Agricultural and Resource Economics

Online ISSN: 2414-584X
Publications
Article
Purpose. Agribusiness offers huge employment potential considering its wide labour absorptive capacity and the youth have a role to play. The study aimed at assessing the relationship between access to financial services and youth involvement in agricultural value chains. Methodology / approach. The study was conducted in Kakamega County, Kenya. Stratified and simple random sampling was adopted to select 240 respondents. Interviews were conducted using a stratified questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed to generate frequencies, percentages and correlation. Results. The results revealed that youth involvement across the agricultural value chain is low. Further, there was a strong correlation between access to finance and youth involvement in agricultural value chains. Inadequate access to financial services is a key constrain to agricultural productivity in Kakamega county as it affects all aspects of the value chain except consumption. Originality / scientific novelty. The study considers the entire agricultural value chain from production to consumption and assesses the relationship between financial resource access and youth involvement at each segment of the value chain. This is significant since the Kenyan population is youthful. Practical value / implications. The study reveals that there is a strong relationship between access to financial service and youth involvement in the agricultural value chain towards securing their livelihoods. This knowledge is useful to County and national government policymakers and Donor agencies to formulate policies that will enhance youth access to financial resources and consequently their involvement in the Agricultural Value Chain to grow their incomes and improvement of their wellbeing. This will be achieved by knowing what segments of the value chain offer best opportunities for them to thrive in business to guide development of intervention strategies.
 
Dynamics of net profit and profitability of Ukrainian enterprises Source: development by authors based on (Official site of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, 2020).
Dynamics of the integrated indicator of cash flow management efficiency of PJSC "Oril-Leader" and its forecast Source: developed by the authors.
Dynamics of the financial cycle of PJSC "Oril-Leader" and its forecast Source: developed by the authors.
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the study is to develop the accounting aspect of business process engineering as the main tool in management. Methodology / approach. The research uses methods of scientific abstraction, grouping and systematization to identify the current state and outline the directions of development of accounting engineering. Methods of analysis and synthesis, as well as the coefficient method for the development of the analytical component of cash management are used. Results. Engineering is an effective tool for optimizing business processes of enterprises. It should be considered as a way of implementation into a certain sphere of human activity non-specific (foreign) tools, techniques, methods, etc., aimed at solving problems that cannot be solved by the existing tools specific to this area of activity. Accounting engineering is the process of developing, designing and implementing innovative tools, methods and techniques borrowed from other sciences that are used to improve accounting as a system that provides information to the management system. It is a platform for generating the accounting information needed to make strategic management decisions. The effect of accounting engineering is analyzed on the example of cash management, as current trends are focusing more and more on cash flow as the main object of financial management of the enterprise. A cash management mechanism based on accounting engineering is proposed, which includes the following stages: cash flow planning and forecasting, adherence to the schedule of receipts and payments within budget limits, evaluation of cash management efficiency. Originality / scientific novelty. It is proved that the need for engineering for accounting science and practice is necessitated by the need to form special ways to solve problems that have remained unresolved for accounting for a long time and could not be solved due to limited methodological approaches, methods and techniques. The influence of accounting engineering on the efficiency of the management system on the example of cash management is outlined. Practical value / implications. The application of business process engineering in cash flow management of the enterprise by assessing the value of the integrated indicator of cash flow management has identified a number of cash flow management problems, their causes, consequences (risks) for the company and provide suggestions to minimize identified risks.
 
Model of transition from the traditional accounting system to sustainability accounting of the agricultural enterprise Source: authors' own elaboration.
A comprehensive model of the concept of sustainability accounting in agriculture Source: authors' own elaboration.
Map of internal and external stakeholders of the agricultural enterprise by the level of impact, interest, and direction of generation and use of sustainable development reporting information Source: authors' own elaboration.
Management support system for the reporting formation of sustainable development of agricultural enterprise Source: authors' own elaboration.
Development paradigm of enterprises' sustainability reporting in agriculture Source: authors' own elaboration.
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to model the paradigm of accounting and reporting development in the context of the sustainable agricultural enterprise. Methodology / approach. In the process of working on the article, general scientific methods and methodological techniques were used, in particular, monographic and system analysis (formation of accounting information to take into account sustainable development); methods of comparative analysis (when studying the transition from a traditional accounting system to sustainable accounting); grouping (for grouping accounting types by user groups and information); structural-and-logical compilation (when formulating the conceptual foundations of information to take into account sustainable development); modeling (when building a model of the concept of sustainable accounting and a map of internal and external stakeholders of the enterprise in terms of the level of influence, interest and direction of the formation and use of reporting information); process approach (when developing a paradigm for the development of enterprise reporting in the field of sustainable development); abstract-logical (theoretical generalization and formation of conclusions); graphical method (with a visual display of economic phenomena and processes in time and space); system-functional (to generalize the theoretical and methodological aspects of sustainable development accounting). These methods were the methodological basis of the study. Results. To determine the category of sustainability accounting and the concept of its reporting, the types of entrepreneurial capital were studied, and the characteristics of information that arises as a result of the implementation of economic, social, and environmental activities. In addition, the main users of information, their goals, and their needs were identified. As a result, management and financial accounting for sustainable development were highlighted. The functioning of the institution of sustainable development reporting of agricultural enterprises is based on its "paradigm" as a set of generalized ideas, hypotheses, and methodological approaches shared by the scientific community, acceptable to other institutions, and formalized in the form of scientific theories. In the case when, within the framework of existing theoretical postulates, a scientific institute cannot effectively solve the issues, there is a need to change its paradigm. The proposed paradigm of accounting and reporting will not only orient the development of accounting to the prospects for the transition of mankind to a harmonious economy but also facilitate the acceleration of this transition through the introduction of progressive accounting systems. Originality / scientific novelty. Due to all findings and conducted research in modeling a new system of accounting and reporting for agricultural enterprises we could generate the definition of “sustainability accounting”, which, on the one hand, the segmental, and on the other – the organic component of the enterprise accounting system and the institution of accounting in socio-economic relations, which is organized at the request of the policy of sustainable development, has a corresponding theoretical, methodological and organizational methodological support and is identified in accounting policy, operational, statistical and financial reporting, which provides an organizational and methodological focus on the construction of such accounting by enterprises. Practical value / implications. The main provisions of the article are brought to the level of methodological generalizations and applied tools, the use of which allows adopting a new holistic concept for the formation of accounting and analytical support for the sustainable development of the institutional units of the agrarian sector. The recommendations outlined in the article are fully consistent with modern trends in the development of socio-ecological and economic relations in society, therefore, they can be used in the formation of modern institutional accounting methodology in the context of sustainable development.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the study – to explain the features of disclosure of transaction costs in the accounting of agricultural enterprises, taking into account the peculiarities of the shadow economy; to identify the main factors that lead to transaction costs and make suggestions for improving their accounting. Methodology / approach. The main methods used in this study are: statistical analysis to assess the dynamics and cost structure of agricultural enterprises; graphical and analytical methods used to determine the level of the shadow economy; theoretical generalization and comparison, induction and deduction are used to reveal the content of transaction costs and their values for agricultural producers; the current state and trends of the shadow economy in Ukraine in general and in the agricultural sector in particular are assessed through synthesis and economic analysis. Results. The role of transaction costs as an institutional economic category in the activities of agricultural producers and their impact on the growth of shadow economic processes in agribusiness is studied. The article shows that the share of transaction costs of agricultural enterprises is significant, and this reduces the efficiency of these enterprises. About 8 mln ha of agricultural land are used unofficially, which is about 25 % of all cultivated agricultural land in Ukraine. The classification of factors that contribute to the development of the shadow economy in Ukraine, in particular, the shadow agricultural market, and increase the transaction costs of agricultural producers has been improved. The factors of occurrence of transaction costs and flaws of their coverage by the accounting are investigated, recommendations on their reflection in the accounting are given. The possibilities of reducing the level of transaction costs are substantiated, in particular, due to their more correct accounting, the implementation of information systems and the formation of marketing service cooperatives. Originality / scientific novelty. The transaction costs of agricultural enterprises were further studied. For the first time, the relationship between the main problems of agricultural producers, transaction costs that arise and accounting sub-accounts, which will allow more accurate accounting of these costs, is schematically presented. Our own vision is proposed to identify the transaction costs of agricultural producers under the influence of non-institutional economic theory, their reflection in the methodology of accounting and their minimization through actions of formal and informal accounting institutions. Practical value / implications. The results of the study can be used in business operations of agricultural producers, in particular, the peculiarities of accounting for transaction costs are recommended to be taken into consideration when forming the accounting policy of the entity and also judgment of a professional accountant to be considered. It is also recommended to introduce accounting engineering, ie the format of joint management actions.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to study the degree of disclosure of information about the risks of economic activity of enterprises in non-financial statements and to find ways to improve the organization and methods of analysis of such risks based on the financial statements of companies. Methodology / approach. The methodological basis of the study is a systematic approach, methods of generalization, comparison, abstraction, analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction, bibliometric analysis, cluster analysis, as well as methods of integrated economic analysis. The publications from the Scopus database, for 1988–01.04.2021, processed by VOSviewer software were the source of data for bibliographic and cluster analysis. The materials of the research on the state of disclosure of information about the risks of domestic enterprises of the food industry are based on their financial statements and management report. Results. The article analyzes the state and degree of disclosure of information about the risks of economic activity in non-financial reports of domestic food industry enterprises. It is established that the enterprises of the studied industry most often provide information about the following risks: economic, currency, financial, political, legal, judicial, interest, personnel, price, commercial, as well as liquidity risk and market risk. Originality / scientific novelty. Theoretical, methodological and organizational principles of risk analysis of companies based on non-financial and financial reports have been further developed. For the first time, we proposed our own approach to the methodology of analysis of such risks, based on financial reporting indicators. In particular, such analytical indicators include: financial risk – solvency, financial leverage; credit risk – investment coverage ratio, return on equity, return on assets; liquidity risk – coverage ratio, quick liquidity ratio, absolute liquidity ratio. Practical value / implications. The practical value of the research is that the results obtained by the authors will contribute to the disclosure of information about the risks of economic activity of enterprises in non-financial statements. Analysis of the status and level of disclosure of information about the risks of domestic food industry enterprises in non-financial reports showed that most companies provided information about the following risks: economic, currency, financial, political, legal, judicial, interest, personnel, price, commercial, and risk liquidity and the risk of changes in market conditions. As a result, the author’s methodological approach to the analysis of internal risks of the studied industry (credit, financial risks, liquidity risk) is proposed. The proposed methodology is based on the indicators of financial reporting and is part of a comprehensive risk analysis of the enterprise for the purposes of the risk management system.
 
Article
Review for the monograph by Anatolii Kucher «Strategic directions of the development of low carbon land use to strengthen resilience to climate change» is presented.
 
Article
Purpose. The aims of this paper are (i) to explore public-private partnerships as a tool for economic development of rural economies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition in order to ensure sustainable use of nature and increase public welfare of rural communities through the added value chain; (ii) to develop proposals for the implementation of public-private partnerships on land management and land use in Ukraine. Methodology / approach. The methodological approach involves study of the world’s PPP practice in land management and land use (including the use of land in forestry), study of the connections between PPP projects and scientific approaches to the concept of sustainable development and the added value chain, as well as analysis of domestic scientific bibliography, which relate to the subject of this study. Results. The authors found that the declared priorities of the Agenda for Sustainable Development until 2030 require the application of integrated approaches. In particular, the programme in the mechanism of sustainable development management in the form of PPP to ensure sustainable use of nature and increase the social welfare of rural communities. Because the programme approach here involves investing in natural resources and environmental protection and should cover the entire value chain, which directly or indirectly affects the efficiency of natural rural assets, as well as the use and application of innovative technologies. Originality / scientific novelty. It is substantiated that progress in achieving the declared priorities, in particular in the field of environmental protection, growth of public rural welfare, etc. is possible only in a combination of strengths of all PPP partners, which will eliminate the shortcomings and weaknesses of rural communities. In contrast to existing approaches to the development of the land use economy of rural territories, the basis of the synergy of the parties to PPP is a special natural resource – land, which performs environmental, economic, legal and socio-cultural functions, and determines the form and content, which actually builds sustainable development, including rural. A wide range of PPP forms has been further developed, varying in the degree of involvement and risk taken by the private party in relation to the development of the land use economy of rural territories. The approach to the value chains organization in the development of PPP projects on land management and land use and providing security of land use in terms of taking into account the land use of farmers, formed on different rights, has been improved. The author’s project PPP in the production of pellets a private investor in lumber logging waste provided by some state-owned enterprise both subject to the extension of the moratorium and without its effect is developed. Practical value / implications. The authors’ research shows that the introduction of the value chain in the mechanism of public-private partnership will lead to significant effective changes in the development of the land use economy, in particular of rural territories. Namely, with the use of appropriate policies it will ensure the provision of sustainable use of natural resources and growth of public welfare, in particular rural communities. This approach allows to involve all stakeholders (government, community, business) for effective management of natural assets in general and agriculture in particular and will increase their level of capitalization and investment attractiveness.
 
Proportion of revenues accumulated in the local budget and capital expenditures from the budget in the context of the TC monitor counties of the Lviv region, 2018-2019, % Source: compiled on the basis of a questionnaire of the chairmen of the TCs of the Lviv region.
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to identify the spatial features of the social-economic development of territorial communities in the context of administrative and financial decentralization. Methodology / approach. The method of system analysis is used in the work – to research the spheres of central-peripheral interactions at the level of territorial communities; method of comparative analysis – to identify trends in the formation and development of interactions between the center and the periphery in communities and the factors that determine them; abstract-logical method – for the formation of theoretical generalizations and formulation of conclusions from the research; method of graphic visualization, which allows providing a clear presentation of the results of the analysis; sociological survey of chairmen of local councils of territorial communities of Lviv region – to determine the state of development of central-peripheral interactions in their communities. The key role of territorial and systemic approaches to the analysis of core-peripheral interactions in territorial communities is emphasized, which made it expedient to form a research method based on taking into account the conditions for the development of a particular environment and existing spatial restrictions. Results. The article identifies the features of the formation of core-peripheral interactions in the territorial communities of rural areas. It is focused on the formation of derivative core-peripheral interactions that arise in the territorial communities created during the implementation of administrative-territorial reform. On the basis of a systematic and comprehensive analysis, the existing and hidden core-peripheral dependencies were identified and the features of the mutual influence of the centers of the united territorial communities of the rural areas of the Lviv region on the socio-economic development of the community territory were revealed. The problems and risks of the development of the territory of the community are substantiated in the context of the mutual influence of a derivative nature. Originality / scientific novelty. A scientific approach to the identification of central-peripheral interactions in territorial communities was developed, which allows identifying the spatial effects of social, economic, managerial interactions of the center and the periphery within the community. A scientific-and-methodological approach to the assessment of central-peripheral interactions was developed, which provides for the selection of community groups according to certain criteria (community type (town / township / village), community composition, location in the region) and their diagnosis in areas: analysis of strategic documents of local council on the development of central-peripheral interactions in a community; analysis of the management structure of the local council, representation of peripheral communities, compliance of the composition and structure of the governing body with the goals of community development; analysis of budget support for infrastructure development; research of employment opportunities in the community. The application of the approach will reveal the patterns of formation of central-peripheral interactions at the level of territorial communities. Practical value / implications. The results of the study make it possible to have a more comprehensive assessment of the state of the formation of central-peripheral interactions in territorial communities, contribute to the identification of risks of social conflict between different groups in the community and to form recommendations for their activation. The results are recommended for consideration by local governments when preparing proposals for socio-economic development and ensuring the financial capacity of local communities.
 
Article
Purpose. Given the efforts towards achieving the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for food security by 2030, this study investigates the moderating impact of public investments in agriculture on the agricultural producer price – agricultural sustainability nexus in 40 African countries covering the period from 2000 till 2019. Methodology / approach. In this study we used multiple regression techniques to explore a dynamic panel data model based on the one-step system Generalized Method of Moments (System-GMM). Proposed by Arellano and Bover and further developed by Blundell and Bond, the System-GMM estimator was preferred over other techniques because of its efficiency in eliminating the simultaneous biases that are associated with regression model estimations. Specifically, the one-step System-GMM was preferred over the two-step System-GMM for our estimation due to the efficiency of its optimal weighting matrices. Results. The study discovered that although the interactions between public investments on agriculture and agricultural sustainability amplify the positive impact of a set of explanatory variables on agricultural producer price to an extent, the impact on food security in Africa is insignificant. The study also discovers that the net effects of a set of interactive terms on producer price in the developing countries in Africa are slightly lower than in the least-developed countries. The weighted average food security index for the period under study was abysmal 44.54%, indicating moderate food insecurity in Africa. Originality / scientific novelty. In the context of food security literature in Africa, this study is the first attempt at exploring the agricultural producer price – agricultural sustainability nexus based on the moderating impact of public investments on agriculture with the Global Food Security Index (GFSI), a composite food security model developed by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Among our study proposals it is a call for a detour from the current agricultural investment and producer price policies especially the current ‘one-size-fits-all’ regional frameworks which have proved to be less progressive and less transformative to more robust country/sector-specific frameworks that have the potential to better the fortunes of agriculture and improve food security. Practical value / implications. The current state of agricultural producer price in most African countries is ample proof that the role and importance of the producer price have been gravely diminished. Despite governments’ efforts towards improving food security, the evidence as presented in this study supports the fact that those efforts have not achieved much success. The study, which contains a number of recommendations, highlights agricultural producer price as a potentially important driver of agricultural sustainability and sustainable food security in Africa.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the paper is to study the state, perspective directions of Ukrainian exports of agricultural products and the introduction of effective forecasting using the method of mathematical modeling of a continuous system of aperiodic components. Methodology / approach. In the process of research, the fundamental provisions of modern economic science were used in relation to the groups of factors influencing the resulting indicators of export, foreign trade trends, methods of statistical analysis to assess the weight of factors influencing the resulting function, as well as modern mathematical methods for forecasting of agrarian exports were implemented. Results. The application of the developed mathematical model and the algorithm based on it, allowed to study the situation with the export of Ukrainian agricultural products to the EU, to identify trends specific to individual countries and the EU market as a whole, to assess the opportunities and prospects of niche markets, expansion nomenclature of export goods. Prognoses were given both on the export prospects of individual goods, product groups, and on the volume of deliveries to the EU. The use of factor analysis for forecasting of export deliveries allowed us to assess the impact of each of the factors and limit their amount. Originality / scientific novelty. For the first time, the method of mathematical modeling of a continuous system based on changes in its aperiodic components was used for efficient and relevant forecasting of agrarian export volumes. Even the stages of application of this method, in particular, the analysis and prognoses for individual items of the nomenclature of export goods, for individual countries – importers make it possible to represent the situation with agrarian exports more accurately and forecast future supplies. Practical value / importance. The proposed mathematical approach for market analysis and forecasting of markets can be used by both market regulators and producers and exporters of agricultural products. These polynomial equations for analysis and prognostication for individual product groups can be directly used in practice.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the study is to develop the concept of complex estimation of bankruptcy probability of agrarian enterprises in Ukraine, taking into account the specifics of agricultural activities. Methodology / approach. To achieve the purpose, the following research methods were used: abstract-logical (at disclosing the essence of the concept of “bankruptcy”); dialectical (for theoretical generalizations on determining the problems and ways to overcome them, drawing conclusions); expert estimations, comparative analysis, analysis and synthesis (at developing the concept of estimating the probability of bankruptcy); relative indicators-coefficients (at studying models for estimating the probability of bankruptcy occurrence); monographic (for in-depth study of separate types of factors affecting the probability of bankruptcy); graphical and tabular (at presenting the research results). Results. It has been proven that the discriminant analysis for estimating the probability of bankruptcy (the construction of multifactor models that summarize the most important financial indicators in the integrated index) does not take into account the industry characteristics of agrarian enterprises. The concept of bankruptcy diagnostics is proposed, which combines discriminant analysis and expert estimation of qualitative signs of a possible crisis of an agrarian enterprise. The indicators selected for expert examination cover non-financial factors – the risks and threats to agricultural production in Ukraine, and their generalization may specify the risk of bankruptcy occurrence. The scoring model has been derived by the method of expert estimations, the scale has been developed, which is combined with the discriminant one that will enable to bring the results of the research into the interval of the indicator for estimating the occurrence of bankruptcy. Originality / scientific novelty. The definition of the term “bankruptcy” has been improved: the author’s definition combines the economic and legal approaches to it. The main risks of agricultural activities in Ukraine have been specified and their impact on the probability of bankruptcy of agrarian enterprises has been outlined. It has been developed the methodological concept for estimating the probability of bankruptcy of agrarian enterprises, which takes into account informal factors. For the first time, in order to predict the bankruptcy of agrarian enterprises, it has been proposed to combine discriminant analysis and expert estimation of qualitative indicators that increase its risk in agriculture. Practical value / implications. The application of the developed methodology provides an opportunity for the agrarian enterprise of timely responding to the threats of financial crisis and bankruptcy in order to prevent them. The proposed approach can be used as an element of estimating the insurance risk or investment attractiveness of agricultural enterprises. In case of its adaptation, the methodology can be used in foreign practice.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to substantiate theoretical-and-methodological provisions for building investment portfolios in agribusiness by the criterion of minimizing environmental risk of selected investment-financing strategies. Methodology / approach. In the article, on the basis of the dialectical method of cognition, the following methods were used: abstract-logical – in the systematization of scientific papers on the problem of diversification and optimization of the agricultural investment portfolio; system analysis and comparison – in the study of portfolio theories and concepts; computational and constructive – in the analysis of environmental-and-economic factors of the profitability of agricultural land use; economic-and-mathematical modeling – in the process of modeling the optimal portfolio of agri-environmental investments by the criterion of minimizing the risk of a particular investor, caused by the action of soil degradation factor in Sumy region. The materials of the Main Department of Statistics in Sumy region and the Sumy regional branch of the Institute of Soil Protection of Ukraine have formed the informational basis of the research. Results. The optimization of the agri-environmental investment portfolio is due to the modification of the approach by the American Economist H. Markowitz “risk-return analysis” and its adaptation to the conditions of real investment. The paper uses a conservative approach to investment, which involves the construction of portfolios on the criterion of minimizing investment risk due to the influence of soil degradation for a particular investor. This factor requires the determination of the investor’s environmentally related risk, which manifests itself in the following directions: a) a decrease in crop yield due to the action of the factor of high soil pH; b) a decrease in the sales price for crop products because of contamination with heavy metals; c) an increase in the cost of agricultural production in deteriorated ecological conditions. Evaluation of agribusiness investment attractiveness on environmental-and-economic grounds provides for the consideration of the above areas from the standpoint of state, banking, foreign investment and self-investment. Assessment of investment quality identification is performed on the basis of calculation of the investor’s income elasticities to environmental risks on the example of Sumy region, which provides investment rationality decisions in the field of agricultural land use, considering environmental factors. It is substantiated that the highest investment quality is characterized by the bank’s investment financing strategy. Originality / scientific novelty. The methodological approach to the definition of investor’s environmental risk in agricultural land use is improved. It is calculated considering the influence of factors of environmental destruction of land and soil resources (soil pH, pollution with heavy metals, etc.) on sources of profit, as well as with the definition of returns on investment resources (crop yield, ecological sales price, and income). The system of environmental-and-economic indicators in the formation of the investment portfolio is substantiated, including the following: the structure of investments, which is developed considering the influence of the environmental factor; portfolio investment risk due to environmental factors; and the investment portfolio yield adjusted for the level of environmental risk which provides an assessment of the investment attractiveness of agricultural land use on an environmental-economic basis. A methodical approach to substantiate investment decisions in the agriculture of the Sumy region is proposed, which along with considering the environmental factor, is in calculating the elasticities of investor’s income to the environmental-and-economic risks, which increase the correctness of financial decision-making. Practical value / implications. Theoretical-and-methodological provisions and conclusions obtained in the study can be used to justify the direction of investment capital in the field of agricultural land use, considering the level of environmental-and-economic constraints.
 
Article
Purpose. Under the conditions of strengthening of the destructive effects of the global economic crisis and the growing number of risks of agribusiness, there is a problem in finding the ways to improve accounting and analytical support as the only reliable source of the relevant and accurate information needed for economic security management. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the directions to improve the analytical basis as a component of accounting and analytical support of economic security management of the agricultural enterprises. Methodology / approach. The methodological basis of the research is a dialectical method of cognition of the complex economic phenomena. Consideration of the analytical support of complex management processes took place using a systematic approach, analysis and synthesis. Using an integral approach, a methodology for assessing and analyzing economic security of the agricultural enterprises is developed. This methodology approach includes the parameters of financial, social, resource and environmental security. Results. The analysis of the theoretical and methodological foundations of accounting and analytical support of economic security management showed a variety of the approaches to the choice of the indicators that describe the level of economic security. The situation is complicated by the need to analyze the information that may be relevant for management decisions in conditions of uncertainty. Under these conditions, it is proposed to implement a model of analytical support for economic security management under conditions of uncertainty and growing risks and threats to the business environment of the agricultural enterprises, which should be based on the use of general economic, statistical, integral and econometric approaches. It is determined that in the process of counteracting the risks and threats of the external and internal environment of the agrarian business the use of the integral methods of assessing economic security of the agricultural enterprises becomes crucial. It is substantiated that the most expedient in terms of achieving strategic goals of the enterprise, maintaining its competitive advantages and ensuring sustainable development is the use of integral assessment of economic security, which should be based on a synergistic approach to analysis of 25 indicators of financial, social, resource and environmental components. The approach was tested on the example of 24 agricultural enterprises of Kharkiv region (Ukraine) of crop specialization (2019). The model is also used to analyze the dynamics of the level of economic security under conditions of individual agricultural enterprises of different organizational and legal forms of management (2014–2019). Originality / scientific novelty. According to the results of the research, a methodological approach to determination of the integral level of economic security of the agricultural enterprises has been improved, based on the impact of the indicators of its individual components, which, at the same time, improves the analytical support of economic security management and strengthens verification, forecasting, preventive, planning and control functions of accounting and analytical support of management mechanisms. Practical value / implications. The practical significance of the proposed approaches consists of the possibility of positioning the enterprises in terms of optimal, satisfactory, shaky and crisis economic security zones, as well as analyzing the dynamics of the integral level of economic security, which takes into consideration the causal relations of the key areas of the agrarian business under conditions of uncertainty.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the paper is to present the results of the study of agricultural trade in China based on the theory of factor endowment and to develop a policy recommendation for the intensification of agricultural trade based on technological progress. Methodology / approach. This paper uses the methods of economic theory and comparative analysis to study the development of agricultural products trade in China; analysis the advantages of developing agricultural products trade in China by using comparative advantage theory; and econometric analysis to study the relationship between volume of agrarian trade and agricultural labor force, capital and land resources. Results. This paper uses time series data to analyze the three elements of capital, labor and land, and the development of agricultural trade in China. According to the established data model, it is obviously that China’s agricultural production of land factor endowment constraints are obvious, labor factor endowment is abundant but also facing the problem of increasing costs, labor personnel gradually decline. In this case, technological progress is more critical to the cultivation and maintenance of comparative advantage of agricultural products. The government should guide the direction of technological changes, technical support, capital support (material capital and human capital); and promote the rapid development of China’s agricultural trade. Originality / scientific novelty. Author’s developed econometric model is very useful in empirical assessment for the China agricultural products trade development, and it also provides new decisions for China to develop agricultural trade. Accordingly, the proposed method can provide an answer to the question of how to develop traditional agriculture in the context of rapid economic changes, and put forward more practical countermeasures. Practical value / significance. The main proposals can be used by the Government of China to formulate better agricultural trade policies and achieve rapid economic growth and increasing farmer incomes.
 
Article
Purpose. This study highlights the specific and accurate methods for forecasting prices of commonly consumed grains or legumes in Nigeria based on data from January 2017 to June 2020. Methodology / approach. Different models that include autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), artificial neural networks (ANN), seasonal decomposition of time series by loess method (STLM), and a combination of these three models (hybrid model) were proposed to forecast the sample grain price data. This study uses price data on widely consumed grains, such as white maize, local rice, imported rice, and white beans, in Nigeria from January 2017 to June 2020. Results. Our result indicates that ARIMA is the best applicable model for white maize and imported rice because it is well fitted to stationary data, as demonstrated in the sample period. The STLM is more appropriate in forecasting white beans. As white beans are highly seasonal in Nigeria, it further explains why the STLM model fits better in forecasting prices. The production of local rice is inconsistent in Nigeria because of erratic rainfall and stiff competition from the importation of rice from other countries. Therefore, and consistent with the analysis, the hybrid model is the best model applicable to local rice because it captures varying trends exhibited in the data. Originality / scientific novelty. This study suggests most accurate forecasting techniques for specific agricultural commodities in sub-Saharan African countries. It considers forecasting prices of commonly consumed grains and legumes in Nigeria and traded worldwide, such as imported rice, local rice, beans, and maize. Practical value / implications. The study highlights the importance of appropriate forecasts for policymakers, producers, and consumers to enhance better decision making and serve as an underlying incentive to guide the allocation of financial resources to the agricultural sector, which determines the structure and degree of sectoral growth.
 
Article
Purpose. The main purpose of the research is to substantiate the methodological approach of defuzzification and to define its peculiarities in the process of estimating the value of agricultural lands. Methodology / approach. The research purpose included the use of a set of appropriate methods. In particular, the fuzzy logic techniques formed the basis of the research. The system approach was used in order to determine the role of land resources in the enterprise potential and the corresponding spheres of their management. The analysis and synthesis methods were used in the process of definition of impact factors of land resources value. The cartographic method was used for the needs of graphical display of humus content in the land plots of the analyzed enterprise. The generalization method was used in the process of forming conclusions. Results. The article defines the peculiarities of defuzzification in the process of estimating the value of agricultural lands. The results provided the methodological basis for considering the qualitative metrics in the process of estimation as well as for granting the numerical interpretation for linguistic variables. The corresponding methodology was overviewed at the example of land plot size. The quantitative reference limits for “small”, “medium” and “large” land plots were defined. Research results made it possible to form the sequence of stages, which are to be undertaken, in order to provide numerical values for qualitative characteristics of agricultural lands. A decision tree was built for the needs of formation of management decisions. According to the data of researched enterprise, the dependence of the value of agricultural lands (for the needs of management accounting) on the size of the land plot and the humus content was determined. Originality / scientific novelty. The article improves the methodological approach to determining the value of agricultural lands as of an element of enterprise potential based on the use of fuzzy logic techniques, which, in contrast to existing approaches, allows taking into account both quantitative and qualitative factors in the process of estimating the value of land resources for the needs of their management. Applying the respective approach increases the level of accuracy, relevance, and adequacy to market realities of the results of estimating the value of agricultural lands for the needs of their management. Practical value / implications. The results of the research provided an opportunity to improve the quality and efficiency of the process of estimating the value of agricultural lands. The corresponding process is characterized by a high level of complexity and uncertainty due to the presence of a significant number of qualitative factors influencing the value of the land resources. The approach considered in the article makes it possible to take into account the influence of relevant qualitative factors by giving them numerical certainty through the use of fuzzy logic techniques. The proposed approach will provide an opportunity to increase the accuracy and relevance of estimating the value of land resources as of an element of enterprise potential for the making of corresponding managerial decisions. The proposed methodological approach was implemented with the use of data of agricultural enterprise, which made it possible to take into account linguistic variables (land plot size and chemical properties of the soil) when forming the managerial decisions about land plots. The decision tree was also formed, which serves as a means of supporting management decisions in the process of forming the value of agricultural lands.
 
The specific weight of areas before the concluded contracts for the period of 2005-2019, % Source: made by the author's based on enterprise statistical reporting.
Dynamics of change in the amount of insurance premiums and the level of payments for the period of 2005-2019 Source: made by the author's based on enterprise statistical reporting.
Dynamics of change in the size of premiums for the period of 2005-2019 Source: made by the authors based on enterprise statistical reporting.
Dynamics of change in the USD / UAH exchange rate for the period of 2005-2019 Source: made by the authors based on statistical reporting.
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to diagnose the financial and economic conditions of the agricultural insurance market in the context of transformational changes, which allows identifying the dependences of variables among the indicators of insurance in Ukraine. Methodology / approach. The final goal of diagnosis is to build models that describe the variables and allow assessing the impact of some insurance indicators on the number of insurance contracts, which allows conducting regression of projected and observed values among insurance indicators during 2005–2019. The direct selection was also applied, which allowed starting without variables in this model by checking the addition of each variable with the use of the selected criterion of conformity of the model; as well as the repeatedness of this process until the best state of the model. Results. The modelling results allowed us to determine that among the insurance indicators in the agricultural insurance market, the dependent variable is the indicator of the number of insurance contracts. As a result of the regression, it was stated that for the dependent variable the USD / UAH exchange rate and the subsidy, mln UAH, have a significant impact on the number of insurance contracts. Less importance had the area, thousand hectares, and the remaining variables did not determine such an impact. The obtained regression value of the predicted and observed value stated an adequate model, as the slope of the regression line is 45°. Originality / scientific novelty. The novelty is improvement of the diagnostic algorithm for assessing trends in the agricultural insurance market in terms of transformational changes, taking into account the regression which made it possible to establish the dependences of variables among insurance indicators; validity of the use of direct selection with repeatedness of which the best possible state of the model is achieved. Practical value / implications. The comparison of the studied insurance indicators in the agricultural insurance market allowed determining the relationship between variables with the separation of their weight, which affect insurance contracts, which confirms the adequacy of the application of diagnostics which will be used during the evaluation of insurance contracts at enterprises of the agricultural insurance market.
 
Article
Purpose. The paper aims at finding out how significantly stakeholders are consulted and involved by preparers, Ukrainian publicly-listed agricultural companies, while compiling sustainability reporting (SR) and by assurance providers, during assurance processes of SR. The paper’s main research question may be formulated as follows ‘How deeply stakeholders are involved at Ukrainian agricultural companies in the preparation of their sustainability reporting and assurance?’ Methodology / approach. The study utilizes widely used techniques in this field content analysis of sustainability reports based on suggested coding rules which in turn grounded in the leading literature. Authors use a multidimensional coding system (with a maximum score of 12 points) which consists of three elements and offers an aggregate assessment of the information disclosure of the involvement of stakeholders in sustainability reporting. Also authors base on frameworks for classification of the stakeholders’ engagement level into three levels (information, response and involvement strategies). The paper’s sample although tiny, only five years/company observations, is comprehensive since it includes all Ukrainian agricultural companies presented in GRI SDD database one of the largest databases of its kind. To analyze only the latest relevant experience, authors have limited the report type to the latest GRI modification – GRI Standards. As a result of five steps in the sample formation process, it is equal to 3 companies that produced 5 reports in the period between 2017 and 2019 years. Results. While the used coding structure allowed for a maximum of 12 points, the analysed reports were able to reach only half of this as one report earned 7, one – 6 and the rest was marked with 5 points. From the three companies from our sample frontrunner is Astarta Holding. Astarta Holding excels in materiality relevance (4 points) and is the only company assured its sustainability report. Authors find that the engagement strategy of the companies being analyzed mostly consists of action intended to inform (level 1) as well as consult and support stakeholders (level 2), whilst deep involvement strategy (level 3) is being almost neglected. In regards to focus, we find that the most cited stakeholders in engagement actions are on level 1 employees, consumers and suppliers. Consumers also alongside authorities and local communities are the most cited stakeholders on the level of response strategy, whereas the authorities are the single stakeholders' group being honoured to be treated on the highest third level. The authors’ general impression is that for the most part legitimacy theory is the best theory to explain the behaviour of compilers of reports from the sample because mostly management uses rhetorical tools to cover its activities, while the reporting itself lacks specifics about negative externalities. For authors, it looks like an exercise in self-legitimization. It appears that the companies studied has not yet fully performed the transfer from ‘stakeholder management’ to ‘stakeholder engagement’. It is the authors’ understanding that all this has roots in the very perverted perception of sustainability reporting as a continuation of financial reporting although it is not. In financial reporting, materiality is defined internally as a percentage of some indicators in the balance sheet and/or statement of financial performance, in sustainable reporting, materiality is not only important in the assurance, but it is a cornerstone in the preparation of SR itself. Originality / scientific novelty. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first that extends the analysis the stakeholders’ engagement in the sustainability reporting to the Ukrainian agricultural companies, thus shedding some light on that unexplored (underexplored) practice. Practical value / implications. First, sustainability reporting practices in Ukraine is in its infancy, and therefore any shortcomings identified will be a guide to action to adjust these approaches in the future. Secondly, our analysis can also be seen as the dissemination of best practices. The companies we have chosen are pioneers in this matter, so they can at the same time be considered as role models for others, but taking into account the experience gained by them. Besides, in addition to companies, our findings can be useful for regulators and public authorities alike in terms of adjusting the approach to regulating this area.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to identify the causes of economic policy failure in general and agricultural policy failures in Albania in particular. At the same time, the very concept of policy failure is a matter of our interest. To achieve our goal, we have conducted a basic literature review. The most important aspect of interest in the study is the investigation of two cases where agricultural policy in Albania has failed. Methodology / approach. To conduct the study we use several methods: a review of general literature in relation to government policy failure; review of specific literature regarding farm size and cooperation; review of national policy or strategic documents regarding agricultural and rural development in general and farm size and cooperation in particular; review of national statistical evidence about farm size and cooperation in Albania, and data from international sources such as The Global Economy. Results. The study is based on the widely recognized evidence that the concept of failure is multidimensional and not uniquely defined. The study contributes to identifying and summarizing some of the main causes of policy failures. Government policies generally fail when intervention leads to inefficient allocation of resources and an overall decline in people’s well-being when they do not increase production, productivity, or revenue, or when society does not achieve the policy objectives set. Policy failures are generally related to the weakness of institutions. Institutions are weak when they fail to perform effectively the three basic functions that are commitment, coordination, and cooperation. In the case of agricultural policies in Albania, the study analyzes the extremely low level of collective action and the small size of farms, which has remained almost the same and fragmented throughout the 30–year period of economic and social transition. Strong institutions responsible for drafting and implementing legislation and developing policies, characterized by the professionalism and high performance of their staff, are the only guarantee for achieving the policy objectives for sustainable agricultural development and accelerating the process of Albania’s integration into the European Union. Originality / scientific novelty. The literature points out that: (1) government effectiveness, (2) rule of law and (3) weak control of corruption are the root causes of all policy failures, including agricultural policy failures. We analyze the data on these indicators for Albania and some other countries in the Western Balkans region and try to draw conclusions about their impact on the two policy failures we are interested in, which are the serious lack of collective action in the agricultural sector and the small size of farms in Albania. No previous research has been focused on agricultural policy failures, at least in Albania. Practical value / implications. The study may be useful for the discussion and evaluation of the impact of policies, and performance of related institutions in Albania. It emphasizes not only the need of reforming these bodies but also suggestions for future research on policies and their effectiveness in Albania and beyond.
 
Article
Purpose. As a European granary, Ukraine has rich agricultural resources. China is a country with a large population and has a large demand for food. However, the agricultural trade between the two countries has only achieved rapid development in recent years, and is not closely linked in related trade areas. This article studies the current situation of agricultural trade between the two sides, analyzes the trade data, finds out challenges, and provides suggestions for further promoting trade cooperation between the two sides. Methodology / approach. The categories 1, 2, 3, and 4 under the HS Code of the General Merchandise Trade Statistics Database of the People’s Republic of China are used as agricultural trade statistics categories with a time span of 2014–2019 trade data. The relevant data of agricultural product trade are sorted and there is statistics, which objectively explain the current status of trade exchanges between the two sides; the results of the analysis of the trade data are put forward, and the problems existing in the development of China-Ukraine trade and the factors affecting the development are raised. Results. According to the results of the analysis, from 2014 to 2019, China’s agricultural products imported from Ukraine accounted for 45.5 % of the total import trade. Agricultural products occupy a very important position in China’s import trade from Ukraine in terms of trade scale. Among them, the import of cereals and other products accounted for 95.7 % of the total imported plant products. Ukraine, the European granary, has become China's main food importer. In 2019, China replaced India as the largest food importer of Ukraine; In terms of export trade, mechanical and electrical products, base metals and light industrial products occupy an important position. From 2014 to 2019, China’s agricultural exports to Ukraine accounted for only 2.6 % of the total export trade, which is a small share. This shows that China and Ukraine have strong complementarity in terms of total trade volume and agricultural product trade. In the future, the two countries can further strengthen cooperation to expand their own advantages and better promote the development of trade between the two countries. Originality / scientific novelty. Due to the geographical distance between China and Ukraine, the political instability of the post-independence republic as a former Soviet Union led to less economic and trade exchanges between Ukraine and China. Scientists did not study much on economic and trade relations between China and Ukraine. Most of the research deal with macro trade policy aspects, but the innovation of this article lies in the use of statistical data for empirical analysis, to show the current status of trade between the two sides, and to make recommendations for the further development of bilateral trade. Practical value / implications. Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Ukraine in 1992, the relations between the two countries have developed smoothly. In 2011, the two countries established a strategic partnership of cooperation. Subsequently, trade cooperation in various fields has continued to develop, especially in the agricultural product trade. In recent years, total agricultural trade has doubled. In 2019, China became the largest importer of Ukrainian agricultural products. After China proposed the implementation of the «Belt and Road» initiative, Ukraine actively participated in the «Belt and Road» framework agreement. The research on agricultural trade between the two sides will be of great significance to promote further and deeper cooperation between the two sides in the field of agricultural trade and expand and create a wider development space.
 
Article
Purpose. The paper focuses on comparing two cost calculation method describing the principle, utilisation, advantages and disadvantages of the traditional mark-up on cost pricing (overhead method) against Activity Based Costing (ABC), a new, unconventional method of cost calculation. The aim is to prove that the ABC method allocates costs differently to individual products, in a different proportion thereto, unlike the mark-up method. The ABC method is considered by us more accurate because it views differently how costs originate. Methodology / approach. Statistical data testing was carried out, using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk W tests, followed by a paired t-test, and completed with the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. The data was evaluated for eight selected products, whose overhead value was calculated from both marking-up and ABC, out of a selected set of primary agricultural enterprises in Slovakia. Finally, the results were assessed with an unproven statistically significant difference between the calculation methods found. Results. This paper emphasises a different view of costing with the ABC method which, unlike conventional methods, offers multidimensionality and variation of cost tracking based on real and relevant data. A statistically significant difference between the methods was demonstrated for three pairs of variables (out of a total eight pairs). Statistically significant differences were found for cattle, wheat and sugar beets. Although statistical testing has not shown any significant difference between the methods, ABC is still considered a more accurate costing method for allocating overhead. The argument here follows from the very principle and method of ABC allocation of overheads. Unlike traditional methods, ABC offers multidimensional and diverse cost tracking based on real and relevant data. The direct allocation of costs (using an equal budget base) to products and services does not necessarily capture actual cost flows. Because overheads are higher on farms, misleading data can be provided. Practical experience in agriculture seems to imply that the ABC method is the most cost-effective tool for cost control and encourages its further use in budgeting, planning, modelling and decision-making. Originality / scientific novelty. The paper focuses on cost calculations made in agricultural holdings, often a neglected topic in agricultural management. In particular, high overhead costs in agriculture deserve more attention. Their exact allocation to products is important. The paper also focuses on assessing the suitability of calculation methods in agricultural holdings and on pointing out the need for accurate cost allocation. Practical value / implications. The main results and ideas here can be beneficial for managing agricultural holdings. Where the proportion of overheads is higher, management may be provided with misleading data. Practical experience shows the ABC method to be currently the most cost-effective tool for controlling costs and provides opportunities for its use in budgeting, planning, modelling and decision-making on product range structure, alongside other options.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to form analytical tools for the capital reproduction in the agricultural sector of Ukraine’s economy for substantiation of management decisions to ensure its continuous recovery, progressive growth of its value on the basis of positive qualitative changes in capital at its optimal structural proportions. Methodology / approach. Such scientific methods were used in the article to achieve the purpose of the research: structural and logical analysis – to form a holistic conceptual approach to research; comparison – to substantiate the peculiarities of the reproduction of capital at the macro level and in the agricultural sector of the economy; statistical method – for processing information that characterizes the value and structural proportions of capital of economic entities in the agricultural sector of the economy. Results. Elaboration of analytical indicators of the passive part of the balance of economic entities of agriculture, forestry, fisheries of Ukraine revealed that there is an increase of equity capital relative to its cost value, but a decrease in its share in the total capital structure, namely a decrease of cost estimate of equity capital relative to borrowed capital occurs 3.5 times more intensely; during 2010–2018, total capital, equity capital and gross value added of enterprises of the national economy of Ukraine, as well as the agricultural sector of the economy showed sustainable growth, but in the agricultural sector of the economy there was a decrease in the share of gross value added in total capital of enterprises that proved the tendency of potential narrowing the sources of ensuring the reproduction of capital; during the study period, the level of real capitalization in the agricultural sector of Ukraine's economy decreased significantly; dynamic changes in indicators of financial stability of agricultural enterprises confirmed that in 2018 agricultural enterprises were able to finance their assets at the expense of equity by only 49 % (in 2001 – 66%), financial stability of agricultural enterprises in 2018 lagged behind the optimal allowable value by 12 percentage points, in contrast to 2001 (exceeding the optimal allowable value by 3 percentage points), which encouraged an increase of financial risks in agriculture. Originality / scientific novelty. Financial diagnostics of cost and structural characteristics of capital of economic entities in the agricultural sector of Ukraine`s economy revealed that in the agricultural sector there is a paradoxical situation: the dynamics of retained earnings growth in the structure of equity capital, accompanied by declining dynamics of equity in the total amount of total capital and narrowing of cost estimates of equity in relation to GDP. It is proved that the formation of optimal proportions of capital is one of the factors ensuring expanded reproduction of capital, therefore, the mechanism of implementation of financial policy of capital reproduction should be aimed at increasing internal sources of capital formation and optimizing the structure of total capital. Given that the agricultural sector of Ukraine with its basic component, farming, is a system-forming component in the national economy and forms the basis for preserving the sovereignty of the state (food, economic, environmental and energy security within certain limits), we assume that further accumulation of negative trends from the perspective of values and structural proportions of capital in the agricultural sector of Ukraine's economy may be the basis for the acquisition of a state of financial fragility in the economic system as a whole. Practical value / implications. To harmonize certain norms of capital formation of Ukrainian enterprises, it is proposed to take into account the «fixed capital system», enshrined in the second EU Directive and to establish at the legislative level the procedure for capital formation for limited liability companies (LLCs): guaranteed real contribution of authorized capital should be at the level of the cost values of net assets of the company; to consider such level as the minimum admissible.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of this article is to study the nature, main trends and problematic aspects of realization of the export potential of agricultural production in the countries of South America, OECD, North America and Europe in the context of aggravating food crisis. Methodology / approach. Theoretical and empirical methods of cognition are used in their dialectical combination. The main methods used in this study are statistical analysis, index, graphical and analytical methods, methods for estimating structural dynamic shifts, comparisons and monographic method. The study also involved general methods of economic research, in particular: theoretical generalization and comparison, induction and deduction are used in revealing the content of the export potential of agricultural production, drawing conclusions; the current condition and tendencies of development of export of agricultural products is estimated by means of synthesis and the economic analysis; graphic, economic, statistical and interstate comparisons are used to analyse the export of agricultural products; statistical methods (grouping) are applied to assess the domestic and external export potential of agricultural products in the regional context. The influence of external and domestic export potential on wheat exports is studied by regression analysis. Results. The need to ensure food security by countries around the world urges the importance of the agricultural sector as a catalyst for economic development, sources of foreign exchange earnings, investment direction, etc. The study of agricultural specialization led to the conclusion that wheat and sugar are goods with the highest export potential. It is substantiated that the countries of South America, OECD, North America and Europe have the highest level of fulfilment of export potential of agricultural production, and African countries are import-dependent. Besides, the low export orientation of Africa and Asia due to the peculiarities of their natural and climatic conditions is established based on the assessment of export-import operations in the regional context. The internal and external export potential of each of the regions is analysed. The direct correlation between the exports volume and area of land used for wheat cultivation, as well as with its yield, was established through the correlation and regression analysis. Originality / scientific novelty. The scientific novelty of the results of the study is that the authors were the first who carried out a comprehensive analysis of the potential capacity and ability to increase exports of agricultural products in the world and by product groups. The essence and features of economic representation of export potential of agricultural products at the international and national levels are determined. The main factors influencing the development of the export potential of agricultural products in the regional context are outlined and their influence is investigated by carrying out the regression analysis. The study of domestic and foreign export potential by regions of the world is further developed. Practical value / implications. The analysis of the internal and external export potential of agricultural production was carried out in the regional context, which resulted in the identification of the main recommendations for increasing their level in order to enhance the development of the agro-industrial sector of the economy.
 
FD1 and Manufacturing (MANU) value added (% of GDP) Source: authors' own calculations.
Article
Purpose. The formal sector in Nigeria has experienced some transformation in the last 20 years. This has led to advancement and deepening of sector. Despite the progression achieved in financial sector, it has not yielded the desired impacts on the economy as experienced in other emerging economies. Hence, this research assessed the advantageous effects of financial deepening on sectoral advancement in Nigeria. Methodology / approach. The research used the proxies of broad money (M2) to GDP ratio, and the ratio of credits to private sector to GDP for financial deepening. The data regarding time series were retrieved from Thomson Reuters DataStream and Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test and Johansen co integration approaches used for the long-oriented effects and Error Correction approach for short orientation estimation. Results. The impact of financial deepening was positive and statistically significant in explaining agricultural growth, but the performance of the manufacturing sector was not significantly impacted in the reviewed period, hence government should make efforts to reduce the interest rate on loan bestowed to the private sector. Originality / scientific novelty. The variables assortments have never been describing in the literature. Particularly, this study considers financial deepening as a significant determinant of sectoral development in the Nigerian context. Practical value / implications. According to the results of the study, it is recommended to increase credits to the manufacturing sector through specialized banks and ensures the growth of the financial industry in terms of provision of quality financial instruments, sound financial and money markets, and transparent legislation for healthy competition in the industry for better sectoral performance.
 
Distribution of answers to the question "Why does your company carry out socially responsible activities" in 2018, % Sourse: depicted according to the data [24, p. 12-13].
Distribution of answers to the question "Who or what is the source of ideas for the implementation of socially responsible activities of the company" in 2018, % Sourse: depicted according to the data [24, p. 26-27].
The share of issues disclosed in the reports on corporate social responsibility of Ukrainian enterprises, % Sourse: depicted according to the data [25, p. 20-21].
The share of issues disclosed in the reports on corporate social responsibility of Ukrainian enterprises and international companies for 2017, % Sourse: depicted according to the data [25, p. 25-26].
The share of information needs of internal stakeholders of surveyed enterprises in 2020, % Sourse: developed by the authors.
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the study is to develop non-financial reporting of medium-sized agricultural enterprises of Ukraine through the definition of the main activities of the enterprise, which are subject to disclosure in non-financial reporting, to meet the information needs of internal and external stakeholders of such enterprises. Methodology / approach. The research methods are based on dialectical and systematic approaches to assessing the current state of non-financial reporting of Ukrainian enterprises. Methods of analysis and synthesis are used to determine the main activities of agricultural enterprises, which are subject to disclosure in non-financial statements, based on requests from interested users. To obtain data on information requests of internal stakeholders of the surveyed enterprises, continuous initial observation was applied, and external sample holders were subjected to continuous sample observation. Internal (in particular, the population units are employees and owners) and external (in particular, the population units are contractors, consumers, creditors, investors, government agencies, NGOs) stakeholders are selected as the object of observation. Results. According to the results of the study, in the formation of non-financial reporting agricultural enterprises of Ukraine should pay special attention to areas of activity that are of greatest interest to stakeholders: development and improvement of working conditions, investment in regional development, respect for human rights, implementation of CSR programs in the supply chain. The main activities of the company, which are subject to disclosure in non-financial reporting, provide an opportunity to meet the information needs of internal and external stakeholders. Originality / scientific novelty. Failure to meet information needs of both internal and external stakeholders of agricultural enterprises has necessitated the improvement of organizational and methodological approaches to the formation of non-financial reporting of agricultural enterprises by identifying the main activities of the enterprise to be disclosed in non-financial reporting. The use of these areas creates an opportunity for stakeholders to obtain data that provide integrated information on the activities of agricultural enterprises. Practical value / implications. Disclosure of information in accordance with certain main activities of the enterprise will reduce the cost of users to obtain, process and systematize data, which will reduce inefficient use of resources in the preparation, substantiation, implementation and evaluation of economic decisions, as well as increase analytical capabilities for its use in the interest of stakeholders. The identified main areas of activity can be used as a basis for developing a long-term strategy for the formation of non-financial reporting of the agricultural enterprise, which will simplify the preparation of information for its full disclosure. This will increase the level of transparency of enterprises and will serve as a tool for building their positive reputation.
 
Article
Purpose. The aim of the article is to reveal the theoretical and methodological approaches to the assessment of social capital and to build a system of indicators of its formation and results of use in the agricultural sector. Methodology / approach. The theoretical-and-methodological basis of the study are the conceptual provisions of economic theory, which allow determining the principles of creation and use of social capital. In the research we used methods of theoretical generalization, analysis and synthesis (to determine the object and objectives of the study); system approach (to identify components of social capital); systematization and classification (to determine the system of indicators that determine the formation and use of social capital); analysis of hierarchies (for comparative analysis of social capital of agricultural holdings). Results. Based on a critical review of literature sources, scientific trends in the assessment of social capital were systematized. There are determined new conceptual approaches to the development of indicators of social capital of the agricultural sector for meso- and microlevels, which take into account industry specifics, are determined by groups of factors of its formation and results of use, and reflect the main components of social capital – innovation (norms), relational (trust) and structural (social networks) social capital. On the basis of the method of analysis of hierarchies the comparative it was carried out an estimation of factors of formation of social capital of two domestic agroholdings which results correspond to results of the analysis of indicators of results of its use Originality / scientific novelty. The methodological bases of the analysis of social capital of the agrarian sphere through complex measurement of its components by means of system of indicators on meso- and microlevels taking into account branch features were improved, factors of formation and results of use of social capital were systematized. Practical value / implications. The obtained results allow substantiating the key approaches to measuring the social capital of the agricultural sector, which makes it possible to obtain comprehensive information for decision-making regarding its further formation and effective use.
 
Article
Purpose. The main purpose of the research is to substantiate a new approach to assessing the risk of production and sales of certain types of the agricultural products. Methodology / approach. The abstract-and-logical method (systematization of publications on risk assessment of the risk level); the economic and statistical one (determination of root-mean-square deviation (δ), the coefficient of variation (v), and the coefficient of residual variation); the marginal analysis (determination of the break-even level of production of certain types of the products) have been used. Results. The methodological approach that allows determining the risk level of certain types of the products has been developed and it has been proposed to determine not only with the help of the break-even point, but also to supplement the following indicators – determining the reserve of safety and the reserve of financial strength. It is proved that similar obtained assessments of the certain product type production risk level using the analysis of variation indices can be reached by examining the break-even point indices, financial safety margin and the margin of safety. Research results show that unlike variation indices, the break-even point index, the financial safety margin index and the margin of safety index show the maximum amount of possible net income reduction. Originality / scientific novelty. The methodical approach to the assessment of the risk level of agricultural production at the given level of profitability, which is based on the comparison of the levels of production intensity of certain types of the products, that ensures their break-even point, has been substantiated. Practical value. The application of the proposed methodological approach allows the managers to determine how much to reduce the amount of the net income or the level of production intensity, but not to fall into the zone of loss.
 
Article
Purpose. This paper evaluates the involvement of three selected agricultural commodities (rice, coffee and soya) in international trade. The aim is to analyze the specification of foreign trade in selected commodities and assess their different significance between representations in domestic markets and exports. This article will also assess other contexts related to international trade in these three commodities, including the negative effects on their trade. Based on the set goal, a research question was asked which evaluates the different position of the examined agricultural commodities on world export markets in relation to domestic consumption. Methodology / approach. The theoretical anchoring of the issue under study are the approaches taken to international economic relations with the emphasis on the specific features of agricultural trade. The methodological framework of the present study is based on the systematic analysis of the spatial distribution of production capacities, the territorial analysis of exports and imports within the world agricultural market and qualitative evaluation of the specifics of selected export commodities and their role in the economy of countries, including labour market importance and in the possibilities of their use. Results. The paper presents the results of the involvement of the rice, coffee and soya in international trade analysis. Most rice production is consumed on domestic markets. Unlike rice, most of the coffee produced is exported and less is consumed within the growing countries themselves. Although domestic coffee consumption is increasing, more than 70% of world production is exported. Soya bean production has increased significantly over the past 50 years as a result of the rising demand for animal feedstuff and biofuels. Almost three quarters of soya bean production is consumed as feedstuff. Originality / scientific novelty. The main contribution of the article is in the application level the elaboration of a comparative view of three selected agricultural commodities. At the theoretical level of the study, it represents a contribution to the discussion within the approaches to the organization of global agricultural trade, the interdependence of economic policies of states, trade ties and the impact on labour markets in relation to production. Agricultural commodities remain an important item in world international trade. However, their share in the total volume is gradually declining. They play an important role in the maintenance of individual countries, but at the same time they are of great economic importance, although we can also mention the less positive aspects of their production, including their impact on the environment. At the same time, it is necessary to realize that this sector is essential for human survival and also that agriculture is important from the point of food security for the population, which can contribute to and increase the level of agricultural protectionism (resilience to world market disruptions or uncontrolled import of genetically modified (GM) food and the transmission of animal diseases). Agriculture is one of the most sensitive economic sectors in the world. Nevertheless, agricultural exports have several economic benefits, including stimulating a wide range of agricultural-related industries, transport suppliers, processing and farm inputs. Practical value / implications. The production of agricultural commodities is of great importance to the economies of individual states, where it contributes to the creation of direct, indirect and induced jobs. The agrarian sector is a key sector, especially for less developed countries. The analysis confirmed the high tradability of all commodities examined and is documented by their involvement in the international division of labour in the global projection.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to suggest an evaluation method of the level of the usage of social instruments for human resource management by example of agro-processing enterprises of Ukraine. Methodology / approach. The research described in the article was carried out according to the method developed by the authors for evaluation of the level of the usage of social instruments for human resource management on the enterprise. This method is based on the self-evaluation of social instruments for human resource management by HR managers together with top managers of the enterprise, comparing these results with the desired indicators of development of each of the social instruments in accordance to strategic guidelines, and development of a Plan of actions on the development of social instrument for human resource management. Results. According to the results of authors’ method approbation of analysis of the level of the usage of social instruments for human resource management on the agro-processing enterprises of Ukraine it is established that the usage of social instruments of human resource management by these enterprises is estimated as average (41–58 points). The predominant social instruments for human resource management on the enterprises under investigation are the welfare of employees and working life, planning and development of employees’ career, efficiency management and conflict management. The low level of the usage of social instruments of employees’ participation in enterprise management, setting-up of effective social partnership, feedback, counseling and coaching reflect the out-of-date understanding of the staff as a work force rather than the most important resource. On the basis of the conducted analysis it was determined that unsystematic usage of social instruments for human resource management is observed at the enterprises of agro-processing industry of Ukraine. Neglecting of the social instruments as an important factor of formation of human resource of an enterprise and increasing its competitiveness reduces industrial and innovative development of an enterprise in general. Originality / scientific novelty. The methodical provisions for evaluation of the level of the usage of social instruments for human resource management on the enterprise are improved. For the first time the content of each social instruments of human resource management is offered and a total scale for evaluation of the level of the usage of social instruments for human resource management on the enterprise and the characteristics of each level are submitted. Practical value / implications. The proposed authors’ evaluation method of the level of the usage of social instruments for human resource management of the enterprise is successfully tested at the agro-processing enterprises of Ukraine and it demonstrates its viability and practical usefulness. The evaluation method is recommended for enterprise’s HRM services as a tool to evaluate the level of the usage of social instruments for human resource management.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of this paper was to determine motivational factors of structural changes in the agro-industrial sector of Ukraine, which will strengthen the ability of business entities to generate larger added value flows and increase efficiency through the development of strategic network partnerships. Methodology / approach. While writing the article the following methods were used: methods of economic and statistical analysis – to study the dynamic of indicators that reflect the results of sectoral structural changes of the enterprises’ activities in the sector of agriculture, forestry and fisheries of Ukraine during 2016–2019; critical analysis – to identify shortcomings in the legislative field of Ukraine, which deform motivational vectors, negatively affect the development of agro-industrial complex; morphological analysis and synthesis – to prove the feasibility of interpreting the term “network capital” in a narrow and broad sense; scientific abstraction and graphic visualization – to build the model of formation of network capital and use in the processes of organizational interaction of participants in a strategic business partnership; mathematical modelling – to formalize the conditions under which the network partnership participants will avoid manipulation by the expert environment in the apportionment of the costs and revenues from the implementation of business projects. Results. It has been studied the dynamic of indicators that reflect the results of the sectoral and structural changes in activities of Ukrainian enterprises in the agriculture, forestry, and fisheries sector during 2016–2019. It has been highlighted shortcomings in the legislative field of Ukraine, which distort the vectors of motivational influence on the development of agro-industrial complex, causing the corruption schemes spread in the decisions and actions of economic agents. The essential content of the term “network capital” in a narrow and broad interpretation has been differentiated and the motivational basis for its increase by the business network participants has been highlighted. The processes of formation and use of network capital in the inter-organizational interaction of participants of strategic business partnership have been modelled. Nash equilibrium theory has been applied to increase the reliability of the position assessment of business network participants in the total costs and revenues apportionment and it has been proved that this forms the motivational basis for long-term cooperation. Originality / scientific novelty. The author’s interpretation of the term “network capital” in a broad and narrow sense with emphasis on motivational aspects of this capital increasing in the agro-industrial business network has been proposed. The model of network capital formation and use in the processes of organizational interaction of participants in a strategic business partnership has been constructed. There have been modelled the conditions under which the participants of the network partnership will avoid manipulation by the expert environment in the apportionment processes of costs and revenues from the business projects implementation, which will improve their motivation to cooperate. Practical value / implications. The main results of the study can be used for (i) elimination of some gaps in the institutional environment of Ukraine, which distort the motivational vectors of agricultural development; (ii) managing growth processes of network capital to increase the aggregate ability of business network participants to create new consumer value with high added value; (iii) improving the motivational basis for long-term cooperation of business network participants by increasing the reliability of their positions assessment in the total costs and revenues apportionment.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of this study was a theoretical and methodological generalization of the agroholdings’ social initiatives within their charitable activities with the interaction of cooperatives based on the institutional model. Methodology / approach. This study was based on applying the general economic and special methods. The abstract-logical method was used for scientific discussion and scientific views about the role of agroholdings and their impact on the rural population. The method of critical analysis was applied to outline the social aspects of agroholdings’ activities. The system approach allowed contouring the main problems that arise in the process of agroholding growing. The study of the state of agricultural cooperatives’ financing by agroholdings was also conducted. On the basis of the monographic method the motives and directions of the management of separate agroholdings within their social responsibility limits were defined. With the generalization method, the basic forms and resources of agroholdings’ social responsibility were determined. Thanks to the correlation-regression analysis, it was established the relationship between the social responsibility indicator of agroholdings and their efficiency by EBITDA, as well as their social responsibility and market capitalization degree. Results. The study examined the main scientific approaches to the role of agroholdings, which allowed outlining their ambiguity and contradictions. The systematization of the presented materials allowed developing arguments in favor of the agroholdings’ functioning and identifying counterarguments of their activities as well as emphasizing the need of the basic methodological provisions for further harmonious development of agroholding structures and cooperatives. The results of the presented empirical analysis showed a low level of agroholdings’ social responsibility, which affects the development of the rural areas and significantly increases social tensions. On the basis of the conducted research and data processing the mechanism of agroholdings’ and cooperatives’ interaction on the basis of social responsibility is offered. It was proved that the basis of the presented interaction must be financial and economic, social, marketing and environmental motives. Originality / scientific novelty. It was improved the theoretical and methodological approach to the formation of institutional model of the agroholdings’ and cooperatives’ interaction on the principles of social responsibility, which provides financial and economic, social, marketing, environmental problems solutions by agroholdings and promotes the rural community’s development in the near future. Practical value / implications. The results of the study are of great practical importance and can be useful for various ownership forms of agricultural producers as well as for agricultural holding organizations which are interested in harmonizing the rural economy development.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of this work is to investigate the ecological-and-economic aspect of certain factors to ensure the balanced use of forest lands; develop proposals for the formation of the basis for the development of sustainable forestry. Methodology / approach. We used the following methods: dialectical method of cognition for the analysis of scientific works of scientists concerning problems of balanced use of lands of forestry purpose; method of analogies (transfer of patterns of development of one process with certain amendments to another process or territory); statistical (based on quantitative indicators that allow drawing conclusions about the pace of the process); comparative analysis (comparison of indicators of forest resources and their use for Ukraine and Poland); correlation analysis (identification of factors on which the forecast significantly depends; clarification of relationships, their relationship with the predicted phenomenon under the influence of certain factors), graphical, abstract-logical (theoretical generalizations and formulation of conclusions). The information base of the study is the data of the Global Assessment of Forest Resources of FAO 2020, the data of the Monitoring of Land Relations in Ukraine, the reporting of the State Forest Agency of Ukraine, the data of the Forest Stewardship Council®. Based on the annual reports of the State Forestry Agency of Ukraine, some indicators of the report of 288 state forestries for 2018–2020 are consolidated in terms of 24 regional departments of forestry and hunting. Results. In the dynamics for 2018–2020, changes in the volume of forest resources, forest reserves, biomass, and carbon density were studied; the indicators of forest resources and their use for Ukraine and Poland are compared. The volumes of forest certification by regions of Ukraine are estimated. The relationships between capital investments in forestry production and the price of sold wood, the volume of net income of state forestry, the amount of profit, the degree of depreciation of fixed assets; between the tax burden on state forestries and financial stability was studied. Based on the assessment of the relationships and changes in individual indicators, the need to update the fixed assets of forest enterprises through the improvement of the investment instrument is justified. The results of this study are a summary of evidence on the environmental and economic aspects of the impact of certain factors on the sustainable use of forest lands, which in turn forms the scientific basis for achieving the goals of state environmental policy of Ukraine. Originality / scientific novelty. The studied interdependencies between the statistical characteristics of individual indicators of forestry land use made it possible to identify factors to ensure balanced use of forestry lands. It is substantiated that reforestation, forest certification, renewal of fixed assets of forestry enterprises through the improvement of the investment instrument, optimization of the tax burden of forestry activities are favorable factors to ensure the balance of forestry land use. It is proved that the excessive tax burden is a deterrent to the balanced use of forest lands. It is proposed to alleviate the tax burden on forestry activities by reducing the rate of deduction of net income of state forestry enterprises, eliminating the problem of double taxation of the forest fund, which under limited budget funding will allow state forestries to accumulate their own financial resources to ensure sustainable land use. Practical value / implications. The main results of the study can be used to: (I) structure the factors of sustainable use of forest lands; (II) defining the goals of sustainable development when developing the strategy of forestry enterprises; (III) analysis of the achievement of sustainable development goals at the national level, defined by the Basic Principles (strategy) of the state environmental policy of Ukraine for the period up to 2030. The results of the study can be used both at the level of forest management entities, as well as at the regional and national levels, to make management decisions on the implementation of measures that ensure the balanced use of forest land. Also, the causal links between indicators that arise from the response of indicators to certain factors open up new opportunities for forest management planning. These results can provide important information for the protection and use of forest resources in all regions of Ukraine.
 
Article
Purpose. The objective of the article is to investigate theoretically the possibility of harmonization of ecological and economic aspects of functioning of organic agricultural products production models under natural and climatic conditions of crop enterprises of Polissia zone in the Region of Chernihiv. Methodology / approach. The study was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Microbiology and Agro-Industrial Manufacture of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine during 2011–2020. The analysis of ecological and economic efficiency of organic crop rotations was made based on the results of the proprietary research on the example of generalization of predicted results of the developed standard models of organic crop rotations at crop enterprises of Polissia zone. Main methods: modelling (development, in particular, of standard models of crop rotations, modelling of the size of fertilizer potential over time by years); predicting (prediction of receipt and expenditure of nutrients, organic matter), balance (calculation of balances of humus and key nutrients), calculation and design (calculation of the basic parameters of economic efficiency); abstract and logical (formulation of the provisions of the article based on the analysis of studies of other authors, drawing conclusions based on the results of studies conducted). Results. Developed typical crop rotation models are characterized by positive predictive humus balances and acceptable key nutrient balances (NPK). With the implementation of ‘organic’ prices for agricultural products, most crops achieve an acceptable level of profitability. However, in order to achieve a competitive level of profitability of organic production, it must be provided with an appropriate economic mechanism of its functioning, in particular higher prices compared to traditional agricultural products, etc. Harmonization of economic and ecological aspects in simulated crop rotations is achieved primarily by selecting crops with high yields, which are mainly characterized by insufficient or low level of ecological efficiency, and crops with high or medium ecological efficiency, which having insufficient or low economic efficiency, compensate mostly negative ecological consequences of growing crops with high economic efficiency. This is accompanied by achievement of the ecological balance of agrocenoses and an acceptable level of economic efficiency of organic models. The practical aspect of the activities of specific farms in relation to the choice of the appropriate model of organic management should take into account not only considerations of ecological and economic efficiency, but also the level of resource provision within these limits. Originality / scientific novelty. The possibility of harmonization of economic and ecological aspects and achievement of their acceptable level in crop rotations of organic agriculture for crop enterprises has been theoretically substantiated. For the first time, the methodological approach developed by the authors on the distribution of costs for the production and application of organic fertilizers between crops during crop rotation in proportion to the duration and amount of fertilization was implemented. Practical value / implications. Typical models of crop rotations of organic farming for crop enterprises in Polissia were developed. Methods of choosing a certain model were proposed both according to the criteria of ecological and economic efficiency, and taking into account the organizational and economic capabilities and resource provision of a particular business entity.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article to assess and model the interrelation between the financial well-being of territorial communities (TCs) and regional economic growth in Ukraine under conditions of uncertainty. Methodology / approach. The empirics of assessment and modeling of a causal relationship between the financial well-being of TCs and economic growth of regions is based on: the construction of time series for empirical parameters of territorial communities’ financial well-being (substantiation of structural elements of financial well-being, TCs clusterization by the criteria of profitability, and calculation of integral coefficients); multidimensional estimation of regional economic growth (multiplicative approach, principal component analysis); detection of impact (“pressure” force) of TCs’ financial well-being on the paces of regional economic growth (index and regression methods). Results. Based on the results of the integral assessment with preliminary clusterization of TCs by their revenues, the article reveals that in 2020, the weighted average level of TCs’ financial well-being in Ukrainian regions was the highest in Zakarpattia (0.592), Kherson (0.534), Zaporizhzhia (0.513), and Chernivtsi (0.512) oblasts, while the lowest – in Ivano-Frankivsk (0.281) oblast. In 2010–2020, Ivano-Frankivsk (0.48 %), Poltava (0.06 %), Rivne (0.16 %), Ternopil (0.25 %), Khmelnytskyi (0.35 %), and Chernihiv (0.54 %) oblasts demonstrated higher annual average economic growth paces, while Dnipropetrovsk (-0.86 %) and Kherson (-0.94 %) oblasts – negative ones. Originality / scientific novelty. The article enhances the methodological approach to the complementary assessment of TCs’ financial well-being and regional economic growth, which has contributed to modeling the ability of territories’ economies to increase investment-economic capacity and the causal relationship between economic growth determinants and the financial capacity of territorial communities in regions. Practical value / implications. The article offers and substantiates the action-oriented approach to the assessment of regional economic development. Its implementation contributes to making the spatial breakdown of the system’s economic condition and building the architectonics of economic progress determinants to determine the “divergence areas” of regional development.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the development of the food market in Ukraine and determine its compliance with the goals of sustainable economic development, to formulate the concept of marketing of balanced development in relation to the food market and to identify a set of tasks that need to be addressed within this concept. Methodology / approach. While writing the article we used the following: methods of content analysis – to study scientific approaches to the interpretation of marketing tasks in terms of the concept of «sustainable development»; morphological analysis, generalization and scientific abstraction – to clarify the essence of the definition of «marketing of balanced development» and its conceptual content; economic-statistical and comparative analysis – for research, the dynamics of the food market and the market of organic products in Ukraine, the structure of exports of agricultural products to Ukraine, as well as the impact of the agro-industrial sector on the environment. To visualize the results, we used methods of graphical and tabular representation. The method of SWOT analysis assessed the qualitative characteristics of the state of the market of organic products of Ukraine in the light of opportunities and obstacles to the implementation of the concept of «sustainable development». Abstract-logical method was used to form a complex of marketing of balanced development, conclusions of the article and directions for further research. Results. The article is devoted to the study of the dynamics of the Ukraine food market development as a component of the national economy and food security of the state. It was determined that the areas of agro-food production, food processing and food products trade were showing growth due to increased demand in domestic and foreign markets. However, as a result of technological and resource features, agro-food production has a negative impact on the environment of Ukraine. Trends in the development of organic production as a way to implement the concept of sustainable development in the food sector were studied. The author’s interpretation of the essence of the concept of balanced market development was offered and the complex of tasks of marketing for the enterprises functioning in the food market was defined. Originality / scientific novelty. The article defines the magnitude and extent of the impact of agro-food production on the environment. The essential content of the definition of «marketing of balanced development» in relation to the agro-industrial sector through the prism of the concept of «sustainable development» was clarified. For the first time, a SWOT analysis was used to assess the state of the market of organic products of Ukraine in the light of opportunities and obstacles to the implementation of the concept of «sustainable development», which allowed determining the main directions for improving the marketing set for food market entities. The provision of the concept of sustainable development in the food sector was further developed. Practical value / implications. The main results of the study can be used for (i) structuring tasks of the marketing of balanced development of agribusiness entities; (ii) determining balanced development marketing complex for enterprise, will be relevant for both the organic market and the food market as a whole; (iii) definition of the purposes of balanced development at development of strategy of the enterprises; (iv) development of strategic directions of activity for the enterprises of the organic market on the basis of the conducted SWOT analysis.
 
Article
Purpose. Saltwater intrusion affected seriously the livelihood of mangosteen growers in Ben Tre, a coastal province in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta in 2016. This study assesses how saltwater intrusion influenced the livelihood vulnerability of the mangosteen households and communities. Methodology / approach. This study used the United Nations’ Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) and a similar index from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (LVI-IPCC) using data from 196 interviewed mangosteen growers in Cho Lach district, Ben Tre province in 2016 and 2018. A total of twenty-five (25) indicators are applied to calculate the two indices, using data as exposure to saltwater intrusion and natural hazards (5), socio-demographic factors (11), and sensitivity of health, finance, and source of water for domestic use (9). Results. The analysis results show that mangosteen-growing households had a medium vulnerability in 2016 and 2018 based on both indices. However, they were extremely vulnerable due to saltwater intrusion in 2016, and a high household percentage had a moderate value in the vulnerability index. They did not experience how to respond to saltwater intrusion and received a late warning on saltwater intrusion from the local authorities and media. However, mangosteen-growing households had a quick adaptive behavior to shift to new crops to improve their income in 2018. Originality / scientific novelty. The study provides a set of indicators to assess the vulnerability of this low-vulnerable area based on past studies as well as the actual situation of the study area in 2016 and 2018 to determine what factors influenced the main components, LVI and LVI – IPCC. These indicators represented the characteristics of the rural households in Vietnam and other Asian countries. This research also indicated how LVI and LVI – IPCC results differently and when they should be used. The analysis identified the factors influencing the LVI and LVI – IPCC by levels of saltwater intrusion in different years of 2016 and 2018, two different severe and less severe sites, adaptive and non-adaptive households, and their interaction. Practical value / implications. LVI and LVI-IPCC are good indicators for local and regional assessments on how saltwater intrusion and natural hazards affect households’ and communities’ livelihood and thereby how to guide them to respond promptly in such cases.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to study and substantiate the export potential of the livestock industry of Ukraine based on available resources and taking into account the productivity of fodder crops and farm animals. Methodology / approach. In the course of the conducted research, general scientific methods were used, in particular, a monographic one at a complex and comprehensive study of production and export potential of livestock products in Ukraine; the calculation-and-design method was used in determining the main options for exporting livestock products by their main types and choosing the best of them; the economic-and-mathematical method was used to optimize the export of livestock products according to the selected criteria of finding the maximum value, taking into account the established technological and market variables. Results. The article investigates and substantiates the export potential of the livestock industry of Ukraine. Evaluation and planning of fodder resources were carried out that can be used to increase livestock production. An economic-mathematical model was developed to determine the export potential of the livestock industry of Ukraine based on the search for the maximum value of the value of exports, taking into account technological, economic, and market limitations. According to the modeling results, the export potential of the livestock industry of Ukraine, depending on the level of productivity of the resources used, is estimated at 39 to 55.5 bln EUR per year. Originality / scientific novelty. Modeling method of the optimal structure of livestock production and export of Ukraine was improved taking into account technological, economic, and market factors to ensure the growth of export potential of the industry and efficiency of the use of mobilized resources. Practical values / implications. The results of the study can be used to justify the development of those areas of livestock in Ukraine, which will ensure maximum efficiency in the distribution of fodder resources from value-added growth, which will contribute to the export potential of livestock and agro-industrial complex in general.
 
Article
Purpose. The aim of the study is to improve the organizational structure of institutional support of sustainable environmental management in the Carpathian region and the Euroregion “Bug”. Methodology / approach. The general theoretical scientific methods, fundamental principles of environmental economics, cross-border cooperation, which are highlighted in the works of both Ukrainian and foreign scientists on economic problems of ensuring sustainable environmental management, were used as the methodological basis of the study. To perform the tasks, the following research methods were used: monographic (to study the principles of environmental management); system-structural (to study the essence and content of institutional support of sustainable environmental management); institutional (to assess the relationship and research the cross-effect between regional and local authorities); abstract-logical (theoretical and methodical generalizations and formulation of conclusions). Results. The developed theoretical-and-methodological, and applied provisions for improving the system of institutional support of sustainable environmental management were logically brought to the level of specific proposals suitable for implementation into the practice of public administration and local government in the context of cross-border cooperation. It was proposed to develop the Concept of balanced development of cross-border and border regions for 2022–2026, highlighting the state of implementation of current tasks, prospects for projects, cross-border cooperation agreements, integration of border regions to the European information and intellectual domain as well as monitoring the state of their implementation in the future. All of that will provide an opportunity to get sustainable development and improvement of the reputation of the border areas of Ukraine from the ecological, economic, and social points of view. Originality / scientific novelty. It was formed and scientifically substantiated from the standpoint of an integrated approach and synergistic effect, necessary strategic imperatives and preconditions for developing a strategy of cross-border cooperation between Ukraine and neighbouring countries on the terms of joint implementation of Strategies, programs, and agreements that correspond to the strategic directions of ecological, economic, and social development of each country and region, outline the needs and future goals of cross-border cooperation to avoid isolated development of only one of the parties in the context of cross-border and Euroregional cooperation. Practical value / implications. A system model of institutional support for cross-border cooperation is developed, which interacts with elements of the internal and external environment in particular based on a single regulatory framework, which will serve as a doctrine of environmentally balanced development and will allow implementation in practice a comprehensive approach of solving environmental, economic and social transboundary problems and ensure environmental protection based on complementary requirements established in border and cross-border regions.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article is determining the possibilities of fractal approach, as the one that enables not only flexibility and viability, but also, management efficiency improvement, new competencies of the company formation, self-renewal ability formation and conflicts of interest between structural subdivisions in complex vertically integrated structures elimination, to the organization of implementation of organic business entities. Methodology / approach. The methodological basis of the research is general scientific and specific methods of economic phenomena and processes cognition. Therefore, the following methods have been applied: logical generalization (in determining the properties and benefits of agricultural business systems of the fractal type); comparison (when the practice of functioning of properties of organic products is analyzed); abstract-logical (when features of the functioning of network structures in fractally organized business systems are designed); monographic (in the study of the recent concepts of the functioning of fractal organized business systems); graphic (for visual presentation of the cooperation network of vertically integrated structure members); heuristic (when formulating conclusions and generalizations, as well as when justifying the directions for future research of the business system). Results. The essence of fractal business organization and the properties of fractal type business systems have been identified which include heterarchy, structure complexity, self-organization, self-optimization, openness, as well as autonomy and elements. The fractally organized business systems benefits in agribusiness compared with agrarian business systems with a traditional structure and management system have been determined. The existence of objective prerequisites for organic farms fractalization has been substantiated, which is already inherent in some of fractally organized business systems properties. The properties and features of fractally organized business systems of network structures functioning have been defined. Originality / scientific novelty. For the first time the substantiation of fractal type business systems formation in agriculture is proved, organic production in particular (previously expediency of fractal type business systems was studied only for industrial enterprises use). In particular, potential subjects of fractalization in organic production are identified, which include complex diversified agricultural business systems; the properties and advantages of fractally organized organic farms are identified and formalized, that are defined for a single fractal as well as a business system in general; the network structure of fractally organized organic farms is substantiated, particularly the relationship structure, network interaction rules, properties and values of fractally organized business structures in organic farming. In addition, the identification and formalization of the factors that affect Ukrainian organic production development got further development. Practical value / implications. To ensure the fulfillment of obligations by all parties as well as maintaining the basic principles of fractal organization in the field of goal-setting the function of the institutional environment is proposed. As PE “Gallex-Agro” is the vivid example of interconnections network that corresponds to the features of fractal business systems design, vertically integrated structure of member’s interaction network is designed at its case.
 
Rural TCs of Ukraine in the regional context, 2021
Dynamics of territorial identification of the population of Ukraine, 2000-2020 Source: built based on [22, p. 350].
Dynamics of agricultural cooperatives and farms in Ukraine, 2015-2020 Source: calculated and built according to the State Statistics Service of Ukraine and the Ministry of Development of Communities and Territories of Ukraine.
Influence of the number of agricultural cooperatives on the GDP in agriculture, forestry and fisheries in Ukraine, 2010-2021 Source: calculated and built according to the State Statistics Service of Ukraine.
Dynamics of the number of agreements on cooperation between communities in Ukraine, 2015-2020 Source: calculated and built according to the State Statistics Service of Ukraine and the Ministry of Development of Communities and Territories of Ukraine.
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to identify current problems of strengthening the social capital of rural territorial communities in the context of administrative and territorial reform with the definition of directions for their solution. Methodology / approach. The paper uses general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis to collect, process, and systematize the results of scientific research; abstract-logical and critical analysis – to identify possible risks due to the implementation of administrative-territorial reform; statistical – for data collection and systematization; method of comparisons – to identify the compliance of the dynamics of various forms of social capital to the potential of communities; graphic – to visualize the results of the assessment of the new spatial configuration of socio-territorial communities and the dynamics of accumulation of various forms of social capital; correlation and regression analysis – to determine the impact of certain indicators of social capital development on the economy of rural communities; induction and deduction – to substantiate the main directions of social capital development of rural communities in modern conditions. Results. Restrictions on the development of social capital accumulation have been identified, which include: shadowing of interaction and low trust in social institutions, individualization of behavioral strategies, growth of economically inactive and socially vulnerable groups, and formation of networks of discriminatory relationships, spreading of norms of destructive social behavior, as well as the risks that may arise in the new spatial configuration of socio-territorial communities. It is established that the administrative-territorial reform at the local level has created certain preconditions for strengthening the potential of horizontally and vertically integrating social capital. It was found that the dynamics of territorial identification of the population of Ukraine in relation to their community is negative and indicates low social capital at the local level. The dynamics of forms of horizontally integrating social capital of rural communities, which are represented by agricultural cooperatives, farms, and inter-community cooperation, are analyzed and it is found that the potential of their development in Ukraine has not been realized yet. The necessity of implementation of systemic decisions on the development of social capital of communities to achieve the main goals of decentralization of management is proved. The main directions of the development of social capital of rural communities are substantiated taking into account modern features of their development. Originality / scientific novelty. The specifics of the formation of social capital of rural communities as small local communities are analyzed, taking into account the main determinants of influence, which include increasing territorial mobility and maintaining the asymmetry of spatial development in the direction of the center-periphery, the choice of adaptive behavioral strategies due to changes in the territorial identification of the population and the assessment of opportunities to achieve a certain level of well-being in the community. The main directions of social capital development as a prerequisite for uniting and mobilizing internal resources for rural development are substantiated based on existing problems and identified potential risks due to the reform of local self-government and territorial organization of government. Scientific and methodological bases of research on social capital at the local level under conditions of social and economic instability are improved. Practical value / implications. The results of the study will be useful for local governments of territorial communities formed as a result of local government reform and territorial organization of government, as well as district and regional state administrations, which focus on promoting inclusive community development and self-sufficiency.
 
Article
Purpose. This study aims to examine the relationship between human capital and environmental destruction. Methodology / approach. The analysis includes 56 years between 1961 and 2017 for 14 selected European countries. In the model established for the variables, the ecological footprint is used as the dependent variable, human capital and real national income per capita are used as independent variables. To select the appropriate test method in the analysis, we used the CADF panel unit root test, which considers the cross-sectional dependence. The Pooled Mean Group was used for model estimation. Results. In the study, it is emphasized that human capital has an important contribution to reducing the ecological footprint as an indicator of environmental pollution. According to the results of the PMG co-integration analysis, the increase in human capital reduces the ecological footprint in European countries. Since the European countries are developed ones, the availability of a good educational infrastructure is an important factor. It increases human capital. In addition, the high level of education and welfare in European countries is effective in increasing the number of environmentally sensitive individuals. This increases the environmental quality and therefore is an important factor in reducing the ecological footprint. Originality / scientific novelty. There are no studies in the literature examining the relationship between human capital and the ecological footprint of European countries. Therefore, this study closes a gap in the literature and takes its originality from the relationship between human capital and ecological footprint in European countries. Practical value / implications. The practical value of the results is that human capital reduces the ecological footprint by protecting natural resources, exhibiting a more environmentally friendly behavior, and realizing production that will minimize the damage to the environment.
 
Article
Purpose. The paper aims to examine the impact of the oblast center on regional socio-economic development in the context of the center-periphery relationship. Methodology / approach. The general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, generalization, systematization, graphic method) and special ones (statistical analysis, comparison, organizational and managerial modeling) were the basis of the methodological approach. The author improved the scientific-methodological approach to the comprehensive evaluation of a region’s socio-economic development in terms of the center-periphery relationships based on interrelated stages and methods. It stipulates the research of the impact each district of a region has on the major socio-economic parameters of an oblast; calculation of the District Socio-Economic Development Index and its comparison with the district’s distance to the oblast center; evaluation of interdependencies between the districts’ shares in major socio-economic parameters of respective oblasts and their distance to the oblast center; and analysis of the development intensity of the oblast districts depending on their distance to the oblast center. Results. Testing the scientific-methodological approach on the example of three oblasts of Ukraine (Lvivska, Poltavska, and Chernihivska), which are developing in different spatial-geographic, socio-economic, and demographic conditions, has contributed to substantiating the features of generation and development of the center-periphery relationships in the regions with different initial development conditions; outlining the areas of socio-economic centers’ impact on the districts; detecting the intensity of positive stimulus generation and their absorption in the region considering the role of local “growth poles” in the process. Originality / scientific novelty. The paper further develops the theoretical-methodological foundations of researching the center-periphery relationships in a region at the oblast center – oblast area level. The results of calculations following the author’s methodological approach have allowed developing the space structure for Ukrainian regions under research in the context of the center-periphery relationships. Practical value / implications. The conducted research based on the methodology developed by the author is quite important both in terms of the scientific-methodological aspect and in the context of addressing the important regional development tasks and searching for balanced and coherent spatial development.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to study the experience of the development of rural vocational education since the reform and opening up, analyze and summarize the rapid development of rural vocational education in China in the context of rural human resources development. Methodology / approach. The methods adopted in this research are mainly literature research and thematic research. Through thematic research on vocational education-related fields since the reform and opening up, and analysis, research, and induction of policies, data, phenomena, and conclusions in various vocational education literatures, it forms an objective summary of the development of rural vocational education in China since the reform and opening up. Results. Reform and opening up is the most critical period for the rapid development of various industries in China, including vocational education. This paper studies the overall situation of the development of vocational education in China since the reform and opening up, the relationship between the development of rural vocational education and policy support at the national level is concluded, it demonstrates that rural vocational education is an important cornerstone of national construction and development, and the focus and characteristic of rural vocational education is to condense the Chinese experience of school-running characteristics, it also summarizes the main problems of rural vocational education in China. Originality / scientific novelty. A multi-dimensional analysis of the development of China’s rural vocational education in the 42 years of reform and opening up has been made, and conclusions have been drawn for the development of rural vocational education with Chinese characteristics. Practical value / implications. This paper analyzes the key factors for the success of rural vocational education in China through the study of China’s practice in the field of rural vocational education since the reform and opening up, it has certain reference significance for the future policy formulation and development of rural vocational education, promotes the development of rural human resources and increases the rate of urbanization.
 
Article
Purpose. This paper discusses the effect of natural rubber and palm oil exports on economic growth in Ivory Coast from 1980 to 2016 using World Bank data. Methodology / approach. The analysis involved the use of Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root tests and the ARDL model. Results. This paper discusses the effect of natural rubber and palm oil exports on economic growth in Ivory Coast from 1980 to 2016 using World Bank data. The analysis involved the use of Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root tests and the ARDL model. The results of the study show that there is a positive and non-significant relationship between natural rubber exports and short-term economic growth. On the other hand, in the long term, they have a positive and significant influence on economic development. However, in the short and long term, palm oil exports have a positive and significant impact on gross domestic product. Finally, labour, investment and market opening have a positive and significant effect on economic growth in the short and long term respectively. Therefore, the Ivorian government needs to promote good agricultural practices and agricultural financing in order to increase the competitiveness of the Hevea –Oil palm sector. Originality / scientific novelty. Previous studies in natural rubber and palm oil focused mainly on its production, constraints to production and processing. However, very few studies on its effects on economic growth have been done so far. This study fills that gap. It expanded the existing literature and the subject of the causal relationship between natural rubber and palm oil exports and economic growth in Ivory Coast and shed light on required efforts to enhance the production and utilization of natural rubber and palm oil at larger scale to bring economic development in Ivory Coast. At last, the ARDL model is used to address this issue. Practical value / implications. The generated information will be useful to a number of organizations including: research and development, marketers, producers, policy makers, government and non-governmental organizations to assess their activities and improve their mode of operations, to help better guide the design and implementation of policies and strategies. Finally, knowing the existing relationship between natural rubber and palm oil exports and economic growth, together with impediments faced by natural rubber and palm oil exports, the study provides the various ways to improve these exports by increasing exports capacity of local producers. Research on this issue is too important to inform policymakers regarding resource allocation in the natural rubber and palm oil sector to achieve economic growth.
 
Article
Purpose. The aim of the article is to determine, using the example of the Luhansk region, modern trends in the life of rural and settlement communities in Ukraine and to substantiate the starting points and scenarios for their socio-economic development. Methodology / approach. The methodology of cognition and presentation of material consists in modern dialectics using a set of specific methods. In particular, the method of systemic-structural analysis is used to reveal the systemic content of the reform of local self-government and determine its role in ensuring sustainable development of Ukraine. The factor analysis method was used to identify the factors of community development. Economic-and-mathematical methods are applied in the systematization of the empirical material collected by the authors of the modern development of communities in Ukraine and the Luhansk region. Results. On the example of the Luhansk region, the content of the determining factors in the development of rural and settlement communities of the country has been identified and disclosed. The priority scientific and practical tasks of identifying points and justifying scenarios for sustainable socio-economic development of rural and settlement communities in Ukraine have been established. Originality / scientific novelty. For the first time, the multidirectional factors of the modern development of rural and settlement communities in Ukraine, in particular the Luhansk region, have been systematized; general trends in the development of the country’s communities have been identified, highlighting both their positive and negative manifestations. Practical value / implications. The practical value lies in the substantiation of the initial applied base for the development of long-term plans for the development of rural and settlement communities. The materials of the article will be used in the context of providing consulting assistance to the heads of local self-government bodies and activists of the united territorial communities of the Luhansk region in order to develop an effective and transparent management system, its orientation towards achieving the goals of sustainable socio-economic development of rural areas.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of our work is to investigate the presence of tourist infrastructure elements to ensure a comfortable stay of tourists in tourist destinations, which can become a driver of the development of local communities, especially in rural areas; investigation of financial support for tourism development by local governments. A derivative task of our study is to identify challenges and prospects of tourism infrastructure in tourist destinations after the pandemic. Methodology / approach. The theoretical basis of the study is the fundamental principles of economics and the scientific research of Ukrainian and foreign scientists. For the analysis, we used data from the official web resources of local governments of Ukrainian local communities with tourist potential, information from the Booking.com and the Internet about tourist facilities and events in local communities. During the research we used the following methods: analytical (to select tourist destinations for analysis, their grouping and analysis of their tourist infrastructure); comparison (to compare the tourist infrastructure in the local communities that were the object of our study); synthesis (to conclude the general state of tourist infrastructure in tourist destinations and prospects for its development in the future), graphic (for visualization of study results). Results. The study highlights five elements of tourist infrastructure of the most popular tourist destinations in Ukraine: travel services, transportation services, accommodation services for temporary residence, catering services, services for the organization of recreation and entertainment. We analysed the state of functioning of the tourist infrastructure in the tourist destinations of Ukraine before the introduction of lockdown. The results of the analysis showed that only four out of five elements of the tourist infrastructure were at the proper level. We described the challenges of the tourism industry, which had arisen as a result of the epidemic. In conclusion, we considered the prospects for the attitude and development of tourist infrastructure in the local communities of Ukraine after the pandemic. Originality / scientific novelty. During the study for the first time, we selected the most popular tourist destinations in Ukraine which in 2019 received the highest revenues from tourist tax as an indicator of the official stay of tourists, we grouped them according to their dominant type of tourism and researched their tourist infrastructure. We compared the revenues from the tourist tax with the expenditures of local communities for the development of tourism and found that local communities received much more money from the tourist tax than they had spent on the development and promotion of tourism. Practical value / implications. We show the characteristic features of the development of the tourism sector in the post-quarantine period, which can be used by local governments and businesses of tourist destinations when planning the development of tourist infrastructure.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the need to use marketing management tools to increase the competitiveness of the enterprise and create a model of interaction of tools in the implementation of marketing strategies. Methodology / approach. The research was conducted on the base of sociological methods by means of statistical questioning of 200 respondent-entrepreneurs, owners, or runners of small business in the Western Region of Ukraine. Using the analysis of variance, the authors of the article studied variation of the results of the sociological investigation on marketing management tools, used for implementation of different strategies of business development. The factorial analysis was used to describe the factor structure of the marketing management tools. The calculations are made with application of the software Statistica 8. Results. Substantiation of the use of marketing tools to increase the competitive advantage of enterprises based on the results of the conducted sociological interviewing of 200 respondent-entrepreneurs, owners or managers of small and medium-sized businesses. Referring to the results of the factorial analysis of marketing management tools, used for implementation of different strategies of business development, the researchers specify three factors. Originality / scientific novelty. For the first time, the model of interaction of marketing management tools in the context of implementation of marketing strategies is formed, and it is investigated a structure of marketing tools at implementation of various strategies of business development to increase competitiveness of the enterprises. Practical value / implications. The main purpose of using marketing management tools is determined, which will allow enterprises to coordinate their marketing activities, optimally allocate resources at all its stages and, as a result, will directly influence the formation and increase the level of competitiveness. The research results can be applied at enterprises of the Western region of Ukraine to provide substantiation of management decisions regarding improving competitiveness on the basis of marketing management.
 
Article
Purpose. This paper examined urban household food demand patterns in Southwest, Nigeria using complement-substitution relationship. Methodology / approach. Through a multistage sampling technique, the study used cross sectional data of 445 households from two states in Southwest Nigeria which are representative of areas with a rapid rate of urbanisation. Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) modeling framework was used to estimate the demand system for seven food groups considered. Results. The potential nutrition benefits of price and income changes in urban food groups was estimated, which explains the different quantity of food purchased by household as price changes. From the result, the root and tuber group accounted for the largest household food budget share (29.4 %) with the least share found in the legume group (3.3 %). Elasticity estimates revealed that the own-price effect was inelastic for all food groups. The uncompensated cross-price elasticities suggest both substitution and complementary association between groups. More substitution relationships were evident when households’ price changes are compensated. Originality / scientific novelty. This paper presents household’s responsiveness to food demanded through price effects with possible nutrition gap in urban diet. Practical value / implications. The complement and substitution relationship in household food price changes may be effective in changing urban consumer behavior towards healthier diets. Empirical knowledge of the complement and substitution effects would likely impact policy changes on household nutritional outcome. This is necessary as the scourge of malnutrition in increasing especially in urban areas.
 
Article
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to develop the theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of return migration policy based on its information support, including regression analysis and authors’ sociological research on return intentions of Ukrainian migrants. Methodology / approach. The mathematical tools were used for the assessment of Ukraine’s economical losses, related to migration. With the help of the sociological method (survey) migrants’ intentions and main motives to return were investigated. Stepwise regression model was built for identification of main factors of Ukrainian population’s international migration. Besides, general scientific methods were used in the study, such as: analysis, generalization, systematization, tabular and graphical. Results. Analysis showed the lack of statistical and sociological information on international migration (particularly return migration) of Ukrainian population. It substantiates the need for improving the system of information provision of migration policy. The results of the survey of the migrants from the Carpathian region of Ukraine (conducted in 2020) show low level of their readiness to return. According to the answers to the questionnaire, there are two main circumstances that could motivate migrants to return: high level of wages and general improving of economic situation in Ukraine. Due to the regression model it was found that the emigration of the population is influenced by the following factors: average monthly wages, gross regional product per capita, foreign direct investment per economically active person and the share of the population with incomes below the subsistence level. The article provides main benefits and ways of implementation of the return migration policy. Particularly, circular migration is considered as a good way to slow down losses of human resources. It is beneficial for all institutional units of the migration process. Originality / scientific novelty. The methodology for the consequences of international migration study is improved. In particular, the formula for determination of migration losses through the calculation of economic activity losses is proposed and calculated for the first time. The theoretical foundation of return migration policy is developed. In particular, the model of return migration process on the individual level is elaborated. The sociological tool for the return migration investigation is developed and tested. Practical value / implications. The practical recommendations for the human resources conservation are worked out. The questions for the survey, developed by the authors, could be used in further investigations in this issue. The model of return migration process is useful for developing a comprehensive return migration policy, which could support migrants at all stages of this process: decisions making, movement and reintegration.
 
Article
Purpose. The aim of the article is to develop scenarios of consumption of the main types of organic livestock products in Ukraine. These scenarios should include the creation of an effective institutional environment aimed not only at strict quality control, but also at stimulating the modernization of production, the implementation of environmentally friendly technologies and genetic technologies for the production of safe products. Methodology / approach. The methodological basis of the study is an integrated (systemic) approach, which allows forecasting more accurately the reproduction of the processes of quality supply of organic livestock products, taking into account the factors that affect it. Methodological aspects of calculations in forecasting the capacity of new segments of the organic market (which replace the market segments of traditional or mass products) are based on criteria of rational consumption, taking into account the influence of such factors: potential of organic livestock production in Ukraine, number of households (consumers), income of households (consumers), differentiation of household incomes (consumers), prices for organic livestock products, prices for livestock products originating from the traditional (mass) sector, consumer confidence in the quality assurance system for livestock products (including state quality control systems), consumer confidence in the organic certification system of livestock products. Results. The main factors influencing the consumption of organic livestock products in Ukraine are identified, among which the main ones are the price and quality of products. The reasons of low rates of production of livestock products development with protected geographical names and organic products in Ukraine are described. In particular, it is substantiated that due to the high cost, complexity of production technologies, high cost of certification, the long transition period to organic production, the production of organic livestock products does not reach potential. Originality / scientific novelty. The forecasting of the capacity of the organic sector is made under the conditions of partial or complex implementation of measures aimed at improving the quality of livestock products with the definition of inertial, innovative and systemic scenarios. The authors identified the system scenario as a priority. According to the systemic variant in Ukraine for the period up to 2025 the forecasted capacity of the internal market for organic meat and meat products (in terms of meat) will amount to 3.26 bln UAH; organic milk, dairy products and butter (in terms of milk) will amount to 2.65 bln UAH; organic eggs will amount to 0.47 bln UAH. In general, the market potential capacity of the main types of organic livestock products (at prices in 2019) will be 6.38 bln UAH (0.2 bln Euro) or 151.9 UAH (4.9 Euro) per one person. This is much less than the current European figure of 50 euros per person. In the potential consumer market, the share of organic livestock products in accordance with the systemic version of the solution of the quality problem will be from 1.6 % (meat and meat products) and 1.5 % (milk and dairy products) to 2.3 % (eggs), which is much lower than European indicators. Practical value / implications. Scenario forecasting of the dynamics of potential demand for organic livestock products allows understanding the pace of development of the domestic market of organic products, justification of measures and tools to stimulate domestic organic production, determining the impact of these measures on the capacity of the organic market. Otherwise, a significant market share of organic livestock products and food products of animal origin, including milk and dairy products, will be filled by imported products of European producers. The authors identified as a priority systemic scenario for the development of consumption of the main types of organic livestock products in Ukraine.
 
Top-cited authors
Anatolii Kucher
  • V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University
Belete Tilahun
  • Wolkite University
Lesіа Kucher
  • State Biotechnological University
Alemneh Amare
  • Kotebe Metropolitan University, Ethiopia
Abel Feyisa Woldeyohanis
  • Wolkite University