Alifmatika Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Matematika

Published by LP2M Universitas Ibrahimy
Print ISSN: 2715-6095
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is dangerous diseases for humans, and until now has not found a cure. Virus HIV is attacks the human immune system so that someone is susceptible to disease. This causes if someone is infected with HIV, then the person can experience an danger condition, it will even effect is death. In recent years, the number of children aged 5 – 14 years old that infected with HIV continues to increase. Therefore the author was moved to write about the application of the ARIMA model in forecasting the number of children aged 5 – 14 years old that infected with HIV in Indonesia by 2023. With the hope that the public or the govermment can find out the potential dangers of HIV disease, especially in children aged 5 – 14 years old. So that the public and govermment can jointly eradicate the spread of the HIV virus, especially in chidren. the result are obtained that the model that is suitable for use in forecasting is the ARIMA(0,1,2) models, with error value obtained is 0.057429. with the forecast value of the number of children aged 5 – 14 years old that infected with HIV in Indonesia from 2019 – 2023 in a row is : 570.82, 647.12, 734.14, 823.85, 944.83.
 
Descriptive analysis methode of research describes about increasing subject in the level of critical thinking skills of students in solving mathematics based on 21st-century skills. The subjects research were 28 students of Mathematics Education Study Program at Ibrahimy University of Situbondo. Data collection is done by providing pre-test and study documentation to students. The test is given to collect data related to students' critical thinking skills. Then learning is done based on 21st-century skills. Furthermore, students are given a post-test solving mathematical problem. Data were collected through observations, test results and interview data tested for their validity by triangulation. The data analysis technique used is qualitative descriptive data analysis. The results of this study indicate that: (1) the results of the achievement of indicators of critical thinking of students based on critical thinking stages formulated by Facione, overall the subject of an increase of 7.53%; (2) there was the same highest increase in the achievement of the indicator thinking Facione stage, namely at the Analyze stage (A) for high, medium, and low category subjects respectively, 77.78%, 80%, and 44.44%. However, there are still two stages of critical thinking that still need attention for further research, namely at the List (L) and Self-Correct (S) stages classified as still needing special attention in implementing 21st-century skills in learning activities; (3) the level of critical thinking skills of students based on the critical thinking stages formulated by Facione was in the category of "not critical" for the pre-test results and was in the category of "sufficient critical" for the post-test results.
 
Gambar di atas menunjukkan bahwa subjek PR dapat menyelesaikan soal dengan bantuan garis tanda untuk menunjukkan ukuran keliling bangun yang diketahui pada bangun I. Selanjutnya, subjek PR memberikan penjelasan dengan menunjukkan bahwa jika keliling persegi , maka sisi bangun . Karena s = 4 cm, maka untuk menghitung luas persegi A yakni: = = = Karena diketahui , maka diperoleh: = = Karena dalam persegi tersebut dibelah menjadi 2 bagian segitiga yang sama ukuranya dan alas segitiga dan tinggi segitiga , maka subjek PR menunjukkan bahwa:
Gambar 4. Hasil Pengerjaan Subjek PR pada Butir Soal 5
The purpose of this study is to determine a person's ability to perform mental activities mechanically in associating new information received with previously owned information (reconstruction) which is a reflective abstraction. The process of reconstructing the concepts of quadrilaterals and triangles by students uses the mental mechanism approach of APOS theory (interiorization, encapsulation, de-encapsulation, coordination). The process can be known by observing students and analyzing the results of student work, starting with determining 1 class to be given a mathematical ability test. 29 students were present when the math ability test was given. The results of the mathematical ability test were analyzed and then found 2 students of different sexes with moderate ability. The first student is male and the second student is female, hereinafter referred to as the research subject, then the research subject is given the task of quadrilateral and triangle. The results showed that female students had done all stages of reflective abstraction in APOS theory. So, that these students were at the level of relational understanding. Meanwhile, male students only did several stages in the reflective abstraction stage on the APOS theory so that these students were included in the level of instrumental understanding.
 
This research aims to analyze student’s error types in solving linear programming problems based on Newman’s error analysis viewed from Adversity Quotient (AQ). This research approach is qualitative descriptive. Subjects in this research are 6 students in class X TKR 3 of SMKN 2 Jember. There are 2 climber students, 2 camper students, and 2 quitter students. Instruments that were used in this research to collect the data are ARP questionnaire, linear programming problem, interview guide, and validation sheets. Based on the result of this research, the climber students are able to do comprehension error, process skill error, and encoding error. The camper students are able to do comprehension error, transformation error, process skill error, and encoding error. The quitter students are able to do reading error, comprehension error, transformation error, process skill error, and encoding error.
 
One of the studen learning goals mathematics is mathematical reasoning for outcomes training student to solve the problems. One of the problems faced by students is word questions. There are several students responses in dealing with word question which is known as Adversity Quotient. This research aims to describe the students' problem solving skills in system of three-variable linear equations subject based on Polya's theory in terms of Adversity Quotient. This is a qualitative descriptive research with three subjects of students class X IPA 1 SMAN Arjasa Jember, there are one climber student, one camper student and one quitter student. These subjects took purposive sampling with consideration according to the results of questionnaire scores that meet each of the criteria of Adversity Quotient. Data collection techniques used were questionnaires, tests, interviews and observations. The validity test used is technical triangulation. Data analyzed through data condensation, data presentation and conclusion drawing. The results showed that student with the type of climber was able to meet all the indicators of problem solving in the problem of the word questions which included indicators of understanding the problem, planning the solution, carrying out the plan of solving and re-checking. Camper type student met all indicators of problem solving except at the re-checking stage. Quitter type student in completing word questions met the stage of understanding the problem and planning the solution, while the stage of carrying out the plan and re-checking is not fulfilled by the quitter student.
 
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Developing students' mathematical thinking is one of the most important objectives of mathematics education. Mathematical thinking in Indonesia is the focus of this study, which presents the results of a bibliometric investigation. This study aims to determine the development of mathematical thinking research publications and the distribution of research publications by type of publication, research institutes, and scientific journals in Indonesia on the Scopus online database. This study aims to determine the development of mathematical thinking research publications and the distribution of research publications by type of publication, research institutes, and scientific journals in Indonesia on the Scopus online database. This research is quantitative and descriptive. By collecting data from research on mathematical thinking in Indonesia in scientific journals at Scopus. Bibliometrics R-tool and BiblioShiny were used in this study. According to the findings of this bibliometric study, publication on mathematical thinking attained its pinnacle in 2019, marking the year when it realized its full potential. The publication outcomes are dominated by conference series journals. Authors submit their work to these journals by attending international conferences. Research on mathematical thinking is being conducted at Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia at a higher level than at any other Indonesian university. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future studies will make use of Bradford's theorem in order to present data that is more accurate for the purpose of the development of bibliometric studies.
 
The purpose of this research is to discuss how the influence of several calculation techniques that exist both in the west and in the east, especially the Vedic Math, Maya, Chunking and Square Root Babylonian methods based on the use of path analysis. The approach in this research uses a descriptive approach, the method used is quantitative methods. The quantitative approach uses statistical tests with path analysis to answer the relationship and influence between the 4 variables. From the results of the path analysis, it is found that there is an effect of X1 (mastery of addition and subtraction with Vedic Math), X2 (mastery of multiplication by the Mayan tribe), X3 (mastery of division using the Chunking Method) on X3 (mastery of calculating square roots with Babylonian Middle Iteration). The total effect is 0.887, The total effect of 0.887 shows that the influence of Vedic Math's control of addition and control, mastery of the multiplication of the Maya method, and mastery of the division of the Chunking method based on path analysis have a joint effect on students' ability to calculate questions related to the square root of the Babylonian middle iteration technique.
 
Mathematical contextualization is interpreted as identifying the existence of mathematics developed by different cultural groups. The existence of ethnomathematics in education offers a learning approach that connects mathematics with the local cultural wisdom of the community. The main focus of this research is to identify ethnomathematics in woven handicrafts in Plaosan Village, Kediri Regency. This research is qualitative descriptive research. Data were collected using observation, documentation, interview, and literature study techniques. The results showed that there were ethnomathematics in woven handicrafts in Plaosan Village. The mathematical elements that can be found in the woven motifs are the concept of the plane, the concept of lines and the relationships between lines, the concept of angles, and the concept of transformational geometry. The fundamental mathematics activities that can be found in the weaving activities are counting, measuring, designing, locating, playing, and explaining.
 
Problem-solving ability became a learned process as well as a goal that must be achieved in learned mathematics so it is important for students to have these abilities, especially in algebraic form material. But in fact, in the material of algebraic forms, the ability was still minimally mastered by students. Based on the results of the interview, it shows that the lack of ability was due to the questions given by the teacher only in the form of routine questions taken from LKS or textbooks that did not require the use of problem-solving skills but only require the used of procedural formulas. Therefore, it was necessary to develop test questions that contain question items that could measure students' problem-solving abilities in the algebraic form of material. This type of research was developed researched using the ADDIE model which stands for analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Data collection techniques used in this study were validation questionnaires and tests. Meanwhile, the data collection instruments were validation questionnaire sheets and test sheets. The test subjects in this study were class VII C students of MTs Salafiyah Syafi'iyah Seblak Jombang. The results showed that the product developed in the form of a test was declared valid by the expert with an average validity of 3.75 and was in very valid criteria. Meanwhile, the results of the empirical validity test showed that only four of the five items on the test developed were declared valid and of the four items that were valid, the reliability value of 0.786 with high criteria was obtained. The research findings prove that the developed test contains only four items that were valid both theoretically and empirically and reliably so that they could be used to measure students' problem-solving abilities on the algebraic form of material.
 
This research aims to describe the level of mathematical reasoning ability of students with field-independent cognitive styles in solving algebra problems. The research method used is a qualitative descriptive approach, using qualitative data then described to produce a clear and detailed picture of students' mathematical reasoning with independent field cognitive style in solving algebra problems. The subjects of the research were Class VIII students’ of SMP Negeri 47 Surabaya. The main Instrument in this study is the researchers themselves. Instrument supporters in this research is divided into 2 kinds of Tests, namely the task of problem solving algebra, and guidelines for the interview. Data collection Techniques in the study carried out using two techniques, namely written tests and interviews. The process of data analysis in this study refers to qualitative data analysis process, namely the reduction of data, presenting the data, and draw conclusions. the results of this research indicate that (1) able to conduct an investigation of the problems faced thoroughly, (2) able to plan problem solving by connecting various related information, (3) able to use the strategy chosen correctly and correctly, and (4) able to re-examine, evaluate, and draw valid conclusions based on the solution of the problem obtained. In addition, the results of this study indicate that the level of mathematical reasoning ability of students is in the category sufficient to meet the mathematical reasoning indicators of field-independent cognitive style.
 
Gambar 2. Petunjuk penggunaan
Education was strongly influenced by technological advances, moreover, teachers were required to be creative and innovative. One of them which can be applied for learning media was following existing technological developments. This study aims to produce learning media for ethnomathematics based visual novel games and to determine the validity, practicality and effectiveness to be suitably used by junior high school students. The development model used in this research was the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) development model. This studied was involved 30 students and mathematics teacher at the analysis stage, three experts at the product validation stage and 10 students at the implementation stage. The resulted of the development research were in the form of ethnomathematics-based visual novel game media with a validity score of 86.7% (very valid criteria), a practicality score of 3.3 (good criteria), a score of 90% student learning completeness (complete) and a conceptual understanding of 83.7 % (very good criteria). From the resulted of the study it was concluded that the media was suitable to be used and increased students' conceptual understanding because it met the valid, practical and effective criteria.
 
This research was motivated by a variety of intelligence possessed by each individual. Where later intelligence was used to solve problems. The one intelligence that can be used in this study was interpersonal. This study aims to describe students' logical thinking in solving realistic mathematical problems in terms of interpersonal intelligence aspects of social sensitivity, social insight, and social communication, especially in mathematics subject matter in the Three Variable Linear Equation System (SPLTV). This research was descriptive. The subjects in this study were three students who had each of the aspects of interpersonal intelligence. Data collection in this study was a questionnaire or questionnaire, tests to solve realistic mathematical problems, interviews, observations, and documentation. Analysis of the data used was the model of Miles, Huberman, and Saldana through three stages including data condensation, data presentation, and conclusions. The validity of the data used triangulation techniques. The results obtained were students who had interpersonal intelligence aspects of social sensitivity meet one indicator of logical thinking and meet two indicators of problem-solving based on Polya's steps but still lacking. Students who had interpersonal intelligence aspects of social insight meet two indicators of logical thinking and can meet three indicators of problem-solving based on Polya's steps but still lacking. Students who had interpersonal intelligence aspects of social communication met all indicators of logical thinking while being able to meet all indicators of problem-solving.
 
This research aims to analyze students' metacognition in learning mathematical problem solving based on Lesson Study for Learning Community (LSLC) if reviewed from reflective and impulsive cognitive styles. The research method employed in this research is descriptive qualitative. The data collection is done by observation, tests, interviews, think aloud and documentation. The test is given to 30 students when an open class in class VII of MTs Miftahul Hidayah. Based on the test results, students are grouped into two in reviewed from reflective and impulsive cognitive styles. Three students were selected from each group to be interviewed and deepened through a think-aloud technique. The form of data analysis is classified into induction and reduction theory. The results of this research indicates that 18 students (60%) have reflective cognitive styles and 12 students (40%) have impulsive cognitive styles. Reflective cognitive style students, the scores obtained are better by using a relatively long time and can do aspects of metacognition well. While the scores obtained by impulsive cognitive style students are lower with the use of the time that is relatively faster and unable to perform aspects of metacognition well.
 
This study examined the relationship of logical intelligence students' mathematical communication skills. This research was conducted at the senior high school of Jenggawah at the even semester of the 2019/2020 academic year. The population in this study were all of the high school students of class X IPA, the total students were 144 students in the 2019/2020 academic year. The sampling technique of this study was using 64 Randoms Cluster Sampling as well as the instruments used in the form of mathematical logical intelligence questionnaire and mathematical communication skills test questions. The Analysis of the data used in this research was descriptive and inferential analysis by using a simple linear regression test. Based on the results of a simple linear regression test that the results of the relationship of mathematical logical intelligence of mathematical communication skills can be seen from t count = 11.074 > t table = 1.997 with a significance of 0.000 < 0.05, it could be concluded that there was a relationship of mathematical logical intelligence to mathematical communication ability.
 
One way to evaluate student learning outcomes is through question processing. However, nowadays evaluations are usually carried out using conventional methods such as a paper-based test. Even though often in the implementation of evaluations, students feel less enthusiastic about their work. This study aims to identify students' enthusiasm in solving questions through the Quizizz platform. The subjects of this study were 34 students of class XI Science 4 Senior High School 1 Tahunan. This research uses a descriptive quantitative method because shows a description of the students' enthusiasm for using the Quizizz platform as a tool for solving trigonometric questions. To analyze the enthusiasm of students in solving questions through the Quizizz platform, was carried out in three stages: 1) distributing a questionnaire with 25 question items via Google Form based on five indicators that measure enthusiasm (Response, attention, concentration, willingness, and self-involvement), 2) questionnaire data analyzed based on the answer score for each question item. Based on the research results, student enthusiasm in learning evaluation on trigonometric material through the Quizizz platform got a percentage of 62.38%. So that the Quizizz platform can be an alternative for teachers in evaluating student learning outcomes to create an atmosphere of evaluation that is fun and interesting for students to follow which will increase student enthusiasm in participating in learning evaluations.
 
Determining the amount formula of
The Data of Achievement Indicators of Students' Creative Thinking Skills Based on Figure 7, shows that the percentage of pre-test and post-test results changed significantly for all levels. The vast majority of low-level pupils are at levels 0 through 2 or 3. The majority of students go from level 1 to level 3, resulting in an increase of middle-level pupils. Another boost in high-level pupils is produced by moving the majority of students from level 2 or 3 to level 4. The outcomes of the rise in all indicators Students' creative thinking abilities are inextricably linked to the direction of the research-based learning process. These findings are congruent with the findings of Bani 's research, which suggests that the guided discovery technique may improve students' mathematical reasoning (Faizasari & Permana, 2020; Fauzi & Respati, 2021; Isnarto, 2020; Noer, Gunowibowo, & Triana, 2020; T. D. Rahmawati, Sulisworo, & Prasetyo, 2020). This form of instruction not only forces pupils to be more active, but it also directs them. According to Dunlosky, Rawson, Marsh, Nathan, & Willingham (2013), if students are actively involved in finding concepts, they will comprehend them better, their memory will remain longer, and they will be able to employ them in various settings.
Levels of Student Metacognition
Creative Thinking Skills Levels
This study aimed to analyze the level of students' metacognition skills and creative thinking in the generalization of a two-dimensional arithmetic sequence. A qualitative descriptive is a scientific approach used in this study. Students' of the Mathematics Education Study Program in Tarbiyah Faculty of Ibrahimy University are subjects in the study. Through this article, the author will describe the results of the research in the combinatorics course. The initial data was collected by assigning open problem-solving assignments to students and conducting documentation studies on students in generating arithmetic generalization patterns based on function formulae. Then, students are assigned to complete the second task, which is to compile a two-dimensional arithmetic sequence based on the multilevel function formula of arranged arithmetic. The analysis model of Miles and Huberman is the analytical methodology used in this study. The collected data indicated that the level of students’ creative thinking skills in combinatorics could be in the category of creative enough (16.67%), creative (50%), and very creative (33.33%). While the other analyzed data showed that the student’s level of metacognitive on level 3 (77.78%) and the remainder on level 4 (22.22%). These analysis results are influenced by several factors such as accuracy in compiling numbers and expanding data, conceptual mastery of arithmetic progression permutation concept, and its application, the tendency of students’ to rely on memorization and imitation of the examples.
 
The categories of mathematics anxiety scores
Descriptive Data
Two-way ANOVA Test Results
Some internal factors influence problem-solving ability. Some internal factors that presumably influence problem-solving are mathematics anxiety and Gender. This study aims to determine problem-solving abilities regarding mathematics anxiety and Gender. It is a quantitative research that involves 66 students of a Junior High School in Yogyakarta. The sampling technique used is a simple random sampling technique. The instruments in this study were a problem-solving ability test and a mathematics anxiety questionnaire. The data analysis technique used is Two Way ANOVA. The results show differences in problem-solving ability regarding the students' mathematics anxiety levels. However, there was no difference in students' mathematical problem-solving abilities between male and female students. On the other hand, there is no difference in students' mathematical problem-solving abilities in terms of the level of mathematics anxiety and Gender.
 
Development of the Tessmer Type Low resistance High resistance to revision
Per-Unit Reliability Test Unit-Total Statistics
Difficulty Level
Discriminating Power
This study aims to find out the procedure and assess the quality of developing test instruments to measure students' mathematical connection abilities. Students seemed lacking in answering questions to develop their mathematical connection ability, therefore it is necessary to practice questions to measure students' mathematical connection abilities. This research is a research and development research and development under formative research model that conducted through four sreps. The data collection instruments in this study were validation sheets and test instruments. The test subjects in this study were 10 students. The results obtained from the content validity test were declared valid because the CVR and CVI values were 1 which refer to very appropriate categories. The reliability of the instrument is declared reliable, where the reliability value is 0.815 which referred to a high reliability or consistency interpretation. Meanwhile, in terms of difficulty level, the average total score is 0.36 in the intermediate category. In terms of discriminating power, the average total score is 0.40 which refer to the good category. Thus, the developed mathematical connection ability test instrument has fulfilled to be a good quality.
 
Summary of Research Results on 30 Participants:
One-Sample Statistics
One-Sample Test
Developing critical and collaborative thinking skills among learners was of significant importance in the 21st-century era. In this study, the researcher applied teaching and learning based on Research-Based Learning (RBL) to know the level of students critical thinking skill. The number of research samples was 30 students. This study used a triangulation research method, namely a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. The quantitative method was obtained by using a learning outcome test and the qualitative method is obtained using a questionnaire and interview. Then the data that has been collected was analyzed using a t-test. Four students were chosen to represent critical thinking level 4, 13 students were chosen to represent Critical Thinking level 3, and 6 students were chosen to represent critical thinking level 2, 4 students were chosen to represent critical thinking level 1, and 3 students were chosen to represent critical thinking level 0. More subjects would be involved until the data was saturated. Students on low critical thinking were at Level 0. Based on the interpretation result of the t-test value, there was a significant difference between the control class and the experimental class, proved by the 0.000 figure in the statistical analysis. Therefore, it proved a significant difference in learning outcomes. However, the data that we obtained present a significant difference between the control class and the experimental class below 0.05. After we interpreted t-tabel = 2.04 on degrees of freedom 0.025, t-count of 0.000 was evident. Thus, a hypothesis was accepted since it was below 0.025. Qualitative methods show the results of interviews with 2 students.
 
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan tingkat kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi mahasiswa dalam memecahkan pola generalisasi deret aritmatika dua dimensi berdasarkan taksonomi bloom revisi. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah dengan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Subjek penelitian adalah mahasiswa Program Studi Magister Pendidikan Matematika Universitas Jember. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara memberikan tugas pemecahan masalah terbuka dan studi dokumentasi kepada mahasiswa untuk menyusun pola generalisasi deret aritmatika satu deminsi. Kemudian mahasiswa diberikan tugas pemecahan masalah berikutnya untuk menyusun sendiri pola generalisasi deret aritmatika dua deminsi. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis data deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persentase pada aspek keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi yang mencakup menganalisis (C4) mencapai 88,89%, mengevaluasi (C5) mencapai 83,33%, dan mencipta (C6) mencapai 66,67%. Hasil capaian ini dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, diantanya adalah kecermatan dalam menyusun angka dan mengekspand data yang ada, penguasaan konsep-konsep permutasi deret aritmatika serta penerapannya, kecenderungan mahasiswa pascasarjana mengandalkan hafalan dan tiruan dari contoh yang ada.
 
The purpose of the study was to determine the ability of students in solving the national assessment problem model. The study belonged to qualitative approach. The research was conducted at SMPK Putra St. Xavier Kefamenanu. The data conducted from test results of national assessment collection problems and selected-participants interviews. The collected data then identified based on the following stages: data reduction, data presentation, conclusion and verification. The results of data analysis showed that the level of students' ability in completing the national assessment model problems in the percentage is the low-level ability category of 30%, at the medium level by 60% and the high level by 10%. The findings of this study: students with high math ability master all components of MCA in terms of content, cognitive processes, and context; students with moderate math abilities are able to master reading literacy content but are weak in numeracy literacy; students with low math abilities are very weak in content, cognitive processes, and context. In terms of cognitive processes, students with moderate mathematical ability can find and interpret text content but fail to integrate and evaluate text content into mathematical concepts and procedures and the context of the questions that can be worked on are personal and scientific. In cognitive process, students with low mathematical abilities can find information but are unable to interpret it to evaluate the content of the text into a mathematical concept and procedure.
 
Learning media is an important tool in learning proces, especially learning media that are made based on student needs and characteristics. One of learning media that is effectively applied at the primary school level is a module. This study aims to produce and determine the feasibility of mathematics learning media in the form of HOTS integrated realistic-based modules on volume building materials (cubes and blocks) as learning media for fifth grade elementary school students. The subjects of study were six students of grade V SD Negeri Sindurjan. The research method was used R&D (Research and Development) using ADDIE model. The ADDIE model consists of analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation. Based on the results of research (1), a HOTS integrated realistic mathematics module development product is produced. (2) The validation results obtained from the evaluation of media experts by 3.20 and material experts by 3.65. From the two results, it was developed to be 3.40 or > 3.25, the very valid category. (3) The practicality questionnaire was obtained from the student response assessment of 3.40 or > 3.25 with the very practical category. Thus the HOTS integrated realistic-based mathematics module is suitable for use as a learning medium for fifth grade elementary school students.
 
Based on the data and experience of researchers in classes that are able to show interest in literacy and critical thinking skills is still low. Therefore, researchers applied the Batu Cermat method. Batu Cermat comes from “baca-tulis-uji-cerpen-matematika,” (read-write-test-short story mathematics). Batu Cermat aims to civilize literacy and instill communication skills, collaborate, think critically, and creatively with students. This article is in the form of qualitative research, the best practice of researchers applying Batu Cermat to students of SMPN 1 Dolopo starting the 2015/216 school year to 2017/2018. The information needed is obtained by the documentation study technique, in the form of using a list of values supported by a questionnaire. Through Batu Cermat, students are given the opportunity to think creatively by making short stories in mathematics. How, with m ema be incorporated math problems or related information in a short story, and be able to solve the problem themselves. The validity is tested its validity with each other carefully and resolved. As a result, students are able to make short, good mathematical nuances of short story work according to the rules of short story writing. Proven Batu Cermat can be a catalyst in civilizing literacy and developing the ability to think creatively students. The Batu Cermat is more optimal, if the reading movement becomes more entrenched and requires patience and cooperation across subjects. Up to now, the students' careful work has published four ISBN short story mathematics books.
 
Mosaics are the artistic creations made from pieces of shape which are then arranged and affixed to a plane and designed using a tiling pattern with a basic pattern of geometric objects.. The progress of science and technology enables innovations especially after the invention of computers, one of which is fractals. Fractals are widely used in computer graphics to create amazing shapes. Mosaic designs can also be made with fractal concepts. The aims of this research are to get the procedure for mosaic design on circle and rhombus frames by hexagon and Pinwheel tiling with fractal motif. The research method covered the design of basic form for mosaic in the interior of circle and rhombus. Furthermore fill the basic form of mosaic wuth some fractal motif. The results of this research are the procedure to design some basic form of mosaic with the following steps. Firstly, divide the interior area of the circle and rhombus. Secondly, identify the symmetrical basic form. Thirdly, design the basic form of mosaic. Whereas procedure to fill the basic form of mosaic with fractal motif with the following steps. Firstly, choose the specify fractal motif. Secondly, fill the motif into each basic form. Thirdly, fill motif on the background. Then the final step is programmed the mosaics with Matlab 7 software.
 
In general, this study was to determine the application of the quantum teaching-learning method with the discussion method in improving mathematics learning outcomes for seventh-grade students of SMP Negeri 2 Dolok Pardamean, Simalungun Regency. This study used experimental research on grade VII students of SMP Negeri 2 Dolok Pardamean, Simalungun Regency. The research was conducted by taking samples from two classes, namely the experimental class (15 students per class) and the control class (15 students per class). The sample categories were taken from two of four parallel categories that were determined randomly (random category samples). The tool used in this study was a testing technique in the form of empirically verified paper questions. Data analysis used the t-test, first testing for normality and homogeneity. Based on the results of data processing, it was known that the application of the quantum teaching-learning model with the discussion method had a significant effect on increasing mathematics learning outcomes obtained.
 
Gambar 2. Desain Awal Miniatur Timbangan Desain Kartu Bergambar Kartu bergambar yang berupa kartu timbal terbuat dari kertas HVS yang dilapisi dengan kertas karton. Bagian yang paling luar dilapisi dengan plastik bening untuk melindungi agar gambar tidak mudah luntur. Kartu bergambar terdiri dari tiga bagian, yaitu kartu timbal, kartu konversi, dan kartu soal: Desain Kartu Timbal Kartu timbal didesain dengan menggunakan aplikasi microsoft word. Kartu bergambar yang berupa kartu timbal memiliki ukuran yang berbeda-beda yaitu: 50 gram = (5 cm x 5 cm) x 2 lembar 100 gram = (6,25 cm x 4 cm) x 4 lembar 200 gram = (8 cm x 5 cm) x 5 lembar 250 gram = (10 cm x 5 cm) x 5 lembar 500 gram = (12,5 cm x 8 cm) x 5 lembar 1 kg = (12,5 cm x 10 cm) x 8 lembar
Weight measurement mathematics was an important material for weighing objects in everyday life. Based on the resulted of observations of students' scores on weight measurement 58% did not reach the KKM (Minimum Completeness Criteria). This study aim to (1) developing Minitim Kabar media for 2nd grade; (2) knowing the feasibility of “Minitim Kabar" media; (3) knowing the increased in cognitive learning outcomes measuring weight in Class II SD students. This research was R&D which includes 10 steps in research which include: research potentials and problems, design data, design validation, revision design, product testing, product revision, usage testing, product revision, product production. The expert tested subjects in this study were the media expert validator and the material expert validator, while the tested subjects were 6 students in the media trial and 9 students in the product trial. Data tested techniques using interviews, observation, tests, and documentation. The data analysis technique used quantitative data analysis techniques and qualitative data analysis. The resulted of this study indicate that the mini media had a high level of validity and attractiveness. The resulted of the validation of material experts were 92.3%, the resulted of the validation of media experts were 87.5%, and the proportion of student questionnaire responses was 100%. The increase in students' cognitive learning outcomes was 45.06. The N-gain test result of 0.65 was at a moderate level. Thus, the Minitim Kabar media was suitable for used as a thematic learning media to improve cognitive learning outcomes in 2nd grade on weight measurement matters.
 
The objectives of this study was to develop a mathematics bulletin media based on a realistic approach to fourth-grade elementary school students and its feasibility for use. The development model used in this research is the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) development model. The data collection technique in this study was conducted by interviewing questioner, test, and documentation. The instruments used in this research was media expert validation sheets, material experts, and teacher practitioners, practicality sheets for students and learning mastery test questions. The results of the research on the development of mathematical newsletter media based on a realistic approach are: 1) this research produces products in the form of mathematical newsletter media based on a realistic approach for grade IV elementary school students, 2) the results of the feasibility analysis of newsletter media based on a realistic approach are obtained from validation by two expert lecturers and classroom teachers. IV elementary schools obtained a mean score of 3.58 with the valid category, the results of the practicality of the product were fulfilled from the student response questionnaire got a score of 98% with very positive criteria, and the product effectiveness test was fulfilled from the learning completeness test with learning completeness reaching 100%.
 
Until now there are still many students who consider aboaut metematics as a school subject that is considered scary and boring. Because it contains many difficult and meticulous formulas. Though mathematics is a very important subject to be learned along with the progress of Science and Technology increasingly sophisticated in Era 4.0. Through Mathematics with all its applications, it creates many kinds of increasingly sophisticated contemporary technologies. Mathematics can be said to be the mother of all sciences. Therefore, mathematics is very important to be taught to students and must be able to be well received and enjoyable. Therefore it is necessary to look for a development of mathematical learning concepts that are in accordance with the characteristics of students namely fun mathematics learning strategies that can make students happy when studying, both at school and at private institutions. In this paper discusses focused for fun learning strategies based on mathematical game methods, Mathematical Puzzles, and Mathematical Stories.
 
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan tingkat kemampuan berpikir kreatif siswa dalam menyelesaikan soal-soal olimpiade matematika berdasarkan level metakognisi siswa. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah dengan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa SMPN 2 Jember yang mengikuti pembinaan olimpiade matematika. Pengumpulan data dilakukan berdasarkan lembar tes kemampuan berpikir kreatif siswa, wawancara, dan observasi. Soal tes yang diberikan kepada siswa adalah soal-soal olimpiade matematika. Teknik analisis data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan analisis model Miles dan Huberman. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa tingkat keterampilan berpikir kreatif siswa dalam menyelesaikan soals-soal olimpiade matematika diperoleh sebanyak 29,41% berada ada pada kategori kurang kreatif, diperoleh sebanyak 41,18% berada ada pada kategori cukup kreatif, sebanyak 11,76% berada pada kategori kreatif, dan sebanyak 17,65% berada pada kategori sangat kreatif. Sedangkan hasil penelitian yang meliputi level metakognitif siswa SMPN 2 Jember terdapat 64,71% berada pada level 2 (aware use), terdapat 23,53% berada pada level 3 (strategic use) dan terdapat 11,76% berada pada level 4 (reflective use). Selain itu, hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat beberapa faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi tercapainya tingkat keterampilan berpikir kreatif dan level metakognisi seorang, diantara adalah pemahaman terhadap informasi yang terdapat pada soal, kecermatan dalam menyusun startegi yang tepat, kemahiran dalam menggunakan startegi yang dipilih, keterampilan dalam menguraikan jawaban, penguasaan terhadap materi olimpiade matematika, dan kecenderungan dalam mengandalkan hafalan atau tiruan berdasarkan solusi penyelesaian yang sudah ada atau sudah pernah dibahas sebelumnya.
 
This research aims to describe about the profile of climber students’ self efficacy to the problem solving skills of high level mathematics problems. It is including form of descriptive research with qualitative approach. The research subjects are 13 climber students in class XI MIPA 8 of SMA Negeri 1 Jember, were tested by Adversity Response Profile (ARP) questionnaire. The method of data collection use a test of problem solving skills of high level mathematics problems, adversity response profile (ARP) questionnaire and interviews. The results of this research showed that the climber students are tend to have high self efficacy and able to by every Polya’s stages.
 
This research aims to describe the level of geometric thinking and geometric thinking processes of Junior High School students according to van Hiele's level of thinking on the topic of quadrilaterals. The qualitative approach is the research method used in this study through a case study method by testing the Van Hiele Geometry Test (VHGT) which was adapted from Usiskin's CDASSG and conducting interviews about the thinking process in the form of identifying, defining, and classifying which was adapted from the interview guide of Burger and Shaughnessy (1986). The subjects of this study were 297 grade VII and VIII students from two schools located in the Lembang sub-district. The results of the VHGT test showed that there were 81 students counting level 0 (visualization). The results showed that the students of class VII and VIII level 0 were as follows: 1) students were able to recognize the types of quadrangle but still affected by the prototype, 2) students were not able to classify quadrilaterals, and 3) overall description of the geometric thinking process level 0 in the form of identifying, defining, and classifying aspects according to van Hiele's thinking characteristics in general.
 
The purpose of this study was to determine whether students' mathematical problem-solving abilities by applying the Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) learning model were better than students' mathematical problem-solving abilities by applying conventional learning models. This research was motivated by the low mathematical problem-solving ability of students. This type of research was an experiment using a quantitative approach with a Noneequivalent posttest-only Control Group Design. The population of this study was all students of class XI Senior high school Negeri 1 Padang Gelugur. The technique used in this research was random sampling, so the sample of this research was class XI natural sciences major 1 as the experimental class and class XI natural sciences major 2 as the control class. The research instrument used was Post-test. The form of the test used was an essay with reliability of 0.399. Furthermore, the hypothesis was tested by a t-test. The results of hypothesis testing show that tcount > ttable was 7.17 > 1.67 so hypothesis one was accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that students' mathematical problem-solving abilities by implementing the CTL learning model were better than students' mathematical problem-solving abilities by applying conventional learning.
 
Mathematics PTS scores for SMAN 1 X Koto Kab. Tanah Datar
Model Nonequivalent Pretest-Posttest Experiment
The Validity of The Test Questions
Deskriptive Statistic Posttest Score
Test Between Subject Effect
This research is motivated by the low understanding of students' mathematical concepts in the mathematics learning process. The purpose of this study was to find out how the influence of the Peer Teaching Flipped Classroom learning model on mathematical concept understanding, and the influence of Peer Teaching Flipped Classroom in terms of academic ability level on the student’s mathematical concept understanding ability in class XII IPA3 SMAN 1 X Koto Tanah Datar Regency. This type of research is a quantitative nonequivalent pretest-posttest experiment. Where the research subjects were students of class XII IPA SMAN 1 X Koto Kab. Tanah Datar for the 2022/2023 academic year, totaling 44 students. The instrument used to collect data is in the form of test questions. The results of this study indicate that students have an increase in answering questions. Based on data analysis obtained F(1.42) and p=0.001 <0.05 then H0 is rejected, which means that there is an influence of Peer Teaching Flipped Classroom on understanding mathematical concepts of class XII IPA3 students of SMAN 1 X Koto Kab. Tanah Datar. However, the level of students' academic ability did not have a significant effect on understanding mathematical concepts with the application of Peer Teaching Flipped Classroom. It is seen from the analysis of the data obtained p = 0.051> 0.05, then H0 is accepted.
 
Student Answer of S1
Student Answer of S2
Student Answer S1
Summary of Learning Outcomes Test Validation Results
This study aims to describe students' mathematical problem-solving ability in solving story problems. The type of research used in this study is qualitative descriptive research. This research was carried out at STKIP Paris Barantai KotaBaru. The research subjects taken were 2 students in semester V with low academic ability. The researcher chose the subject on the grounds that the student had received lecture material related to problem solving and what was found From the scores of the student's middle test and final test results, there were still students who obtained a score below 50.Data collection was carried out using written tests, interviews, and documentation. The results of the research obtained related to the subject's mathematical problem-solving ability are still very lacking, this can be seen from the 4 stages of problem-solving, namely: (1) For the stage of understanding the problem, the two research subjects in the first question seem to still have difficulty in understanding the problem; (2) For the stage of planning a settlement, both subjects apply certain strategies that are not appropriate; (3) For the stage of implementing the plan, there are still errors in the calculation operation process so it is wrong in finding answers; and (4) For the re-examination stage, S1 does not try to carry out this stage, while S2 tries to carry out the re-examination stage even though the answer results obtained are incorrect.
 
The Trending topic in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) have become a new standard for mathematics learning. One of the objectives of the study from TIMSS and PISA is to know the students' abilities in reasoning, identifying, and understanding, and using the basic mathematics needed in daily life. Or in other words, students must have mathematical literacy. The concept of mathematical literacy is intended the ability of individuals to formulate, use, and interpret mathematics in various contexts. This includes mathematical reasoning and using mathematical concepts, procedures, facts, and equipment to describe, explain, and predict phenomena or events (OECD, 2013). Indonesia has participated in TIMSS and PISA studies several times, from the TIMSS and PISA study results, it shows that students have not been able to develop optimally about their thinking abilities in mathematics schools and are still low in ability (1) to understand complex information, (2) theory , analysis and problem solving, (3) using tools, procedures and problem solving and (4) conducting investigations. In 2014, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) stated that learning mathematics today is still too formal, lacks connection with the meaning, understanding, and application of mathematical concepts, and fails to give sufficient attention to the ability of reasoning and solving problem. These results indicate that there needs to be a change in curriculum orientation, which is not to burden students with content but prioritize the aspects of essential abilities needed by all citizens to participate in developing their country in the 21st century. Therefore it is necessary to develop a mathematics curriculum that enhances students' abilities in reasoning and problem solving in order to improve the quality of mathematics for students knowledge and skill in this global era.
 
The increase in the number of computer viruses can be modeled with a mathematical model of the spread of SEIR type of diseases with immunity probability. This study aims to model the pattern of the spread of computer viruses. The method used in this research is the analytical method with the probability of mathematical immunity. Based on the analysis of the model, two equilibrium points free from disease E1 and endemic equilibrium points E2 were obtained. The existence and local stability of the equilibrium point depends on the basic reproduction number R0. Equilibrium points E1 and E2 tend to be locally stable because R0<1 which means there is no spread of disease. While the numerical simulation results shown that the size of the probability of immunity will affect compartment R and the minimum size of a new computer and the spread of computer viruses will affect compartments S and E on the graph of the simulation results. The conclusion obtained by the immune model SEIR successfully shows that increasing the probability of immunity significantly affects the increase in the number of computer hygiene after being exposed to a virus.
 
This study investigated the use of a free GeoGebra application, where the ability of a GeoGebra software application had the potential to simplify and help the teaching and learning process in the informatics management study program, Medan State Polytechnic. The focus of this research was the incorporation of conventional method-based teaching, namely using the assistance of writing instruments such as pencils, pens, and paper when describing the Venn diagram in mathematical logic courses with the help of the GeoGebra application which made it easier for students to drew circles and determine the slices and combinations on the Venn diagram. The resulted of this study were obtained from the scores of student assignments and the results of interviews conducted online with the number of respondents consisting of 44 students who successfully uploaded assignments through the SIPADI application. The value analysis obtained was compiled into tables then processed using the SPSS application using the pair test and linearity test. Based on the output obtained, it was known that the GeoGebra value obtained the average value of learning outcomes or the mean of 75.9773, while for the average learning outcomes using conventional methods or the mean of 68.9091. The number of respondents or students who took the test amounted to 44 people, Std. Deviation for GeoGebra method was 5.800092 and conventional method was 5.56909, and Std. Error Means. Based on the results of descriptive statistical tests, the average value of the GeoGebra method > conventional method was 75.9773> 68.9091, so descriptively there was an average difference between the GeoGebra method and the conventional method.
 
Geometry is a mathematical science that studied points, lines, planes, spaces, and the relationships of them. One of the topic is geometric transformation. The Several research found that students hadn’t understood the concept of transformation, so that it needed a teaching material especially student’s worksheet. The research aimed to develop valid, practical and effective student’s worksheet with GeoGebra on the geometry transformation in junior high school. The research method was used R&D (Research and Development) using a modification of the 4-D model. The development model consists defined, designed and developed. The results of the research indicated that (1) this product was valid according to media experts and material experts, (2) it was practical, (3) effective to be used in mathematics learning, especially geometric transformation.
 
The result of Paired-Samples T-test
The result of Paired Samples Test
This study aims to analyze the use of digital media and Ludo Eksponen which has been developed using the ADDIE model in Team Games Tournament (TGT) type cooperative learning. Furthermore, at the stage of implementation and evaluation of the media, it was seen its effectiveness on mathematics learning outcomes, for junior high school students in class IX on the square number and square root material. The subjects of this study were 30 students at one of The Al-Amien Junior High Schools in Sumenep Regency. The data collection technique used direct observation and giving pretests and pot-tests to research subjects. As a result, there was an increase in the average value between the pretest and post-test results, which was 7.54 and 53.65, respectively. By using a Paired Test sample t-test. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the use of digital media and Ludo Eksponen as manual media in cooperative learning type Team Games Tournament (TGT) was quite effective in improving student learning outcomes on the square number and square root.
 
Difficulty Level Category
Data from the Validity Analysis of Limited Test Items
Data Item Validity Results Field Test Results
Overall Statistical Test Results Table
Developing evaluation instruments in the student learning process in interactive, fun, challenging, motivating, and developing students 'creativity and independence were needed to improve students' High Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) and digital literacy skills (DLS). HOTS and digital literacy were part of the 21st-century skills that were important for every individual. This study developed a test instrument integrated with Augmented Reality (AR) and Google Scholar (GS) to encourage HOTS and students' digital literacy skills. This type of research was development research based on the following development steps: information gathering, planning, initial product development, limited trial, initial product revision, field trial, and final product revision. The subject matter was the scale and comparison. Product trials were applied to 11th-grade students in Sleman, Indonesia. Product validity was based on expert judgment, item validity, distinguishing power, difficulty level and reliability to reach a good category in general. AR was created using the ARLOOPA application operated with android. The research instrument was designed to increase HOTS and DLS.
 
Distribution of published articles by geographical distribution The third research question was concerned with research methodologies (qualitative research, quantitative research and both methodology). Figure 4 depicts the distribution of research methodologies used in this research. It was revealed that the qualitative research (48%) (Ayala-Altamirano & Molina, 2020; Balakrishnan, 2021; Freiman et al., 2017) and quantitative research research (48%) (Can & Yetkin Özdemir, 2020; Eriksson & Sumpter, 2021; Irakleous, Christou, & Pitta-Pantazi, 2022; Kaur, 2019; Leong, 2021; Ng & Cui, 2021; Pielsticker, Witzke, & Vogler, 2021; Savard & Polotskaia, 2017; Shahbari & Peled, 2017) have the equal methodology number. This was followed by the research that employed combination of quantitative and qualitative method (4%) (Miller, 2019). Based on the data obtained, this indicated that qualitative and quantitative approach with case study design was the most to be adopted for measuring design thinking in Mathematics education for primary school. The adoption of a case
Distribution of published articles by types of focus and trends
Distribution of published articles by types of topics
Design Thinking is a knowledge as a thriving innovation practice and an approach to creative problem solving. The main purpose of this study is to review existing studies which are related to the Design Thinking in Mathematics Education for primary school. The search terms were used by inserting the suitable keywords based on the main topic such as "design thinking", "mathematics education", "mathematics", "primary school" and "elementary school". Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted to gain information for better understanding regarding our topic. This SLR was performed through two search engines which were SpringerLink and Scopus. In reporting this study, the PRISMA guidelines were followed. We identified and screened 1123 articles published between 2017 until 2021 in SpringerLink and Scopus. After elimination of duplicates and non-relevant topics, there were 23 articles remained based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The limited number of studies on the main topic as design thinking for primary school caused the small numbers of articles were selected. This is because there are many articles about teachers and post-graduate. Our findings indicated that the year of 2021 was mostly research conducted, followed by the year of 2020, 2019 and 2017 meanwhile there is no research conducted in 2018. Concerning the geographical distribution of the authors, the findings indicated that the predominant authors that developing the design thinking were in Germany, Australia, USA, Singapore and Switzerland, and only a few research conducted in Hong Kong, Sweden, Cyprus, Israel, Turkey, UK, Spain, Canada, Netherlands, Malaysia, and mixed countries. From the results, we can see that this design thinking should be practiced by teachers in their teaching regardless of whether it is mathematics or any other subject. In conclusion, design thinking among the students, especially primary school students nowadays, is indispensable to ensure that our country is always moving forward in the era of globalization.
 
The assumption is that mathematics is a complex subject, and many obstacles still cause low student learning outcomes in implementation. The results of observations that were done in Class XI BDP 1 SMK Negeri 1 Bungo on January 5, 2022, obtained information that during the mathematics learning process, students paid less attention to the teacher when explaining, and students were less enthusiastic. Students lacked the initiative to do practice questions. This study aimed to determine the effect of student perceptions about the application of the Group Investigation cooperative learning model on the mathematics learning outcomes of class X1 BDP 1 SMK Negeri 1 Bungo. This research was pre-experimental with One-Shot Case Study research design. This study's population was all class X1 of SMK Negeri 1, totalling 179, with a sample of class X1 BDP 1 students of SMK Negeri 1 Bungo totalling 22 students. The data analysis technique in this research is descriptive analysis and inferential statistical analysis. Based on the data analysis, it was obtained that tcount = 6,440 and ttable = 1,725, which means tcount > ttable, then reject the HO at a significant level of 0.05 so that it can be concluded that there was an influence on student learning outcomes. That could be seen from the final test that the average score of students exceeds the KKM limit.
 
Descriptive Statistics
The Statistics dan Probability class is one of the elective courses that have to be enrolled by students who have just joined the beginning of the semester. That is because studying Statistics and Probability is crucial in providing the first foundation for knowledge in other scientific domains. In actuality, though, a lot of students struggle with this course. Many students claim that they have trouble understanding the subjects they are learning, and they also have trouble figuring out how to answer the lecturer's questions. The low cognitive ability of students, which results in limited student creativity in problem-solving skills, is one of the elements contributing to students' failure to comprehend the subject. Of course, this is a severe issue if nothing is done right away. Based on these issues, researchers who were also lecturers improved the teaching strategies for all classes. This study aims to determine whether there is substantial interaction between class schedule and the development of learning model that impact exam scores by raising students' Statistics and Probability scores. The two-way Anova analysis principle is the basis of the study methodology. The enhancement of learning model used outside and inside the classroom was found to have a substantial interaction based on the research findings on fifty samples of students selected from different class. A significance score of 0.000 indicates that these findings are significant. In other words, a model is required to achieve better learning outcomes, which might make it simpler for students to commence learning and provide a common purpose for learning. Since multiple class schedules exist, each learning model necessitates a unique management system and learning environment.
 
This research aimed to produce a product in the form of problem-connections of students mathematical was valid and practical (legible). This method of research was research and development. The research was conducted in Bengkulu City with the research subject of 6 students of grade VIII junior high school students and was carried out in May-June 2020. The method of data collection in development was carried out using Tessmer’s, which consists of preliminary, self-evaluation, expert review, and one-to-one. In the preliminary, two stages must be passed, namely preparation from completion. Was analyzing the curriculum, students, and material. Then, the completing the results of the students, curriculum evaluation, and the material was used as a reference for designing the mathematical connection ability, from the solution it produces 20 prototypes which are then assessed and fixed on self-evaluation. Of the 20 prototypes, these items will go through the validation stage (expert review) after 3 validation. Then, obtained 14 valid prototype items based on quantitative and qualitative analysis and test on 6 students to see the practicality or readability of items (one-to-one). The one-to-one stage was carried out to get comments on each question item to be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Based on the qualitative comments, most of the provided students already understand the problem (legible) according to data, the average preceding data (legible) was recorded in the description of the pre-emptive questions at intervals of 4 ≤ RPproduc ≤ 5.
 
This research aimed to produce the product in the form of questions of valid and practical students' mathematical reasoning skills. The subjects of this study were 6 students of grade VIII to saw the readability of the given questions. The research and development method used the Tessmer model consisted of preliminary stage self-evaluation, expert review, one-to-one, small group, and field test. At the preliminary stage, there were two stages, namely preparation and design. The preparation of the stage was analyzing the curriculum, materials, and students' level. The design stage was done to design as questions of mathematical reasoning capabilities. The Self Evaluation stage was conducted after designed the questions of mathematical reasoning skills there were 15 questions and assesses whether the question meets the material, construction, and language. After evaluating the questions that would be validated by the expert reviewer and would be validated 3 times. After 14 questions validated that would be tested on 6 students to saw the practicality of the question through the student's responded questionnaire that was provided. Based on the result of the readability tested, the conclusion development of the questions from numbers 1 to 14 in the category of practicality were intervals of 4 ≤ RP (Produk) ≤ 5 which were classified as Very Practical.
 
The Description of Mathematics Reasoning Indicators
Case Processing Summary
Test of Normality
The Increasing Test of the Algebra Concept Understanding
The Levels of Student Mathematics Reasoning
Mathematical problem solving has become an important issue that was often discussed in school classes including in the covid-19 pandemic era. This research aimed to describe the level of reasoning ability of students in solving mathematical problems based on the cognitive style of field-dependent and field-independent cognitive styles. The research approach used a was mixed-method of quantitative and qualitative. The subject of this study were students of Ibrahimy 1 Junior High School of Situbondo. The data collection techniques used were the form of tests and interviews. The data of the written test and interview results were tested for validity by triangulation. This research indicated that:(1) there were differences in student's mathematical reasoning abilities between-FD and FI subjects; (2) the FI subject was able to reexamined , evaluated, and drew valid conclusions, but not for FD subject; (3) the FI subject has fulfilled all four mathematics reasoning indicators and classified as a very capable category; (4) the FD subject has fulfilled all three indicators and classified as capable enough category; and (5) generally, the level of mathematical reasoning ability of FI subjects group was very capable category as many as 21,43% and 14,29 % for FD subjects group.
 
The ellipse can be transformed into a circle by dilating the coordinates of the ellipse relative to the x-axis and y-axis. Therefore, this study aimed to derive the formula for the equation of the perimeter of an ellipse by using the transformation of an ellipse to a circle. This transformation was arranged so that the perimeter of the ellipse was equal to the perimeter of the circle. The type of research was in the review of books, articles, and relevant research reports. The results showed that the ellipse can be transformed into a circle while maintaining its perimeter. So, the perimeter of the ellipse was the same as the perimeter of the circle.
 
The increase in the number of computer viruses can be modeled with a mathematical model of the spread of SEIR type of diseases with immunity probability. This study aims to model the pattern of the spread of computer viruses. The method used in this research is the analytical method with the probability of mathematical immunity. Based on the analysis of the model, two equilibrium points free from disease E1 and endemic equilibrium points E2 were obtained. The existence and local stability of the equilibrium point depends on the basic reproduction number R0. Equilibrium points E1 and E2 tend to be locally stable because R0<1 which means there is no spread of disease. While the numerical simulation results shown that the size of the probability of immunity will affect compartment R and the minimum size of a new computer and the spread of computer viruses will affect compartments S and E on the graph of the simulation results. The conclusion obtained by the immune model SEIR successfully shows that increasing the probability of immunity significantly affects the increase in the number of computer hygiene after being exposed to a virus.
 
Comparison of Student Learning Activeness
Results of the Student Learning Activity Questionnaire Validity Test
Normality Test Results
Students are required to be actively involved during the learning process in accordance with the development of 21st-century learning. Student learning activities can occur through expressing opinions, solving problems, and discussing materials during the learning process. Learning models should always implement the stimulation of these abilities. Thus, this study is to analyze the influence of the Think Pair Share learning model on students' learning activities. This study was an experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group design. The population in this study was all class 8 as many as 192 students in one of the junior high schools in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Students belonging to class VIIIA (32 students) were the experimental students' group, and students in VIIIC (32 students) were the control group. Data was collected based on 15 items of students' activeness in learning mathematics. The results demonstrated that the application of the Think Pair Share learning model had an impact on the activeness of student learning. In addition, Think Pair method can improve the activeness of learning mathematics students, higher than in classes that implemented conventional learning models (25.31 > 15.78). This is because the application of the Think Pair share learning model provides opportunities for students to think, respond, and present problems provided by teachers so that students are fully involved during the mathematics learning process. The recommendations for further research can be carried out in several schools not just one school, student learning activity can also be increased by using other cooperative models, and can be further improved whether there are other competences that can boost the model's usage.
 
Top-cited authors
Mohammad Tohir
  • Universitas Ibrahimy, Situbondo, Indonesia
Maswar Maswar
  • Universitas Ibrahimy
Zainal Abidin
  • Universitas Jember
Fadhilah Rahmawati
  • Universitas Tidar Magelang
Yuriska destania
  • Universitas Muhammadiyah Bengkulu