocolitis, or in those with ileitis, no statistically significant differences were noted with respect to the relapse rates between the 5-ASA and the placebo treatment groups. Adverse events in the gastrointestinal system were the most frequently reported in both treatment groups. Many of the events such as diarrhoea or abdominal pain are symptoms of Crohn's disease. The majority of the events reported were mild or moderate in severity. In neither study was the prevalence of adverse events or the proportion of drop-outs different between patients in the treatment or in the placebo groups. The site of the Crohn's disease had no effect on the frequency of adverse events.
The relapse rates of Crohn's disease were similar for up to 12 months in both the 5-ASA 1.5 g b.d. and the placebo treatment groups.
No randomized double-blind studies have been performed to compare clarithromycin 1 g/day with higher doses of the macrolide (1.5 g/day) when combined with ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC).
To compare H. pylori eradication and ulcer healing rates of RBC 400 mg b.d. for 4 weeks combined for the first 2 weeks either with clarithromycin 500 mg b.d. (Group A) or clarithromycin 500 mg t.d.s. (Group B).
Two hundred and seventy-three patients with H. pylori-positive active duodenal ulcer were included. H. pylori infection was detected by CLO-test and histology on antral and corpus biopsies before and at least 4 weeks after the end of therapy. Eradication was assumed if both CLO-test and histology results were negative for H. pylori.
Eradication/healing rates according to intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis were 76/82% and 87/92% for Group A and 78/85% and 88/95% for Group B, respectively (P = N.S.). Adverse events were reported by 7% and 12% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively, and they were generally mild.
RBC in co-prescription with clarithromycin 500 mg b.d. is as effective as RBC plus clarithromycin 500 t.d.s. in eradicating H. pylori and healing duodenal ulcers.
Mesalazine (mesalamine) granules (MG) were shown to be effective for the maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis (UC) in two double-blind placebo-controlled trials.
To evaluate the efficacy of once-daily MG for maintenance of remission in patients with UC who switched from other 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) formulations.
Data from two independent multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-month trials evaluating patients with UC in remission were combined for analysis of a subpopulation of patients who switched from other 5-ASA formulations to MG 1.5 g or placebo upon randomisation. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients who remained relapse-free at Month 6 or end of treatment. Relapse was defined as a Sutherland Disease Activity Index (SDAI) rectal bleeding score ≥1 and mucosal appearance score ≥2, a UC flare or medication used to treat a UC flare.
Of the 487 patients who received 5-ASA maintenance therapy at enrolment, 322 were in the MG group and 165 were in the placebo group. The percentage of patients who remained relapse-free (based on Sutherland Disease Activity Index scores) after 6 months was significantly higher with MG than placebo (78.3% vs. 58.8%, P < 0.001). Rectal bleeding, stool frequency and the physician's rating of disease activity remained unchanged after 6 months in a higher percentage of patients using MG compared with those on placebo (P < 0.004 for each endpoint).
Mesalazine granules 1.5 g once-daily is effective for maintenance of remission in UC patients who switch from other 5-ASA formulations. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers NCT00744016, NCT00767728.
Inflammatory bowel disease can impact on a patient's ability to maintain normal physical and mental function, and fulfil their social, family and work roles. Aspects of disability in IBD have received little attention.
To develop, validate and apply a questionnaire directed towards evaluating these disease aspects.
A literature review on disability in IBD was undertaken, and opinion about aspects of disability to measure was sought from six IBD ‐specialised gastroenterologists. A questionnaire was developed, and IBD patients completed the new disability questionnaire, the SF‐36 and the short‐ IBD ( SIBDQ ‐ 10 point). A subgroup of patients completed the questionnaire again 4 weeks later. Healthy volunteers were studied as a control group.
A total of 116 IBD out‐patients were approached, of whom 81 (52 C rohn's disease and 28 ulcerative colitis) participated. Nineteen patients were re‐evaluated at 4 weeks. Twenty‐five controls were studied. All subscales demonstrated good C ronbach's alpha reliability and reproducibility. There was a significant inverse correlation between the disability score and the SIBDQ and between the disability score and the SF 36 and a positive correlation with the Crohn's Disease Activity Index ( CDAI ) (all P < 0.001). Disability differed between ulcerative colitis and controls, but not between active and inactive disease.
The new disability questionnaire is sensitive for detecting disability, is reliable and reproducible, and correlates with disease activity in Crohn's disease, but not ulcerative colitis. Further prospective testing is now needed in the longer term, larger patient populations and in different countries and ethnicities.
To study the incidence of Helicobacter pylori recurrence, its chronological aspects, and the variables that might influence it.
A total of 1000 patients in whom H. pylori had been eradicated were prospectively studied. Therapies were classified as low and high efficacy regimens. Four to eight weeks after completion of therapy, 13C-urea-breath-test was performed, and it was repeated yearly up to 5 years. In some patients, endoscopy with biopsies was also performed to confirm H. pylori eradication.
A total of 1000 patients were included, giving 2744 patient-years of follow-up. Seventy-one H. pylori recurrences were observed (2.6% per patient-year). Probability of being H. pylori-negative at 1 year was 94.7%, and at 5 years 90.7%. In the multivariate analysis, low age (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.04-3.26) and low efficacy therapies (OR: 2.5; 1.23-5.04) correlated with 1-year H. pylori recurrence. Differences were observed when Kaplan-Meier curves were compared depending on age and therapy regimen.
Risk of posteradication H. pylori recurrence is higher during the first year, which suggests that most recurrences during this period are recrudescence and not true reinfections. H. pylori recurrence is more frequent in younger patients and in those treated with low efficacy therapies, but is exceptional if high efficacy therapies are used, in which case post-therapy eradication can be safely confirmed at 4 weeks with 13C-urea-breath-test.
Rapid diagnostic tools for Helicobacter pylori are important in endoscopy.
To assess the accuracy of a new 5 min rapid urease test (UFT300, ABS Srl, Cernusco sul Naviglio, Milan, Italy) and to compare it with the 1 h Pyloritek (Serim Laboratories, Elkhart, IN, USA) and the 24 h CLO test (Kimberly-Clark Ballard Medical Products, Roswell, GA, USA).
Consecutive dyspeptic patients referred to our unit for endoscopy were prospectively studied. All patients underwent a (13)C-urea-breath test, histology and the UFT300 (ABS Srl; Cernusco sul Naviglio, Milan, Italy). In a sub-set of patients (n = 375), two additional RUTs were performed. Patients were deemed infected if both (13)C-UBT and histology were positive. RUTs were read at 1, 5, and 60 min.
Of 1000 enrolled patients 45.3% were infected with H. pylori. The sensitivity of the UFT 300 was 90.3%, 94.5% and 96.2% at 1, 5 and 60 min respectively (specificity 100%). The Pyloritek and the UFT were comparable, but the CLO test was not reliable at 5 and 60 min.
The UFT 300 test is comparable to the Pyloritek test, but the CLO test is significantly less sensitive at early time points. Reading test results at 1 min may increase false negative results, thereby decreasing sensitivity.