Agro Food Industry Hi Tech

Publications
Metal-catalyzed oxidation and free radical formation are potent mediators of cellular injury to every category of macromolecule found in vulnerable neuronal populations and are thought to play an early and central role in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. While metal-binding sites are present in proteins that accumulate in AD, metal-associated redox activity is primarily noted with nucleic acids, specifically with cytoplasmic RNA. Iron dyshomeostasis in AD is thought to arise from haem breakdown and mitochondrial turnover, and a reduction in microtubule density in vulnerable neurons increases redox-active metals, initiating a cascade of events culminating in characteristic pathologic features. Increased understanding of these early changes may be translated into more effective therapeutic modalities for AD than those currently in use.
 
The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea is causing serious losses in many different crops. The fungus Ulocladium atrum has been selected as antagonist of Botrytis. The ecological characteristics of the antagonist makes it an attractive candidate for applications to above-ground plant parts. This article will give an overview over perspectives of the use of U. atrum in major crops.
 
The absorption, metabolism, and potential bioavailability of dietary flavonols and anthocyanins were discussed. It was found that by judicious selection of the appropriate fruit, vegetables, and beverages, it should be possible to increase flavonol intake to well in excess of 100 mg per day without major changes in dietary habits. Analysis of ileal fluid indicated that plasma and urinary flavonol levels underestimated the extent of absorption. It was also found that, in most instances, once flavonoids enter the circulatory system, they undergo extensive metabolism.
 
The level of sodium in food products needs to be lowered in order to help reduce incidences of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases of the world population. Important functionalities of salt (NaCl) – salty taste and flavour enhancement – are to be delivered by replacer systems. One approach is enhancement of saltiness by aroma. We show that saltiness and the overall flavour profile are increased upon addition of extra beef flavouring in a salt-reduced beef bouillon. Furthermore, the saltiness enhancement potency of the single compound sotolone (savoury note) is demonstrated. Practical perspectives of the application of aroma for sodium reduction and routes of natural production of sotolone are discussed.
 
New EU regulations regarding food allergen labelling were introduced in 2005. These rules were introduced to ensure that 12 potential food allergens are labelled if they are included as ingredients in food products. The question arises as to whether food-allergic consumers will benefit from the new labelling requirements. A study was conducted in the Netherlands and Greece where researchers observed 40 food-allergic consumers whilst they were grocery shopping for a list of potentially problematic foods. The participants in the study described many problems associated with current food labelling practices, which did not meet the needs of food allergic consumers. Problems were reported regarding readability of fonts, and identifying allergen information on the label which also contained other allergen information. Moreover, information included on the label was not always trusted by the food-allergic consumer, which may cause feelings of insecurity and stress. In particular, participants reported problems with 'may contain'labelling. Recommendations Regarding improvements to existing labelling practices include not only "on package" labelling, but also the introduction of new approaches to food labelling using novel ICTsolutions which may improve the allergen labelling and information provision, particularly from the perspective of individualising information to specific consumer needs.
 
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are important for the growing foetus during pregnancy. For the mother to supply enough DHA during pregnancy, consumption of pre-formed DHA is much better than consumption of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and subsequently relying on the conversion of ALA through to DHA. Fish and seafood are the best dietary sources of DHA and purified fish oil supplementation up to 2.7g per day poses no detrimental effects. The recommendations are to consume 200mg DHA per day which can be obtained by consuming two fatty fish meals per week. Pregnant women have limited knowledge about n-3 PUFA and they need to be educated about the importance of DHA consumption during pregnancy.
 
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss and blindness among older people. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors which could prevent or slow the progression of this chronic disease. Dietary fatty acid intakes have been investigated in epidemiological studies as it is plausible that individual lipids have properties which modulate cellular damage in the eye. This paper reviews epidemiological studies investigating links between fatty acids and AMD. Mixed evidence has related the sub-types of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids to AMD, but nearly all epidemiological studies have demonstrated some level of AMD protection from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (particularly long-chain fatty acids) and fish, with a tendency for a corresponding dampening effect with increased dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
 
ATP, the currency of cellular energy metabolism, can be produced during aerobic and an-aerobic oxidation of metabolic substrates. The aerobic oxidation yields CO2 + H2O as metabolic end products while ATP is produced by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Carbohydrate, protein and fat provide a similar amount of 12-13 ATP/MJ ME when the ME is based on their value as body constituent. The energetic efficiency is 42-43 percent. In the an-aerobic mode, for glucose only, ATP is produced by substrate level phosphorylation during cytoplasmic glycolysis, the normal first step in the aerobic oxidation of glucose. However, under an-aerobic conditions cytoplasmic glycolysis produces lactate which requires one of two ways of aerobic clearance to avoid lactic acidosis. The 'ketogenic clearance're-channels the lactate in aerobic oxidation of glucose, but elsewhere in the body. This ketogenic clearance can contribute to the normal ATP-requirement of the whole body, but causes a move to carbohydrate as energy substrate. If necessary these carbohydrates can be produced from body protein, with a decrease in the energetic efficiency to 29 percent. The "glucogenic clearance" re-cycles the lactate to glucose. This glucogenic pathway (Cori cycle) further lowers the energetic efficiency of ATP-production for peripheral use to 14.1 percent. The Cori cycle requires extra ATP and causes a move to fat as energy substrate. This desk study shows that the energetic efficiency of ATP-production for peripheral use will range between 14-43 percent depending on the need and availability of glucose. It is suggested that these results could be used to develop specific nutritional, physiological and environmental strategies to benefit physical fitness and weight management in daily practice.
 
Resveratrol (3,4',5 tri-hydroxystilbene) is a plant phytoalexin produced in massive amount in grapevine skin in response to stress such as UV, phytosanitary treatment, and mostly following infection by Bothrytis cinerea. In this later case, the production of resveratrol inhibits the proliferation of the pathogen, thereby acting as a natural antifungal. Many experimental studies have reported interesting properties of trans-resveratrol as a preventive agent against important pathologies i.e. vascular diseases, cancers, viral infection or neurodegenerative processes. In addition, several epidemiological studies indicated that resveratrol would be the main microcomponent of wine leading health benefits such as prevention of vaso-coronary diseases and cancer (so called the "French paradox"). Resveratrol prevents (or delays) carcinogenesis by inhibiting the three phases of cancer process: initiation, promotion, progression and invasion phases. It also exhibits pro-apoptic properties especially towards colorectal cancers. Importantly, resveratrol is not toxic in animal models even at high dosage. Moreover, plasmatic concentrations of resveratrol would to be sufficient for anti-invasive activity. The enterohepatic blood recirculation contributes to a delayed elimination of the molecule from the body which can also show a prolonged effect enhanced by its binding to plasmatic proteins. Interestingly resveratrol can sensitize to low doses of cytotoxic drugs and so provide new approaches to enhance the efficacy of anticancer therapy in human cancers.
 
The deterioration of life quality of aging men is mostly associated with metabolic syndrome, based on statistics of the Andros Men's Health Institute in Arnhem, Netherlands. Aging is an inevitable natural process accompanied by several kinds of decline of body function that influences the quality of life. For certain diseases, medical treatment will be a wise choice. However, an adapted lifestyle will definitely help aging men improve their quality of life. As food is one of the most important components in one's daily life, the role of certain beneficial food ingredients, either as part of the diet for aging men, or as "Andro nutraceuticals", can be an attractive option to improve aging men's quality of life
 
The use of AmpliDet RNA to control the microbiological quality of agro-food products was discussed. The quality control and quality monitoring of agro-food products provided added value in the production chain. AmpliDet RNA simplified the detection of RNA in a one-tube format due to the fluorescent measurements.
 
Consumer demand of minimally processed foods without synthetic preservatives has led to a growing interest in their replacement for more natural alternatives. Onion is widely used as a food ingredient and it is known as a good source of bioactive compounds, such as sulphur-containing compounds and flavonoids with well known health beneficial effects, antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities. Consequently, onion has been proposed as a promising and safer source of food preservatives. The overall aim of the present review is to analyze its potential use as a food ingredient by reporting evidence of onion antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as well as discussing some concerns in relation to its stability and effectiveness as a food preservative. Postprint (published version)
 
Microbiological analysis was done on samples from an indigenously fermented tea - Puer. Microbial counting and identification revealed that Aspergillus niger was the dominating microorganism during the fermentation. Antimicrobial activity of fermentation samples showed inhibitory effect on several food borne bacteria, including spore forming bacteria Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium sporogenes. The antimicrobial activity increased with the course of the fermentation. This implied that certain metabolites of Aspergillus niger growing on tea leaves had the feature of inhibiting certain food borne spoilage and pathogen microorganisms.
 
CONCLUSIONS - Within a certain range, selenium accumulation in three studied vegetables was lineally correlated with spraying concentration. However, a too high concentration caused the reduction of vegetable output and damage in quality. - Twice spraying with lower concentration of selenium was a better option to improve selenium enrichment efficiency. - Proper adjustment of pH could improve selenium absorption. - Selenium could be transported to other parts of the vegetable, as a recyclable element. - Spraying timing for cabbage did not affect the percentage of organic selenium content, but spraying at later growth phase had higher selenium accumulation. - It is well known that Cruciferae plants and Allium genus plants have higher ability to absorb selenium which is seen in the present study as higher Se concentrations in cabbage and flowering Chinese cabbage.
 
The infant gut is sterile at birth and colonised by bacteria from the mother, encountered during and shortly after birth. If born by caesarean, this process is delayed. The type of bacteria which dominate in the intestine depend very much on what the infant consumes. The ideal food for the newborn is of course breast milk and this promotes the growth of lactic acid bacteria, mainly bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and streptococci. In the formula fed infant, the microbiota is much more diverse and has more gram negative anaerobes and clostridia. The pH of the faeces of the breast fed infant is lower than that of formula fed infants and contains lactic and acetic acid in contrast to acetic, propionic and some butyric acid in faeces of formula fed infants and adults. The bacteria of the breast fed infant may protect against diarrhoea and it has been suggested that a decreased infection rate and or different pattern of colonisation in infancy and childhood may increase the risk of allergy. The predominance of lactic acid bacteria may be increased by dietary means including the ingestion of prebiotics.
 
Background: Carotenoids are not considered to be essential nutrients, but their antioxidant and photoprotective properties have prompted interest in their potential role in disease prevention. Our aim is to review the evidence In relation to ocular disease. Method: Web of Science and Medline via PubMed database search. Results Lutein and zeaxanthin intake has been associated with a 22% reduced risk of cataract extraction in women (RR 0.78, p = 0.04), and a 19% lower risk of cataract in men (RR 0.8, p = 0, 03). A randomised controlled trial (RCT) found a significant improvement in visual acuity in cataract patients supplemented with lutein. Two RCTs investigating the effect of P-carotene, in combination with other nutrients, on cataract report conflicting results. Several studies show no inverse association between cataract and P-carotene. Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids found in the human macula. RCTs have found beneficial effects of both lutein and beta-carotene supplementation, in combination with other antioxidants, on visual function age-related macular disease affected subjects. Evidence for a role of lutein in preventing deterioration of visual function in retinitis pigmentosa patients is conflicting. CONCLUSIONS: Further research into the role of lutein and zeaxanthin in prevention of onset and progression of ocular disease is warranted.
 
Herbal tonic wines are alcoholic drinks in which medicinal herbs are soaked and extracted. These drinks are considered having various health functions. However, the quality of herbal products is largely influenced by the origin and harvest season of the herbs. Due to its high commercial value, counterfeit often happens. We used high performance liquid chromatography to establish a fingerprint chromatogram of a Chinese herbal tonic wine for its quality control. Samples of 10 different production batches were analyzed to calculate the relative retention time a and the relative peak area A(r) Eight peaks with common characteristics were identified and used to evaluate the existence of main representative components. The results show that the method was convenient and applicable for the quality control of Chinese herbal tonic wine, in particular to monitor quality consistency and to detect counterfeit products.
 
The importance of renewable raw materials (RRM) in European Union (EU) climate policy is discussed. From mid 2000 to mid 2001, the European Commission ran the European Climate Change Programme (ECCP). The opportunities for greenhouse gas emission reduction by increased use of RRM are also presented. Depending on the specific case, the increased use of RRM could either result in financial savings for the end consumers or in high additional costs caused by a shift towards more expensive production processes and raw materials.
 
Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition information on food labels is exerting an effect on healthy food choices among consumers. Based for the first time on in-store observations and interviews, these studies give a real-life insight into consumers' shopping behaviours. The major outcomes to date are that most European consumers have reasonable knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category. / Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition information on food labels is exerting an effect on healthy food choices among consumers. Based for the first time on in-store observations and interviews, these studies give a real-life insight into consumers' shopping behaviours. The major outcomes to date are that most European consumers have reasonable knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category.
 
There is a worldwide urgent need of novel protein foods in both developed and developing countries. In the development of novel protein ingredients and novel protein foods, crosslinking enzymes, in particular transglutaminase can play an important role in the improvement of texture, flavour, nutritional value and shelf-life and in the elimination of allergenicity. Modern biotechnology techniques enable the mass production of the enzyme, making it available as a potential tool for the development and production of novel protein foods. Here we present an overview on the demand for novel protein foods, their desired characteristics and the potential of using transglutaminase in the development of novel protein foods. Special attention is given to the realization of producing transglutaminase of microbial origin at an economic price.
 
There is an ever-growing demand for improved food-stuffs which better meet the needs of both industry and the consumer. With increasing emphasis being placed on health and safety-related aspects of our food, there is also a strong desire to develop new tools to monitor and improve the quality of what we eat. Anew technology, metabolomics, has the potential to become one such tool of major value in this field. Although still in its infancy, metabolomics-based strategies are already being designed for a diversity of applications in, for example, food processing and quality control, plant breeding for improved crop varieties and in the development of novel foodstuffs. The importance of this technology has also recently been recognized by the EU Research division which now funds a multi-national metabolomics initiative focused on plant applications.
 
The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to insoluble substrates. Many applications are described in the literature, ranking from animal feed to production of fine chemicals. The substrates used are, with the exception of synthetic media, cheap agricultural end- and by-products. The fermentation itself can be executed very simply. Several static and dynamic fermenters are described in the literature. Despite the wide applicability and apparent simplicity, fungal SSFs contain complex intrinsic difficulties. Therefore, biological and physical processes in SSF are difficult to control. This report gives an overview of the applications and intrinsic difficulties of SSF.
 
The new EU-legislation allows the use of weight regulation and satiety-related claims if there is generally accepted scientific evidence behind the claims. Food plays an important role in weight management. Thus, foods with favourable effect on satiety and body weight could be useful tools in the prevention of the increasing prevalence of obesity seen across Europe and other parts of the world. It is possible to measure the satiating effect of foods. The satiating effect of food varies depending on the nutrient content and other characteristics of the food. According to the current knowledge, dietary fibre and protein are among the most potential nutrients affecting satiety and weight control.
 
A randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind design study was conducted to evaluate the effect of beta-1,3/1,6 glucan derived from bakers yeast, a commercially available dietary supplement, on symptoms associated with upper-respiratory tract infections and psychological well-being. Moderate to highly stressed subjects (45 men, 105 women) ranging in age from 18-65 (mean age: 39 +/- 11 years) were administered placebo, 250 mg, or 500 mg beta-1,3/1,6 glucan during a 4 week treatment period. Subjects in both treatment groups (250 mg and 500 mg beta-1,3/1,6 glucan per day) reported fewer upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, better overall health and increased vigour, and decreased tension, fatigue, and confusion based on the profile of mood states assessment.
 
The March of Dimes estimates that worldwide more than 300,000 infants are born every year with a neural tube defect. These permanently disabling or fatal birth defects are largely preventable if the mother has at least 400 micrograms of folic acid daily before conception and in the early days of pregnancy. Flour in some countries has been fortified for more than 15 years as a means of preventing neural tube defects; now 63 countries require adding this B vitamin to their wheat flour. Countries which measure the results report 30 to 70 percent declines in neural tube defects after fortification begins.
 
Health and nutrition-related (HNR) claims on food products can impact consumer purchases and dietary quality. This article provides an overview of the voluntary use of HNR claims on new food and beverage products over a 21 year time period in the United States. HNR claims delineated by product category and type of HNR claim are evaluated between 1989 and 2010. The share of new products carrying at least one HNR claim fell from 35 percent in 1989 to 25 percent in 2001, before increasing to 43 percent in 2010. Recent increases in the use of these claims by food companies occurred over a period of growing concerns over obesity, new trans fats labeling regulations, and consumer interest in an overall healthier lifestyle.
 
This paper summarises the economic and key environmental impacts that crop biotechnology has had on global agriculture. The analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the seventeen year period 1996-2012 (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50 percent each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. In terms of key environmental impacts, the adoption of the technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 503 million kg (-8.8 percent) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by 18.7 percent. The technology has also facilitated a significant reduction in the release of greenhouse gas emissions from this cropping area, which, in 2012, was equivalent to removing 11.88 million cars from the roads.
 
Principles of food irradiation are first presented, including some details on irradiation facilities. After a brief description of the different laws relative to this treatment, the main methods of identification of irradiated foodstuffs are described. A point is then carried out upon the future of food irradiation.
 
Integrated areas of spectra against chemical shift ranges (integrated intensity of the Cl 2 CHCOOH peak at 6.121 ppm was taken as ≡ 1). 
Suspensions/solutions of grated Grana Parmigiano-Reggiano type hard cheese give well-resolved 1H-NMR spectra. These spectra show very specific patterns, which are also sensitive to inner inhomogeneities of these hard cheeses. This enables to use the 1H-NMR spectra obtained from Grana Parmigiano-Reggiano as indicators of subtle changes in the concentration gradients of its parts. This possibility was used to analyze the phenomenon of crumbling of this cheese yielding pieces of a few centimetre size. The results indicate, that sample size should be preferably >5 g before homogenization by grinding or grating.
 
The year 2008 witnessed two major food-safety incidents concerning chemical contaminants; melamine in Chinese milk products and dioxins in Irish pork. The first incident was a consequence of attempts to conceal fraudulent activity. The second, represented, to a large degree, failures in good manufacturing practice in a company producing animal feed. In both cases the contaminants of concern were transferred through the food chain to finished products which presented either an actual or potential hazard to the consumer. These incidents give cause for food businesses to reflect on those aspects of their food safety management systems relating to chemically based hazards. This applies in particular to the quality of their own good manufacturing practices (GMP); the robustness of their Supplier Quality Assurance (SQA) systems to protect against supplier GMP failures and/or potentially fraudulent activities and the adequacy of traceability systems.
 
From mid of the XIX century on, progress in medicine produced a bulk of evidences on how important correct nutrition is to preserve health and wellbeing. Frequent diseases of the past like gout, scurvy, rickets, beriberi, some forms of anaemia, just to cite a few ones, today, can be prevented by simply adopting an appropriate diet. Since the discovery of the first vitamins made by the polish born biochemist Casimir Funk in 1911, biochemical, physiological and molecular studies have revealed to us the importance of several classes of nutrients and micronutrients not only for the normal housekeeping of physiologic functions but also in preventing severe conditions like cancer or cardiovascular disease. The importance to adopt a correct diet is today a well established concept for everyone. In the last decades a new trend has arisen to supplement and fortify foods and beverages with micronutrients, antioxidants and other categories of important nutrients or to create ex-novo food products designed to achieve beneficial health effects. A number of supplemented and fortified food products, cosmetic products, dietary supplements, drink formulations, etc., are today available promising to the consumers a great variety of advantages for health and wellbeing. In this context the Israel based company Lycored Ltd. produces since 1995 nutrients and nutrient formulations for the food drink and cosmetic industry. The added value Lycored is offering is represented by a solid scientific research backing of its products in all phases of development and testing: a relatively unique feature in the world of nutrients and nutrient formulations. Moreover, the company finances several academic top ranking research groups both to produce sound evidence on the real nutritional features of their products and hints to further enhance them.
 
Global supermarket sales of food/beverage products are projected to reach $1.74 trillion by 2015; foodservice sales $2.2 trillion. In the U.S., five of the top ten fastest growing consumer food product categories are beverages. Weight control/nutrition beverages, energy drinks, sports beverages, wine, ready-to-drink coffee/tea and spirits/liquors were among the top 10 fastest growing food product categories. Calcium, antioxidants, and vitamins/minerals, omega-3s, fibre, green tea extract, and probiotics are among the ingredients most sought out in functional beverages. Immunity, digestive health, complete day's nutrient requirement, lowering cholesterol, and providing energy are the most desired health benefits for functional beverages. New and emerging beverage trends, product opportunities, and ingredients are discussed.
 
Future scenarios for a health-conscious society and the role of soy are discussed at Nutrition & Health 2020. The purpose of this project is to alert citizens and decision-makers to future which heralds important societal transformation. Based on the ideas and expertise of a wide range of stakeholders, it has resulted in a set of future scenarios which include, describe different ways in which the nutrition & health trend may evolve and upon our society and create a space to think about new economic and societal value creation opportunities. Soy foods and soy ingredients are bound to play a role in any of these future because in whatever way the future will unfold, nutritionally enhanced foods are going to be part of it.
 
Rice bran obtained as a by product of rice milling, accounts for 8-10 percent of the rice kernel and includes the germ and the outer layers of the kernel. Rice Bran is rich in nutrients and needs stabilization to prevent rancidity and protect its nutritional value. Stabilized Rice Bran (SRB) is energy dense, with a good blend of fats. It is a complete protein, hypoallergenic and easily digestible. SRB is a complex carbohydrate mixture of soluble and insoluble fibres that slow down glucose uptake. SRB is an excellent source of B complex vitamins; antioxidants and polyphenols. SRB has been shown to lower blood glucose and cholesterol and reduce colonic adenomas by 51 percent. These mechanisms we believe are brought about by a synergistic effect of several nutrients and non nutrients. SRB is nutritious and sweet to taste with a nutty flavour and can be added to any recipe to augment the nutritional value and fibre content.
 
"Novel Food" concerned foods and food ingredients that have not been consumed to a significant degree in the European Union before the 15th May 1997. In order to ensure the highest level of protection of human health, novel foods must undergo a safety assessment before being placed on the EU market. Since 1997, the European commission has received 80 applications for approval from more than 45 companies, concerning principally three types of Novel Foods: innovative foods (newly developed), foods produced by new technologies and exotic traditional foods from third countries. From January 2008, a revision proposal has been adopted and aims to streamline the authorisation procedure, to develop a more adjusted safety assessment system and to clarify the definition of novel food and the scope of the regulation.
 
The impact of individual diet on public health has led to a number of countries taking steps to influence what consumers choose to eat. In the United Kingdom, one of the key performance indicators of such a programme will be an increase in the average dietary fibre intake. Early attempts to produce fibre supplemented foods were often unsuccessful, mainly because the products failed to meet consumers' expectations. These challenges have been addressed by the ingredients' industry who now produce a range of functional dietary fibres. However it is important for the new product developer to remember that these preparations can still impact upon product attributes and that processing can alter the dietary fibre's structure and its consequential physiological effects.
 
This study measures airport safety risks under the circumstance of non-stop flight construction to guide civil airport safety management. The study identified airport security risk factors using a fishbone diagram and built a risk measure index system under the circumstance of non-stop flight construction. On the basis of the traditional 2D risk matrix, we established an airport safety 3D risk measurement model that combines the vulnerability element of the risk receptor. We conducted risk measurements using the 3D risk measurement model combined with analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Moreover, we created a 3D risk matrix chromatogram. Results show that airport safety risk factors under the circumstance of non-stop flight construction have 27 safety risk measure indexes. Results of the single-index risk measurement show that 10 indexes are in the state of yellow warning and that 17 risk indicators are in the state of orange warning. Comprehensive risk measurement results show that the airport comprehensive risk is in the state of orange warning.
 
Top-cited authors
Júlio Cesar De Carvalho
  • Universidade Federal do Paraná
Babitha Sumathy
  • Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology
Carlos Soccol
  • Universidade Federal do Paraná
Ashok Pandey
  • Indian Institute of Toxicology Research
Konrad J. Domig
  • University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna