The sustainable exploitation of water resources requires planning and control methods that allow the incorporation of a great number of spatial and temporal variables. Because of its features, a Geographic Information System (GIS) seems the most suitable tool to aid in the management of available hydric resources. In this study, we have developed a specific GIS within the GESMO Project in order to better manage the 08-29 aquifer system (Mancha Oriental). This tool is intended for use by the JCRMO: Junta Central de Regantes de la Mancha Oriental (General Board of Irrigation Users of Eastern La Mancha), the organism responsible for aquifer management.This system is designed to integrate information from different sources, such as remote sensing, fieldwork data or administrative files with the cadastral subplot as a common reference. One of its functions is to expedite the control and monitoring, in real time, of the exploitation plans, which constitute the legal instrument to regulate water extractions. It will allow us to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of water extractions needed for crops and their irrigation systems. These estimates will be highly valuable for aquifer modelling. The system also permits display of information on maps for easy handling. This visualisation allow users to more readily participate in decision-making processes.
In Chinese history, Tuoshan Weir, located in Ning County of Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, Eastern China, is ranked as one of the four most outstanding hydrological projects ever undertaken. Since the weir was originally constructed during the Tang Dynasty in 833 a.d., it has succeeded for 1171 years in playing a distinctive role in preventing saline water of the East Sea from backing up, conserving freshwater, ensuring safety of people from flooding hazards and irrigating farmlands in the Ningxi Plain. From eight highlights in planning, design and construction of the hydrological project, this paper reveals the ancient knowledge involved in using hydraulic principles, such as distributed flows and mechanics, such as engineering infrastructures.
In this study an analysis was made on spatial variation of climatic water balance, (water surplus, actual evapotranspiration), probabilistic monthly monsoon rainfall and mapping of cold periods in agro-ecological region (AER) 12.0 of India using GIS and models. Since, rice is the dominant crop of the region, crop water requirements of rice was also spatially analyzed in different agro-ecological subregions (AESRs) of the AER 12.0 using CROPWAT 4.0 model and GIS. Study found that as per climatic water balance, large to moderate water surplus (520–70 mm) was available in AESR 12.1. The rainfall surplus of 220–370 mm was computed in AESR 12.2 and 370–520 mm in AESR 12.3 mm. Since winter rainfall is meagre and erratic, this amount of rainfall may be harvested and utilized for providing supplemental irrigation to winter crops or during dry spell of rainy season crops. Study also reveals that at 80% probability level (highly assured) in first month of southwest monsoon (June) 98–156 mm rainfall occurs in AESR 12.1, 103–144 mm in AESR 12.2 and 93–132 mm in AESR 12.3. These amounts of rainfall are sufficient to prepare land and sowing of direct seeded crops like maize, groundnut, blackgram, greengram, pigeonpea, cowpea, etc. that may be done from 24th standard week onwards (11th–7th June) after onset of southwest monsoon in the region. Based on existence of favorable temperature, among different AESRs, cold requiring crops may be tried in the districts of AER 12.1, but before cultivation of these crops, economic feasibility should be properly assessed. In normal rainfall year 450–550 mm, 600–720 mm and 775–875 mm crop water requirement was computed using CROPWAT 4.0 model for autumn rice, winter rice and summer rice, respectively in different AESRs of AER 12.0.