Agricultural Sciences

Published by Scientific Research Publishing
Print ISSN: 2156-8553
Publications
The information of the 44 pairs of SSR markers.
In this study, two donaors CN962 and 8065 were used to improve the resistance to northern leaf blight of the recurrent parent inbred line 08-641 (R08). A total of 79 lines (BC2F4) were developed by a bidirectional selection based on the similarity and dissimilarity in the shape and color of seeds to R08.The genetic variation of these lines were analyzed by 44 pairs of SSR molecular markers, the result showed that a total of 272 alleles were detected in the improved lines and R08, 123 out of them were detected in the modified lines but discarded in R08. The modified line selected based on dissimialry in the shape and corlor of seeds to R08 have lower genetic similary between R08 than that between the lines selected based on similary in the shape and color of seeds and R08, and the genetic variation of these lines were wider. It concluded that when the backcross breeding were used to improve the maize inbred lines, multidirectional selection based on phenotypic value were contribute to create and keep genetic variation.
 
Total uptake of fosthiazate by tomato plants (ug·plant –1 ) without or with 2,4-dintrophenol. The numerical values above the histograms indicate percent inhibition in the presence of DNP. 
The uptake of 14 C-labeled fosthiazate (0.75 mg·L –1 ) by tomato plants was studied in solution culture both in the presence or absence of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP, 1 × 10 –2 mM), a metabolic inhibitor. Fosthiazate was rapidly taken up by tomato plants and nearly one third of the finally absorbed quantity was taken up in the first half an hour. The translocation of fosthiazate to the shoot part was under metabolic control during the initial stage of uptake. The kinetics of uptake both in the presence and absence of DNP conformed well to the dual phase than a single phase. In the presence of DNP, the uptake capacity (Vmax1) for the initial phase suffered, approximately three fold reduction occurred in comparison to the absence of DNP while Vmax2 for the latter phase was statistically similar to the value observed in the absence of DNP signifying the metabolic dependence of the initial uptake phase. Autoradiography indicated that fosthiazate in the tomato plants tends to accumulate in the roots and at the root-shoot junction. In shoot, it is accumulated in the older leaves especially, near the leaf tip and margins.
 
These bacteria were isolated from Myanmar (2 isolates) and 5 provinces in China (22 isolates). 
Phylogenetic dendrogram based on 16s rDNA gene sequences for soft rot isolates. The branching pattern was generated by the neighbor-joining method using MEG6.0. The numbers at the nodes indicate the levels of bootstrap support, and only the values more than 50 are given. 
Dendrogram based on UPGMA clustering using AFLP data from the 24 soft rot isolates. The scale at the bottom indicates the degree of genetic relatedness between strains. 
Twenty-three isolates of soft rot bacteria from konjac corms were examined for their diversity using 16S rDNAs and AFLP technology. Both methods clustered two groups, dependent on their biotype characterization of Pectobacterium carotovora subsp. carotovora (P.c.c) and Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (P.ch), respectively. Of all isolates, 17 (73.9%) belonged to P. ch, indicated as the main pathogenic bacteria of konjac producing areas in China. The genetic variation among isolates from the same biotype was also rich, not consistent with the distances of the geographic sources.
 
Distinct amplification of samples approximately corresponds to the 500 bp of the DNA marker (extreme right).
Following species were considered for study.
Primers used for gene study.
Name of the organism with accession numbers.
Nucleotide sequences from a 500 bp region of the 16SrRNA gene were analyzed for ten insect pests of five different orders to examine the patterns of variation within the gene fragment and the taxonomic levels for which it showed maximum utility in phylogeny estimation. A hierarchical approach was adopted in the study through comparison of levels of sequence variation among taxa at different taxonomic levels. Among them, partial 16SrRNA gene was amplified in ten insects of five different orders. As previously reported for many holometabolous insects, the 16SrRNA gene data is reported here for 5 different orders were highly AT-rich and exhibited strong site-to-site variation in substitution rate. The partial 16SrRNA genes of five out of ten insects were reported first time. Primers were made from blasting 2 different genera of the order Diptera. These primers were proven to be universal as it amplified the partial 16SrRNA gene in ten different insects across five different orders, Diptera, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. Later, a phylogenetic tree was also constructed for understanding and analyzing the relation of above five orders. This study resulted in unusual findings which were as follows: All the species of Drosophila of order Diptera were evolutionary more closely related to Dysdercus koenigii of order Heteroptera than Bactrocera cucurbitae of Drosophilan order, Diptera in terms of partial 16SrRNA gene sequence. Similarly, Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera belonged to same family Noctuidae whereas Pieris brassicae belonged to family Pieridae. All belonged to order Lepidoptera. The results showed that Spodoptera litura in terms of partial 16SrRNA gene sequence was evolutionary more close to Pieris brassicae than Helicoverpa armigera.
 
Microwave burning process. 
ICP-MS operating conditions. 
Recoveries of cadmium, mercury and lead from fish muscle tissue. 
The percentage of samples exceeding limits of EC and EC limits. 
In this study, trace metals [cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb)] consentration of 76 pieces of frozen European sea bass (Dicen-trarchus labrax Linnaeus-1758) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus-1758) fillets, produced and marketed in Turkey, were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave damp burning process, and results obtained were assessed in terms of public health. This study was conducted from June 2010 to July 2011. At the end of study, maximum heavy metal levels for sea bass and sea bream fillets were determined as 256.50, 216.22 µg/kg for Cd; 414.79, 338.46 µg/kg for Hg ve 1047.61, 147.14 µg/kg for Pb, respectively. At the end of the study, the levels of cadmium (for 3 samples) and lead (for 1 samples) were higher than the recommended legal limits of the European Union for human consumption. It was detected that the fillets which were analyzed was good quality from the point of cadmium, mercury and lead contents.
 
Ecologoparasitological research was done based on the helminths and helminth communities of the Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782)) from the freshwater ecosystem of the Panicheri Reservoir, Aegean Water Basin, Bulgaria. As a result of the examined nine specimens of the Prussian carp, two species of helminths were found: Ligula intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), larvae and Pomphorhynchus laevis (Müller, 1776). The dominant structure of the helminth communities was determined. The Panicheri Reservoir is a new habitat in Bulgaria of P. laevis and L. intestinalis from C. gibelio. C. gibelio is a new host record for L. intestinalis in Bulgaria. The two helminth species are core species for the helminth communities of the examined species of the freshwater fish. P. laevis was distinguished with higher prevalence and mean intensity (P%=33.34; MI=1.34) than L. intestinalis (P%=22.23; MI=1.0). The circulatory pathways of the helminth flow were traced.
 
Study sites.
Infestation levels of insect pests at Farako bâ site.
Infestation levels of insect pests at Kombissiri site.
Infestation levels of insect pests at Fada site.
Phonoctonus lutescens which is a predator of Dysdercus voëlkeri (Schmidt, 1932) is present in cotton fields at the same time as its prey, D. voëlkeri. The objective of this study was to see which of the biological control or chemical control programs spares and maintains the potentially beneficial insects, especially P. lutescens. This study was conducted at three sites: Farako Bâ site located in the southern Sudanian zone and has geographical coordinates between 04˚20' West and 11˚06' North. The site of Kombissiri with 12'04'' North and 1'20'' West as geographical coordinates. The site of Kouaré with the following coordinates: 11'56'' North and 0'17'' East. The design was a 2000 m2 paired trial subdivided into 3 subplots of 640 m2 on the three sites. The sample area is repeated 4 times in each plot. All data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS software (version 22.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). When significance occurred, means were separated by the Bonferroni test (p < 0.05). All data were presented as the mean ± standard errors with 3 replications. For insect pests, conventional cotton was more affected by whitefly with 0.42 ± 1.10 and organic cotton by jassids with 0.75 ± 1.66 at Farako bâ. The untreated plot was significantly less infested at Kombissiri with 0.25 ± 1.38 Dysdercus voëlkeri than at the other sites. In Fada, the organic cotton was more infested by whitefly larvae and jassid flies, with respectively 0.73 ± 2.25 and 0.22 ± 0.54 plants attacked on average. For beneficial insects, the levels of presence in Farako bâ varied from 0.17 ± 0.66 to 0.02 ± 0.1 on organic cotton than on the other treatments. At Kombissiri the levels of beneficial insects varied more on organic cotton from 0.021 ± 0.20 to 0.026 ± 0.15 than on untreated cotton and conventional cotton. These levels ranged from 0.04 ± 0.21 to 0.26 ± 0.86 on organic cotton than on the other treatments. The seed cotton yield ranged from 500.52 to 946.8 for conventional cotton, from 531.25 to 853.13 for organic cotton, and from 493.75 to 763.54 for untreated cotton. P. lutescens was discreet about the types of cotton grown. Neem oil is positioned as one of the alternatives to biopesticides that can be used in organic cotton cultivation. The results suggest P. lutescens is more adapted to integrated cotton pest management program in Burkina Faso. Keywords: Phonoctonus lutescens, Dysdercus vöelkeri, Conventional Cotton, Organic Cotton, Burkina Faso
 
Weekly variations of White Head and Gall Midge abundances. (a) Gall Midge in Yaoundé; (b) White Head in Yaoundé; (c) White Heads in Ntui; FKR 60: FKR 60 variety; N (N3, N8, N9, and N13): NERICA; VT: Tonga variety; W (W1, W2, W3, W5, W7 and W9): Weeks.
DNA fingerprinting patterns of Orseolia. (a) By SCAR primer (OSSP 5F/R); (b) By SCAR primer (OSSP 1F/R).
Sequences of primers used for identification of AfRGM species in Nigeria [14].
Physico-chemical parameters of the study sites.
Larvae's DNA samples that amplified.
The study compares the impact due to rice stem borers in two sites (Yaoundé and Ntui). It also shows the diversity of the African Rice Gall Midge (AfRGM) biotypes in southern Cameroon (Santchou, Ndop, Tonga, Ebolowa, Baïgom, Yaoundé and Ntui). The New Rice for Africa (NERICA) varieties 3, 8, 9 and 13 sown in Ntui were less attacked than those sown in Yaoundé. At both sites, damages ranged from 0.78% to 2.7%. In terms of diversity, the main stem-borer species were O. oryzivora, Diopsis apicalis , D. longiconis and Chilo zacconius. Molecular analyses of Orseolia oryzivora larvae collected in the localities of Santchou, Ndop, Tonga, Ebolowa, Baïgom and Yaoundé showed the existence of more than one O. oryzivora biotype in southern Cameroon’s rice basins. Keywords Biotype, Larvae, NERICA, Orseolia sp, PCR
 
The process of city current and agriculture location form. 
Theil index: Decomposition effect of population structure.
shows us a glance of distribution of total economic output of agriculture in Hunan province in 1999, 2006 and 2010. The top pic in the shows years' total economic output bar chart (From left to right is 1999, 2006 and 2010). The agriculture output in 2010 doubles that in 1999, and also has a high increasing from 2006. The bottom pictures shows total agricultural economic output spatial location spread in Hunan on the corresponding periods (1999, 2006 and 2010). The distribution pattern is preformed as little cluster in west, northeast and mid-southwest. The increasing of produc 
The globe Moran' I index for agriculture output of county in Hunan Province.
This paper is to provide an empirical work for agricultural spatial distribution of agriculture. We consider the spatial location pattern in order to offer spatial views on the agricultural economic research and how Chinese agricultural economic spatial location pattern is forming, we also tested the agglomeration situation of agriculture and the process is going on in the future. The results indicate that the periphery areas exist significant differential among regions in Hunan province, China. It really presents some kinds of agglomeration pattern of agriculture and characteristic spatial autocorrelation; the biggest rate of contribution to the region agriculture economic gap is productivity per agriculture worker.
 
Location information, soil characteristics, crop description and planting date for single versus sequential application of gly- phosate DMA/2,4-D choline on Canada fleabane. 
Mean visual estimates and results of means contrasts of glyphosate resistant Canada fleabane control 1, 2 and 4weeks after single and sequential applications of glyphosate/2,4-D choline (1720 g•ae•ha −1 ) in Ontario, Canada in 2012 and 2013. 
Means and results of means contrasts of glyphosate resistant Canada fleabane control 8 weeks after single and sequential glyphosate/2, 4-D choline (1720 g•ae•ha −1 ) applications examined in Ontario Canada in 2012 and 2013. 
Glyphosate resistant (GR) Canada fleabane (hor-seweed) has quickly spread across southwestern Ontario and is a difficult weed to control in GR crops. Glyphosate dimethylamine (DMA)/2,4-D choline (Enlist Duo ® ™ Dow AgroSciences LLC), a new herbicide premix developed by Dow Agro Sciences, provides control of GR and other problematic weeds. The objective of this study was to compare single and sequential applications of glyphosate DMA/2,4-D choline for the control of GR Canada fleabane in GR corn. Three single applications of glyphosate (DMA)/2,4-D choline (1720 g • ae • ha −1) were evaluated: 1) pre-plant (PP) applied to Canada fleabane up to 10 cm diameter/height, 2) postplant 1 (POST 1) applied when Canada fleabane was up to 20 cm tall and 3) postplant 2 (POST 2) applied up to 30 cm tall Canada fleabane. Four sequential applications were also examined:1) PP followed by (fb) POST 1, 2) PP fb POST 2, 3) POST 1 fb POST 2 and 4) PP fb POST 1 fb POST 2. The single applications provided 69%-86% control of the GR Canada fleabane while the sequential applications increased control to 92%-100%. Three applications did not provide an increase in control over a sequential two-pass application at 8 weeks after the application (WAA). Results from this research indicate that a sequential 2-pass application of glyphosate DMA/2,4-D choline provided acceptable control of GR Canada fleabane in corn.
 
The present study shows the results of a completed first cycle of recurrent selection in a middle late synthetic population “1/2017” and the inbred lines PAU 1617 and B 113 are used as a recurrent parents. The aim of the improving selection is to obtain from the synthetic inbred lines which are later to be used as parental forms for receiving hybrids of this maturity group. The experimental work was carried out in the period 2017 – 2019 when two hundred and ten testcrosses were tested. After the data was analyzed, eighty even inbred progeny variants displaying the best results have been included for crosspollination and a new cycle of breeding. The genetic variability in the synthetic has been preserved as the selected progeny represent 41,4 % of the initially chosen ones. The index of variability after recurrent selection is 12,2 % which allows for efficient testing in the subsequent stages of the improving selection. As a direct outcome of the research, thirteen crosses have been pointed out – B 113 x 37/1, B 113 x 25/5, PAU 1617 x 71/3, B 113 x 29/1, B 113 x 33/1, PAU 1617 x 97/3, PAU 1617 x 85/3, B 113 x 71/5, B 113 x 71/6, B 113 x 53/1, B 113 x 55/1, B 113 x 77/3 and B 113 x 43/1. They exceed in grain yield the foreign standard in the maturity group respectively with 25.2, 20.0, 16.9, 16.6, 15.1, 15.0, 13.1, 12.5, 10.5, 9.0, 8.8, 8.8 and 8.2%. They are still tested in varietal and ecological trials.
 
Spatial distribution of the departure of the seasonal amount of precipitation in percent of the normal (baseline period 1961-1990). Autumn 2019 -summer 2020.
Probabilistic qualitative categories used for the seasonal forecast.
Seasonal forecasting gained ground in the last decades by building up knowledge on the processes staying behind the climate variability at the seasonal time scale, constructing ever more sophisticated general circulation models and ensemble prediction systems and thus enhancing forecast skill. The seasonal forecast is a climate forecast and is therefore probabilistic in nature. The predictability of the atmospheric circulation at the seasonal scale is limited in the middle latitudes, where Europe and Bulgaria are situated, by its chaotic nature. The current standard is to give forecast of the potential anomalies of the mean seasonal temperature and the seasonal amount of precipitation. The National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of Bulgaria has been issuing operationally seasonal forecast for the country since 2005. The goal of this work is to discuss the seasonal forecast for the last agricultural year 2019-2020. The year was characterized by its drought conditions especially in Eastern Bulgaria. This work would show the extent to which it was successfully predicted and how the seasonal forecast could have been used for decision making. The use of agrometeorological indices for the analysis of the skill of the seasonal forecast has been shown.
 
Descriptive statistics of data. 
Level grouping of fixed effects. 
Estimates of variance components for the evaluated traits. 
This study was conducted to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for 305 days mature equivalent milk yields (MEM) and calving interval (CAI) of registered Xinjiang Brown cattle. The total records were 3940 including 2579 for 305-day MEM and 1970 for CAI, which were collected from Xinjiang Urumqi Cattle Breeding farm in China with calving records from 1990 to 2008. Genetic parameters were obtained by multiple trait derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood (MTDFREML) using animal model. The model included year, season, parity and calving interval of calving for 305 days MEM, and year, season and parity of birth for CAI as fixed effects. Heritability for 305 days MEM was moderate (0.39) and in the same range of parameters estimated in management systems with medium production levels. Heritability of calving interval was small (0.02) as fertility traits for Xinjiang Brown cattle. Estimates of genetic and environmental correlations between 305 days MEM and CAI were 0.47 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of genetic variation and heritability indicated that selection would result in genetic improvement of production traits. Estimates of both heritability and genetic variation for CAI were small, which indicates that genetic improvement would be difficult.
 
Source information, proximate composition and mineral content for each variety of common bean (Phaseolus vul- garis L.) flours (g/100g DW b ) a . 
Representation of the Euclidean biplot by principal component analysis (PCA), with data loge transformation of all the parameters (variables) in analysis. Legend: AS-ash; CP-crude protein; K-potassium; LP-lipids; N-nitrogen; P-phosphorous; SS-soluble sugar; ST-starch.
Common bean proximate composition and mineral content, expressed on a dry weight basis. 
The Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the traditional and most important leguminous crops in the Island of Madeira. The island´s bioclimatic tiers, agro-ecological environment and traditional farming practices had a great influence on the evolution of regional bean landraces. The variability of the nutritional and mineral seeds composition of 59 accessions of the Madeiran landraces, standard and commercial varieties was evaluated. Wide ranges of variability in biochemical parameters were reported among the Madeiran landraces, being the best sources of protein and mineral nutrition, according to the statistical results and literature comparative evaluation. Specifically, the content (g per Kg DW) of ash ranged from 36.4–56.7, lipids from 5.7–28.6, protein from 185.5–296.9, starch from 234.0–526.5, soluble sugars from 29.7–68.4, while content of dry matter was between 833.5–935.5. The seeds also contained (per Kg DW) between 25.5–48.3 g N, 3.0–7.5 g P, 13.0–24.9 g K, 1.0–1.8 g Mg, 41.0–100.0 mg Fe, 5.0–14.0 mg Cu, 22.0–50.0 mg Zn, 9.0–38.0 µg Mn and 2.0–24.0 µg B. This variability implies that the screened germplasm could serve as a source for breeding new varieties with improved biochemical and nutritional traits or could be highly recommended to meet specific dietary requirements. The cultivar Vaginha Grossa (ISOP 713) revealed low carbohydrate content that could be a good food choice for diabetics, while cultivar Vermelho (ISOP 724) bean should be offered as a valuable alternative source of protein and minerals in the local diet.
 
Library development in numbers (1945-1970)
The article presents the history and the development of the University Library of the Agricultural University – Plovdiv for a period of 75 years from its establishment until the present day. It is one of the oldest specialized agricultural libraries in Bulgaria. The University Library was opened in 1945, together with the opening of the University of Plovdiv. The Library of the Agricultural University – Plovdiv is the first university library in Bulgaria that has begun introducing ICT in its activities. Since 1978 the Library has used an Automatic information system for Bibliographical references. In 1986 the automation of the library processes began. In 2020 the Agricultural University – Plovdiv celebrated its 75th anniversary and its Library gradually established itself as one of the richest specialized agricultural libraries in Bulgaria.
 
Confrontation test in a Petri dish showing a culture of Mycosphaerella fijiensis (A) strain aged of thirty days grown on PDA medium in the presence of sterilized distilled water (control), put in the wells (B) for diffusion in the media.
Variance analysis of the in vitro mycelial growth of Mycosphaerella fijiensis cul- ture in a confrontation by well diffusion on PDA media in the presence of Tithonia diver- sifolia biopesticide.
Black Sigatoka disease (BSD) is a foliar disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis, responsible of reduction of the photosynthetic area of banana plant and yield at harvest since it has an influence on fruit physiology. The control of BSD relies on the use of chemicals which are not affordable for the small holder farmers and increase the cost of production. Moreover, this chemical control is ineffective, negatively impacting the environment and human health, and is at the origin of strain resistance. Tithonia diversifolia is known as rich in many compounds such as mineral elements, defense metabolites, some phytochemicals; and it is increasingly used in agriculture. Recently, the protective effect of Tithonia diversifolia liquid extract against BSD development on plantain vivoplants in the nursery was highlighted. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of a biopesticide base on Tithonia diversifolia on the BSD development in a plantain field under high disease pressure. The effect of Tithonia diversifolia biopesticide on Mycosphaerella fijiensis mycelial growth in vitro was evaluated. An experimental field at the flowering stage was selected and treated with the biopesticide base on Tithonia diversifolia at three different concentrations: undiluted (100%), diluted at 1/2 (50%) and diluted at 1/4 (25%) for 17 weeks. The disease severity, the number of functional leaves, the youngest spotted leaf (YSL) and the youngest necrotic leaf (YNL) were evaluated in course of time. The biopesticide treatments significantly (P < 0.001) reduce the BSD severity in course of time, but it is more effective for the most diluted concentration (25%). The number of leaves increases in course of time as well as the rank of the YSL and the YNL confirming the efficiency of BSD control. The efficacy of this biopesticide base on Tithonia diversifolia could be a hopeful ecoresponsible solution for the plantain sector in general and in particular for poor small farmers.
 
Serum Total Antioxidant Capacity in goats' kids at 1 to 4 weeks of age. Values are expressed as means ± SE. 
Serum TBARS in goats' kids at 1 to 4 weeks of age. Values are expressed as means ± SE. Values with different scripts are statistically (p < 0.05) different. 
Serum SOD in goats' kids at 1 to 4 weeks of age. Values are expressed as means ± SE. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides, for the first time, basic data about oxidative stresses on Aardi goats kids. Our results gave us very close details on the animals during such important period, where we can go further to reduce such stresses to improve Aardi goats' productivity. While this study shed the light on the basic oxidative stresses on Aardi goats' kids, the small number of animals used limited it. For that reason, we could not include the effect of gender on the parameters studied. 
The provision of basic data about oxidative stresses on Aardi goats will be beneficial for understanding the basic physiological indices of a valuable local breed of goats under harsh desert condition. The primary aim of this study is to assess the antioxidant status of newly born Aardi kids. Eighteen newly born Aardi kids were used in this study; sampled weekly as from week 1 to 4 for the assay of the plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), ThioBarbituric Reactive Substances (TBARS), and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activities. For new-born, total blood antioxidants concentrations did not change during the four weeks of life. However, TBARS increased during the 2nd and 3rd week of age (p < 0.05). The results indicated that TAC in kids from birth to 4 weeks of age tended to increase, but not significantly. Serum TBARS concentrations increased on the 2nd week and decreased significantly on the 4th week of age. Serum SOD levels did not change significantly, even though, the trend showed a decline during 1st to 3rd week of age. The small decrease in serum TBARS in the serum of kids can be considered as an indication of decreased oxidants, which in turn, resulted in a reduction in serum SOD concentration. In conclusion, this basic data could help in understanding the adaptational physiology of young local Saudi goats.
 
Causal structure detected by field observation.
Registered result of interferogram generation.
The differences in cultivation situation and related culture between two sites.
Difference in variables between the two rice terraces.
Non-adjusted odds ratio of each decision factor by topographic conditions.
Previous discussion about the factors of the expanding trend of abandoned cultivation had focused only on universal factors and lacked evaluation of the regionality of the phenomenon. This paper demonstrated the Toraja’s regional characteristics and the influence of cultural endemism on decision-making about abandoning cultivation by an observation-oriented approach. Based on a causal framework constructed by field observation and geospatial data generation, an adjustment for overt covariates using the multivariate logistic regression model to draw the causal effect from hidden covariates was examined in two rice terraces with different water systems, i.e. irrigated field and rain-fed field. The result of sub-group analysis revealed that decisions about abandoning cultivation in Toraja were greatly associated with disadvantageous factors for intensive farming, i.e. “number of adjacent fields” and “soil erosion” rather than advantageous factors, i.e. “area of field” and “distance to roads”. Moreover, the result of interaction analysis which controlled the effect of topography revealed the powerful effect of particular decision factors only in rain-fed rice terrace: the “distance to roads” factor’s fairly negative contribution on abandoning cultivation (Odds ratio = 9.94E - 01, P value = 2.03E - 11), as well as the “number of adjacent field” factor’s positive contribution on abandoning cultivation (Odds ratio = 1.13E+00, P value = 3.65E - 04). Given the evidence from the explanation of these results by customary laws and land inheritance system for each site, therefore, it could be concluded that the screening and detection of cultural endemism’s influence was achieved using the algorithm this paper proposes.
 
Fruits of the three okra varieties. a: Long (4.4 cm); b: Medium (7.0 cm); c: Short (9.9 cm). Four seeds were sown and thinned to one plant per hill when plants reached 4 -5 leaves stage. Each plot consisted of 5 m long and 4 m wide, with a spacing of 0.75 m × 0.75 m. Two consecutive blocks were separated by a 1 m driveway, while two consecutive plots were 0.5 m apart. Weeds were removed by hand every 2 weeks. Before sowing, we carried out spreading of 2 kg/m 2 of decomposed organic matter and an addition of 5 g/m 2 of mineral fertilizer NPK 15-15-15, then urea was brought to 30 days after sowing at a rate 5 g/m 2 . Five plants were randomly selected and marked from each morphotype in each plot ignoring those on the peripheries. The data were recorded on the middle plants. 12 plants were used for analysis by adapting [10] which was also used by [11] to assess Niger onion. The following characters were evaluated: Emergence (Emg); Germination (Ger); Boutonisation (Bu) Flowering (Flo); Fructificaion (Fruc); Height at flowering (HFl); Height at maturity (HMa); Lenght of the petiole (Lpe); Diameter of leaves (DL); Diameter of plants (Dia); Number of fruits (NFr); Number of fruit per branch (NFrBr); Total number of fruits (TNfr); Number of branch (NBr); Number of leaves (Nle); Lenght of fruits (LFr); Diameter of fruits: (DFr); Number of arret (Nar); Weight of fruits (WFr); Weight of seed (Wse), Number of seeds: (Nse).
Variability of different axis.
Contribution of variables to main components.
Contribution of variables to main components.
PCA summary.
Okra, (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), is grown as a sole crop and asa field crop in Niger. In the present study, three okra varieties from Zinderregion in Niger Republic have been assessed for their agronomic perfor-mance traits. The experiment was conducted in a randomized completeblock design with three replications during the dry season 2018-2019. Thefollowing characters were evaluated: emergence; germination; boutonizationflowering; fructificaion; height at flowering; height at maturity; length of thepetiole; diameter of leaves; diameter of plants; number of fruits; number offruit per branch; total number of fruits; number of branch, number of leaves;length of fruits; diameter of fruits; number of arrets; weight of fruits; weightof seed, number of seeds. The collected data were subjected to analysis of va-riance (ANOVA) using XlStat version 7.1 and the means separated by usingTurkey’s Method. Analysis of Principal components (PCA) using R softwarewas also performed on the variables. There were significant differences for allcharacters except emergence, germination, diameter of plants, number of fruits,total number of fruits and diameter of fruits. The multivariate analysis by theACP showed a grouping of the varieties in three groups. The three okra varie-ties have revealed good performances and could be useful for a breeding pro-gram. The study of the water needs of the varieties will be very interesting tomake a better selection of the collection (PDF) Agro Morphological Characterization and Evaluation of Three Okra [ Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] Varieties from Zinder (Niger) for Yield and Other Variability Components. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/359064367_Agro_Morphological_Characterization_and_Evaluation_of_Three_Okra_Abelmoschus_esculentus_L_Moench_Varieties_from_Zinder_Niger_for_Yield_and_Other_Variability_Components [accessed Jul 13 2022].
 
Left roots, in right cals obtained in our experience.
Tap Water composition.
Retention time of fatty acids in Perle noir merithallus.
Changes in the total lipid content mg/g DM versus time in Perle noir Vitis vinifera L.
Rooting ability in Vitis vinifera L. is the phenomena studied. The evolution of the total lipids contents and fatty acids amount of cuttings during the rooting were determined. Total lipid extraction was carried out by an extraction solvent consisting of a mixture of chloroform and methanol. Methylation of fatty acids was carried out by the boron trifluoride methanol complex. Their analysis is performed by gas chromatography. We have obtained a content of merithallus lipids equivalent with then in bibliography. In other hand 3 fatty acids were obtained: eicosapentaenoic acid, oleic acid and docosanoic acid. Among the studied of rooting abilities, we observed decreased levels of total lipids and in the essential fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid C20:5 n-3 and oleic acid C18:1 n-9. Minor fatty acids cuttings experimental have a variable evolution. Lipids and certain fatty acids may be markers of rooting in the vine.
 
Culture of Alternaria alternata on PDA Method. 
Viability and mycoflora of normal and abnormal seeds of all three wheat varieties.
Incidence of normal and abnormal wheat seeds from dry inspection of seeds.
The main aim of present study is to ascertain the fungal species and their effect on germination associated with wheat seeds. Seeds of three varieties WH896, PBW-373 and HD264 of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were collected from Quarsi Agriculture Farm Aligarh. These three seed samples of wheat showing different forms of discouloration and abnormalities were screened for associated fungi. Microscopic examination of wheat seeds reveals that seeds of all the varieties of wheat possess injuries to varying extent. Detailed examination of the seeds has shown that the seeds can be classified on the basis of extent of injury in the three categories viz., seeds having minor cracks, cracks without exposed embryo and cracks with exposed embryo. Seed soaking and washing techniques were also employed. Fusarium moniliforme and Alternaria alternata were isolated from all the categories of seed tested. Floating mycelial bits and conidia of Alternaria, Fusarium, Drechslera, Curvularia lunata, Mucor were found in all the three varieties of wheat. The seeds were subjected to visual observation and examination under stereoscopic microscope. These findings are to study and detect the phytopathogenic mycoflora which causes damage and loss to our seeds and crops.
 
Top-cited authors
Shahid Ali
  • International Potato Center
Malkhan Singh Gurjar
  • Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Masood Akhtar
  • Shibli National College
Kelvin Mtei
  • The Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology
Patrick Ndakidemi
  • The Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology