African Entomology

The blowflies Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann,1818) and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of veterinary and medical importance are taxonomically revised and formally reestablished as two different species. Characters in the adult morphology by which they can be distinguished, including characters in the genitalia, are described. The form with a darkened anterior margin of the wing, 'f. tacniata Bigot' sensu Zumpt 1956, is treated as a variant of C. putoria. In order to preserve stability of nomenclature, lectotypes are designated for both nominal species, fixing their identity in accordance with current usage. Somomyia cuprinitens Rondani, 1873, and Somomyia taeniata Bigot, 1877, (= C. chloropyga 'f. taeniata Bigot' of Zumpt) are considered new synonyms of C. putoria.
Geographical distribution of Platypleura hirtipennis and P. plumosa.  
Expanded oscillogram of the sound pulses produced by Platypleura hirtipennis. This specimen produced sound pulses at a rate of 877 Hz. Total time of the trace is 11.9 msec. Time bar = 5 msec.  
Expanded oscillogram of the sound pulses produced by Platypleura plumosa. This specimen produced sound pulses at a rate of 884 Hz. Total time of the trace is 11.9 msec. Time bar = 5 msec.
Sonagram of the calling song produced by Platypleura plumosa. The call is a constant-frequency, constantamplitude call with a peak frequency of about 10.8 kHz. Lower trace is an oscillogram. Total time of the trace is 2.026 sec. Time bar = 0.5 sec.  
[From the introduction]: Most male cicadas produce a calling song in order to attract conspecific females. These songs have been shown to differ in closely related species (e.g. Alexander & Moore 1962; Villet 1988, 1989; Boulard 1995; Marshall & Cooley 2000; Sanborn & Phillips 2001) and in species which share habitats (e.g. Sueur 2002). The former is an inevitable part of the divergence of recognition signals that characterizes the speciation process in animals using acoustic signals (Villet 1995), while the latter would be expected from a signal that acts as a reproductive isolating mechanism (Claridge 1985; Marshall & Cooley 2000). Calling songs are therefore of value in resolving taxonomic problems in the cicadas.
The geometrid caterpillar Isturgia deerraria was imported from Kenya into quarantine facilities in Australia as a potential biological control agent for prickly acacia, Acacia nilotica subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan (family Mimosaceae). The insect was then tested on 30 plant species presented to neonate larvae as a no-choice cut foliage test and 13 plant species presented as a no-choice potted plant test. In these tests the insect was able to complete its life cycle on 13 native Acacia spp. and also on Acacia farnesiana and the exotic ornamental Delonix regia (family Caesalpiniaceae). The tests supported field observations that the insect has a host range spanning many leguminous species and as such the insect could not be considered for release in Australia.
Acanthiops erepens, larva, tergal tuberculation . 14, Loteni River (KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa); 15–16, Mlungusi Stream (Malawi).  
Acanthiops faro, larva. 22, foreleg; 23, tarsal claw; 24, abdomen (lateral view); 25, abdomen (dorsal view); 26, gill 1; 27, gill 4.  
Acanthiops faro, larva. 17, labrum; 18, left mandible; 19, right mandible; 20, right maxilla; 21, labium (left-ventral view; right-dorsal view).
Acanthiops Waltz & McCafferty (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) is shown to be a monophyletic grouping defined by an anteromedially emarginate and laterally expanded and flattened pronotum in the larva. Attempts to restrict the concept of Acanthiops to Ac. marlieri (Demoulin) and re-erect Afroptiloides Gillies, syn. n., for Ac. elgonensis Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Ac. griffithsi Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Ac. tsitsa Barber-James & McCafferty, Ac. variegatus (Gillies), Ac. varius (Crass) and Ac. zomba Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, are shown to be based on inconsistent and inadequate morphological features that result in a paraphyletic taxonomy. The unofficial separate treatment of Ac. cooperi (Gillies & Wuillot) and Ac. erepens (Gillies) under Platycloeon Gillies & Wuillot is also shown to be paraphyletic. Acanthiops faro Barber-James & McCafferty, sp. n., is described from larvae from Guinea, and is distinguished by the combination of a papillate projection on labial palp segment 2, small tubercles on terga 1-8 and abdominal colour pattern. Acanthiops io Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, sp. n., is described from larvae from the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is distinguished by the combination of a papillate projection on palp segment 2, elongate tubercles on terga 1-9 and abdominal colour pattern. The larva of Ac. erepens (Gillies) is redescribed to incorporate morphological features and variability previously not accounted for, and larvae originally assigned to Baetis cataractae Crass are shown to be equivalent to Ac. erepens. New locality data or emendations on locality data are provided for Ac. griffithsi, Ac. tsitsa Barber-James & McCafferty and Ac. varius (Crass).
Oviposition, development and searching behavior of Cotesia flavipes Cameron and Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) on aestivating Chilo spp. and non-aestivating Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) larvae were investigated. Oviposition experiments indicated that parasitoids readily accepted aestivating and non aestivating larvae for oviposition under laboratory conditions. The development times of C. flavipes from egg to adult emergence in aestivating compared with non-aestivating host larvae were not significantly different. Field-cage studies demonstrated that C. flavipes and C. sesamiae were unable to locate and parasitize aestivating Chilo spp. larvae in dry maize stems. Parasitization of non-aestivating C. partellus larvae was significantly higher in cages where C. flavipes was released (26.21 %) than in cages where C. sesamiae was released (11.32 %).
A new species of Dacinae, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) invadens sp.n., from Sri Lanka and Africa, is described and illustrated. This is a pest species that has recently been introduced into eastern Africa and has subsequently made a rapid expansion across tropical Africa. Known distribution and host records are also presented. Yes Yes
Two geographic founder colonies of Cotesia flavipes from Pakistan were imported for biological control of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and other African cereal stem borers. Separate colonies were initiated from the two importations and examined for electrophoretic variation at 14 isozyme loci over 22 generations of laboratory rearing. Two out of 14 loci examined were found to be polymorphic. In the first 12 generations of sampling, when approximately 1000 breeding females were used to perpetuate both colonies, there was a slight increase in heterozygosity at the MDH locus in the colonies of the two strains. In the last 10 generations of sampling, when only 500 females were used, there was a rapid decrease in electrophoretic variation in the two colonies. The effective population sizes for the two colonies was estimated at 3.4 and 9.0% of the number of breeding females used to continue the colonies. These data indicate that using 1000 mated females to perpetuate the C. flavipes colonies maintained greater genetic variation than using 500 females.
Survey area showing Prosopis species and collecting sites of Coelocephalapion gandolfoi in Argentina. (BA, Buenos Aires; C, Corrientes; Ca, Catamarca; Ch, Chaco; Co, Córdoba; ER, Entre Ríos; F, Formosa; J, Jujuy; LP, La Pampa; LR, La Rioja; M, Mendoza; Mi, Misiones; N, Neuquén; S, Salta; SE, Santiago del Estero; SF, Santa Fé; SJ, San Juan; SL, San Luis; T, Tucumán).  
2–3: Coelocephalapion gandolfoi; 2, adult; 3, empty one-seeded endocarp unit with pupa. 4, Anypsipyla sp. nr. univitella larval damage on green pod. 5–6: Asphondylia sp. nr prosopidis; 5, galls on a peduncle of Prosopis nigra. 6, galls on ovary and margin. a = ovary gall, b = intermediate gall, c = margin gall.  
Rhipibruchus atratus. 7, Adult; 8, a dissected young green pod of Prosopis nigra showing an egg (a), larval tunnel (b), larva (c) and immature seed (d).  
Mesquites (Prosopis spp.) are thorny leguminous shrubs or trees native to Southwest Asia, Africa, and predominantly North and South America. Introduced as beneficial plants to India, Pakistan, South Africa, Egypt, Kuwait, Australia, U.S.A. (Hawaii), and Brazil, some Prosopis species have become invasive in some of these countries. Mechanical and chemical control methods implemented in the U.S.A., Australia and South Africa have been only marginally effective. In an attempt to preserve the beneficial attributes of mesquite while arresting its spread, biocontrol efforts in South Africa have only focused on seed-feeding agents. Between 1987 and 1993, three species of bruchids were introduced from the U.S.A., but their impact has been limited as ripe pods are eaten by livestock before the agents have had a chance to eat the seeds. In this paper we present a list of insects that attack the reproductive structures of Prosopis species in Argentina, focusing on those that feed on green, unripe pods and flower buds. We provide information on the biology, distribution and host range of nine beetles, four moths and one gall midge species. Their potential as biological control agents against mesquite in South Africa is discussed with special reference to that of a new weevil species, Coelocephalapion gandolfoi Kissinger which was selected for further studies. The adults feed and oviposit on green pods, while the larvae feed on the immature seeds, apparently without causing a substantial reduction in the value of pods as fodder.
The scale insect genus Calycicoccus Brain has a single described species, C. merwei Brain, which is endemic to southeastern South Africa. Females of C. merwei induce small, mostly conical galls on the foliage of their host tree, Apodytes dimidiata E. Meyer ex Arn. (Icacinaceae), which has a wider, mostly coastal distribution, than that currently known for the scale insect. Calycicoccus has been placed in the family Eriococcidae and may be related to the South American genus Aculeococcus Lepage. No other native eriococcid species have been described so far in South Africa, although the family is diverse in other Gondwanan regions. This paper summarizes the biology of C. merwei, redescribes the adult female, describes the adult male, the second-instar female and the first-instar nymphs for the first time, and reconsiders the phylogenetic relationships of the genus. The adult female is shown to have unusual abdominal segmentation, in that segment I is present both dorsally and ventrally, but a segment is absent ventrally on the middle abdomen. First-instar nymphs are sexually dimorphic; males have a larger and relatively narrower body, larger mouthparts, longer antennae and legs, and more thoracic dorsal setae compared with females. Molecular data from nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA (18S) and elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1a) show C. merwei to have no close relatives among the Eriococcidae sampled to date. Instead, the Calycicoccus lineage is part of a polytomy near the base of the Eriococcidae. Molecular dating of the node suggests that the Calycicoccus lineage diverged from other eriococcids more than 100 Mya. These data support the placement of Calycicoccus as the only genus in the subfamily Calycicoccinae Brain.
Pseudocloeon glaucum, dorsal view of larva and details of posterior abdominal segments, Wildebees River specimen (Eastern Cape Province, South Africa) (scale bar = 1 mm).  
Pseudocloeon glaucum larva. 1, labrum; 2, left mandible; 3, right mandible; 4, right maxilla; 5, labial palp segment 1–3; 6, labial palp segment 1–3; 7, mesonotal V-shape marking; 8, left foreleg; 9, tarsal claw; 10, tergum 4; 11, gill 4 and detail of margin.  
Pseudocloeon glaucum larva. Metanotum and abdominal colour patterns. 12, Cunene River specimen (Namibia/Angola border); 13, 15, Senqu River specimens (Lesotho); 14, Malibomatso River specimen (Lesotho).  
Pseudocloeon masai (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty), P. nadineae (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty) and P. quintum (Agnew) are junior subjective synonyms of P. glaucum (Agnew). Larvae of P. glaucum manifest a wide range of variation in mouthpart morphology, particularly with respect to the development of the distomedial process of segment 2 of the labial palps, body size, general body colour and abdominal colour pattern. Such variation is observed in different cohorts and populations, and explains why several names have been applied to the same species. Larvae of P. glaucum also have considerable ecological tolerance, accounting for the abundance and widespread distribution of the species in the Afrotropical Region. New records from Kenya, Lesotho, Namibia and Zimbabwe are provided.
Worker laying a recruiting trail. On the left of the ant is a segment of a millipede, the food source of this species.  
Marks left on smoked glass by a worker of Pectroctena mandibularis laying a recruitment trail. a, Footprints (marked by arrows) can be seen on either side of the four parallel lines left by the hairs on the posterior edge of tergite VI. b, Enlargement of the area marked by dotted lines in Fig. 2a.  
Although workers of Plectroctena mandibularis laid trails with their stings while foraging, the trails appeared to be for individual orientation, because they never recruited nestmates to prey. However, both workers and queens laid trails when recruiting nestmates of either caste to new nest sites. During trail-laying, fluted hairs on the posterior edge of tergite VI were dragged along the ground, presumably applying a pheromone to the substrate. Anatomical and behavioural evidence suggests that pygidial gland secretions moved from the intersegmental pygidial gland between tergites VI and VII into a fingerprint-like, lamellar cuticular reservoir on the pygidium, and from there via the hairs to the substrate. These results suggest that recruitment may be crucial to moving nests but of value only to certain types of foraging, and that recruitment might even have originated in the Formicidae in the context of colony relocation, and then secondarily evolved to assist foraging.
[From the text]: The present study reports on new observations on the reproductive biology of P. mandibularis, particularly the phenology of males, mating behaviour and colony founding, that may help in deciding between alternative explanations for the occurrence of ergatoid queens in this species.
Crop sanitation, i.e. destruction of crop residues, has been hypothesized to lower banana weevil damage by removing adult refuges and breeding sites. Although it has been widely recommended to farmers, limited data are available to demonstrate the efficacy of this method. The effects of crop sanitation on banana weevil populations and damage were studied in an on-station trial in Uganda. Treatments included low, moderate and high levels of sanitation. Banana weevil populations, estimated by trapping and mark and recapture methods, were lowest in the high sanitation treatment. However, banana weevil damage was either not significantly different among treatments or lower in low sanitation treatments. Similarly, increases in crop sanitation level were not reflected in higher yields. The data from this trial suggest that crop sanitation is not an effective means of managing banana weevil and contrasts with results from an on-farm study in which sanitation reduced both weevil numbers and damage. Possible factors explaining the different outcomes of the two studies are discussed.
A search for natural enemies of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), was conducted in Togo and Cote d'Ivoire. Several strains of the fungal entomopathogens Paecilomyces farinosus (Holm ex SF Gray) Brown & Smith and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin were found in each country. This is the first report of P. farinosus infecting coffee berry boret Leptophloeus sp. near punctatus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae) was observed preying on coffee berry borer larvae for the first time. Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) was the most abundant coffee berry borer parasitoid found in Cote d'Ivoire followed by Phymastiehus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Both species also occur in Togo, although in very low numbers, together with another parasitoid, Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Other insects emerging from coffee beans are also reported.
Box-and-whisker plot of median, interquartile range, minimum and maximum body mass of Sarcophaga tibialis larvae during development at six constant temperatures.  
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Mean (with 95 % confidence intervals) response of larvae of Sarcophaga tibialis reared at six constant temperatures, adjusted for age using ANCOVA; a, mortality ; b, mass; c, length.  
Regression lines and 95 % confidence intervals (dashed lines) used to determine the developmental constants of Sarcophaga tibialis larvae using six constant temperatures (n = 18). Points not on the linear section (open symbols) were excluded from the analysis. a, End of feeding phase; 14 of the replicates (filled symbols, many superimposed) lay on the linear section of the graph (R 2 = 0.607; D0 = 5.2 °C, S.E. = 1.21 °C; K = 106.4 d°C, S.E. = 8.31 d°C). b, End of wandering phase; 11 of the replicates lay on the linear section of the graph (R 2 = 0.925; D0 = 4.1 °C, S.E. = 0.39 °C; K = 126.7 d°C, S.E. = 3.28 d°C).  
Regression lines and 95 % confidence intervals (dashed lines) used to determine the developmental constants of larvae of six species of Sarcophagidae (Table 2) reared under constant temperatures. Data were obtained from published studies (Table 1).  
Larvae of Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) tibialis Macquart were raised on chicken liver under six different constant temperatures. Maximum survival indicated an optimal developmental temperature of near 20°C, while trends in mortality, larval length and larval mass implied that the thermal window for successful development lay between 15°C and 30°C. Using a recently described method to estimate a simple thermal summation model, it was found that the timing of the end of the feeding phase could be estimated by a developmental zero (D0) of 5.2°C (S.E. = 1.21) and a thermal summation constant (K) of 106.4 d°C (S.E. = 8.31) and of the end of the wandering phase by D0 = 4.1°C (S.E. = 0.39) and K = 126.7 d°C (S.E. = 3.28). Published development times at constant temperatures were compiled for 19 other species of flesh flies, and the developmental constants were calculated for six species for which sufficient data were accumulated.
Geographical distributions of samples queens of Plectroctena mandibularis (+) and P. conjugata (×).
Geographical distributions of samples of males with abdomens that were black (r), brown-tipped (t), brown (×), and orange-yellow (+).
Pearson's correlations of the first two components of a principal component analysis of worker morphology with each of the morphometric variables and with the funicular index for workers of Plectroctena mandibularis and P. conjugata.
Plectroctena mandibularis Smith is the type species of Plectroctena F. Smith. Because there has been some doubt about its distinctness from P. conjugata, several techniques were used to assess the systematic status of the two species. Most crucially, several colony series contained workers of both phenotypes, and where these series included queens or males, the distinguishing feature of these specimens was not consistently related to those of the workers. Queens, males and workers did not manifest qualitative differences between the taxa, and morphological variation was continuous between the two. The putative morphological basis (funicular index) for distinguishing workers of the taxa arose from allometric variation. Putatively diagnostic colour variation in males was related to latitude, but no simple pattern of morphological variation could be correlated with geographical distribution. Plectroctena conjugata is therefore considered a junior synonym of P. mandibularis.
The present study aimed to evaluate the inherited deleterious effects and protein response of Musca domestica to LD50 of gamma irradiation through three generations at different cross combinations (irradiated female (IF) × irradiated male (IM), unirradiated female (UIF) × irradiated male, and irradiated female × unirradiated male (UIM)). Gamma radiation induced a significant effect on the reproductive potential of M. domestica through the first three generations, where the sterility index was higher than those of the untreated control, especially in F1 and F2 generations. The great inherited deleterious effects occurred when IM × IF and when IM × UIF indicating that the male of M. domestica is more radiosensitive than the female. The electrophoretic separation of protein bands in the third larval instar of M. domestica resulted from different matings (irradiated and unirradiated males and females) vs control was investigated in the present study. The control larvae recorded the highest number of protein bands (27), while the larvae resulted from crossing of UIF × IM (LD50 = 5 Gy) contained the lowest number of protein bands (14). However, the number of protein bands in larvae resulted from crossing of IF × UIM (LD50 = 7 Gy) was 24 bands also the number of bands resulted from crossing IF × IM (LD50 = 4 Gy) was 21 bands. In addition, the results showed that the type of mating affects the distribution of protein bands, where some protein bands appeared and others disappeared in third larval instar resulted from the different irradiated and unirradiated males and females. These results may indicate that males of M. domestica are more radio sensitive than females where the lowest number of bands was separated in larvae resulted from IM × UIF. Consequently, these radiation doses are recommended for the establishment of Male Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programmes against M. domestica.
Host-associated genetic differentiation in grasshoppers has received limited attention, due to a lack of information on grasshopper-plant associations. The bladder grasshopper, Bullacris unicolor (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pneumoridae), is a phytophagous species that can occur on at least six host plants within its geographic range. However, the relationship between host plant association and genetic variation of bladder grasshoppers has not been studied before. In light of this, the present study examined host plant-related genetic [mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene regions] and morphological (antennal length, body length, head width, abdomen width, femur length, tibia length and pronotum length) divergence within a population of B. unicolor. We used two plant species, belonging to different families, namely Didelta spinosa (L.fil.) Aiton (Asteraceae) and Roepera morgsana (L.) Beier & Thulin (Zygophyllaceae), to evaluate variation between individuals collected on these two sympatric host plants at a single locality in the Northern Cape, South Africa. The results demonstrated non-significant host related genetic variation with very low values of FST, indicating a low level of variation. The phylogram strongly indicated that there are no host-associated genetic differences in B. unicolor by displaying limited genomic clustering, whereas some differentiation was observed between the morphological measurements of males and females among host plants. Further studies using microsatellite molecular markers may help to discern population genetic structure. In addition, significant host-associated morphological divergence highlights the need to examine the mechanisms by which host utilization affects morphological features.
Length and weight of Dermestes maculatus after feeding on Clarias gariepinus. 
Relationship between the days of infestation and mineral values of the fish. 
Proximate composition of Clarias gariepinus after infestation with Dermestes maculatus. 
Weight loss by experimental fishes during infestation by Dermestes maculatus. 
The nutritive benefits of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), are threatened by its infestation by Dermestes maculatus DeGeer, 1774 during storage. The influence of D. maculatus on stored C. gariepinus was investigated in this study. Fifty smoked C. gariepinus (117.5 ± 0.05 g) were sterilized by oven drying and randomly allotted into 10 boxes. Each box contained five fishes which were infested with larvae of D. maculatus at the beginning of the experiment and were stored for 0 (control), 14, 28, 42, and 56 days. The weight loss and proximate composition (crude fibre, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, Na+, K+, Mg+ and Fe2+) of the stored fish samples were analysed at the end of each period. The storage periods represented the treatments. Results revealed that the weight of experimental smoked fishes decreased as the storage duration increased. Similarly, the crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content of C. gariepinus decreased as the days of infestation increased (crude protein varied from 67.00 % at day 0 to 36.84 % at day 56). The mineral composition of the experimental fishes likewise decreased with days of infestation. Regression analysis showed a strong positive relationship between protein (+0.95), fat (+0.90), K+ (+0.80) content of the fishes and duration of infestation. Thus, the nutritive quality of C. gariepinus is highly reduced by D. maculatus infestation.
The essential oils extracted from six plants from Kabylia (Algeria), namely Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus radiata, Myrtus communis, Salvia officinalis, Laurus nobilis and Pistacia lentiscus, were analysed by gas chromatography (GC/MS). Their biological activity was assessed on a pest destructive of stored products, Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea (Vigna unguicultata). The results showed that these oils have two monoterpene compounds in common: α-pinene and β-pinene in different proportions. The bio-tests were conducted through contact, fumigation and repellency, under laboratory conditions. All the oils tested proved to be active, and the most significant action was the inhibition of oviposition during the tests through contact at a dose of 12µ1/50 g of bean seed. The essential oil of E. globulus caused 50% mortality in adult C. maculatus at 24 hours at a dose of 4µl/1 of air in fumigation tests. In addition, the essential oils tested were highly repellent towards adult C. maculatus at a dose of 16 µl.
The analysis, by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, of the essential oils extracted from six conifers showed that the monoterpene family is predominant and that the major component was pinene. In contact tests, at a dose of 50 µl essential oil/50 g of seed, all essential oils affected very significantly the longevity, fecundity and emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). In inhalation tests, after 24 h of exposure at a dose of 37.5 µl essential oil, Cupressus sempervirens originating from Algeria and Tunisia caused 100 % mortality in adults of C. maculatus. In repulsivity tests, Tetraclinis articulata of Tunisian origin was very efficient at a rate of 94 %. There was no secondary effect on Vigna unguiculata seeds treated with the highest doses (50 and 75 µl of essential oils), as evidenced by weight and germination capacity.
Analyses of material collected recently and considerations of biogeographic coherence support the formation of a Porphyronota carnifex species-group, comprising four separate entities. Thus, the previously known P. carnifex s. str. is now subdivided into P. carnifex (Fabricius), with an exclusive northwestern Cape distribution, and P. variegata (Boheman, 1857), with a broader eastern, circum-Drakensberg distribution. The elevation to species level of P. carnifex rougemonti Holm, 1990 from Ethiopia, as proposed earlier by Antoine in 2004, is supported. Porphyronota carnifex tottenhami Holm, 1990 from Angola is also recognized as a proper species, on the basis of several diagnostic characters including a completely black head in both sexes, a great reduction of the paler areas on the abdominal sternites and a poor lateral extension of the ventral lobes of the aedeagal parameres..
Mortality caused by Mentha pulegium, Ruta chalepensis and Lavandula stoechas essential oils against R. dominica adults. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean of seven replicates, each replicate contained 10 individuals. Means corresponding to each treatment with different letters are significantly different from each other (Tukey-Test, P < 5 %).
Lethal concentrations LC50 and LC95 of Mentha pulegium, Ruta chalepensis and Lavandula stoechas essential oils against Rhyzopertha dominica
GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of chemical extracts (in relative %) of pure Lavandula stoechas essential oil.
Relative amounts (area %) of identified chemi- cal extracts of pure Ruta chalepensis essential oil using GC/MS and GC-FID analysis.
Natural plant extracts, especially essential oils, are used largely against plant pests. The aim of this study was to investigate the bio-insecticidal effect of chemical extracts of three plants, Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), Lavandula stoechas L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Ruta chalepensis L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae) collected from Tunisia, on the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), which is a primary pest of stored wheat. To reach this goal, we firstly did bio-assays to test the toxicity of these plant extracts on R. dominica adults using different concentrations of plant extracts on wheat seeds. Secondly, we analysed the chemical compounds of these plant extracts using GC-MS and GC-FID. Our results demonstrated that R. dominica mortality was significantly higher with increasing plant essential oils concentrations (CL95 values 45.68, 113.12 and 170.52 µl/l(air)) for M. pulegium, R. chalepensis and L. stoechas, respectively. The main chemical compounds identified of M. pulegium oils were: pulegone (76.9 %), isomenthone (12.0 %) and limonene (1.73 %), whereas those from L. stoechas were: camphor (23.8 %), 1,8-cineole (17.8 %) and camphene (7.69 %). Ruta chalepensis oil revealed high contents of undecanone (51.2 %), 2-nonanone (39.16 %) and 2-decanone (2.32 %). Our results also showed that M. pulegium essential oil has a significant effect against R. dominica with LC50 value of 13.51 µl/l(air) compared to R. chalepensis and L. stoechas corresponding to 39.11 and 42.9 µl/l(air), respectively. Key words: insecticidal activity, fumigant toxicity, GC-MS, fast GC-FID.
A comparative study was undertaken to determine progeny development of Dermestes frischii Kugelann and its damage on 12 smoke-dried fish species. The highest weight of the emerged F1 adult D. frischii was observed in Mormyrus delicosus (0.10 g) followed by Clarias sp. and Malapterurus sp. (0.07 g); while Channa sp., Auchenoglanis sp. and Moronyrus rumi had the least weight of emerged adults (0.01 g). Clarias sp. and Mormyrus delicosus had significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of emerged F1 adults compared with the number of emerged adults in other species except Malapterurus sp. and Lates niloticus. The significantly (P < 0.05) longest day to first adult emergence (24 days) was observed in Lates niloticus. The least percentage weight loss (20.52%) due to D. frischii infestation was observed on Channa sp., which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than 73.68% observed in Malapterurus sp. and 71.23% observed in Alestes sp. There was a positive correlation between adult progeny and weight of emerged adult (r = 0.92, P < 0.01). Also, fish bone weight was positively correlated to percentage weight loss (r = 0.87, P < 0.01).
Damage caused by the fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (syn. B. invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mangoes in Senegal leads to production losses. A potential biological control agent against this pest is the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Senegalese mango-based orchards present a diversity in design and management practices that can influence the abundance of these two species in orchards. In this study we evaluated i) the ability of the O. longinoda ant to limit B. dorsalis damage in Senegalese orchards, and ii) variations in population abundance for these two species depending on orchard design and management practices. The study was conducted in Senegal in the Niayes area and the Thiès plateau. Fifteen orchards were sampled among three out of four kinds of orchards identified in this area: (1) 'No-input mango diversified orchards', (3) 'Medium-input citrus-predominant orchards' and (4) 'Medium-input large mango- or citrus-predominant orchards'. In one of the orchards we measured infestation rates and numbers of fly pupae that developed from mangoes collected from trees (cv. Kent) 'with' and 'without' O. longinoda colonies over three harvesting periods (May, July and August) in 2013. The abundance of O. longinoda and B. dorsalis was measured for two months in the dry season and two others in the rainy season in the 15 orchards in 2012. The presence of O. longinoda on trees reduced the proportion of mangoes attacked by B. dorsalis as well as the number of pupae that developed from infested mangoes. The abundance of O. longinoda and B. dorsalis was negatively correlated. The abundance varied depending on the orchard design and management practices. O. longinoda abundance was greater in orchard types 1 and 3 than in type 4. Conversely, B. dorsalis abundance in the rainy season tended to be greater in orchard type 4 than in types 1 and 3. This study showed that O. longinoda is effective in limiting mango infestations by B. dorsalis. It also showed that the abundance of these two species was influenced by the orchard design and management practices. Therefore, using O. longinoda to control fruit flies is possible in Senegalese mango-based orchards by promoting weaver ant preservation.
Acanthaegilopsis hemicoriaceous; a, mesosoma in lateral view; b, mesosoma in dorsal view; c, mesopleuron; d, head in dorsal view; e, propodeum; f, head. 
Xyalaspis subsaharica; a, mesosoma in lateral view; b, detail of the first flagellomeres; c, head in front view; d, propodeum; e, mesosoma in dorsal view. 
An revision of current knowledge on subfamily Anacharitinae for the Afrotropical Region is given. Two new species are described: Acanthaegilopsis hemicoriaceus Mata-Casanova & Pujade-Villar sp. n. and Xyalaspis subsaharica Mata-Casanova & Pujade-Villar sp. n. Diagnostic characters are illustrated and data about biology, distribution and morphological variability are discussed.
Mesoscutum in lateral view of (a) Aegilips aethiopicus, (b) A. capensis, (c) A. foveata, and (d) A. virungae.
A revision of the current knowledge of the Afrotropical species of Aegilips Haliday, 1835 is given. The previously known South African Aegilips capensis Kieffer, 1912 is redescribed and its distribution area extended, being cited for the first time in other countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Three new species are described: Aegilips aethiopicus Mata-Casanova & Pujade-Villar sp. n., Aegilips foveata Mata-Casanova & Pujade-Villar sp. n. and Aegilips virungae Mata-Casanova & Pujade-Villar sp. n. Diagnostic characters and data about biology, distribution and affinities with other Aegilips species are discussed. An identification key for the Afrotropical species of Aegilips is given.
A study focusing on the population structure of Euphyllura olivina (Costa, 1839) (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) in olive groves of three regions of Kabylia (Algeria). We identified, for the first time, the existence of colour polymorphism in this olive tree pest. Two different forms have been identified in three distinct groves both in 2014 and 2015. The morphological variations affect different parts of the adult body of both sexes, including the abdomen and the terminalia.
Colour pattern variants of Imbrasia belina larvae (A, B and C) and cocoons of hymenopteran parasitoid on I. belina larva (D). Note the conspicuous red, yellow and black concentric bands/rings in (A), the absence of the red band/ring in (B) and the absence of both the black and red bands/rings in (C).
Percentage similarity of mitochondrion COI sequences of specimens collected from Beit Bridge in Zimbabwe (ZIM) and northern coastal region of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa (KZN) with sequences in the BOLD gene bank.
Mopane worm is the edible larva of Imbrasia (Gonimbrasia) belina (Westwood, 1894), a species of emperor moth that is generally found in central and southern African tropical regions. Both over-harvesting of larvae and the destruction of the mopane woodlands are threatening its biodiversity. An insect with a description matching that of I. belina was observed in the northern coastal region of KwaZulu-Natal, a subtropical biota. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the potential of the northern coastal region of KwaZulu-Natal as a sanctuary for I. belina. The presence of I. belina in the subtropical biota of the coastal region of KwaZulu-Natal was confirmed through mitochondrion CO1 gene sequences, this being so far its southernmost occurrence. Field surveys revealed the occurrence of four morphologically distinct variants within the uMkhanyakude District, inclusive of the protected iSimangaliso Wetland Park and Hluhluwe Game Reserve from the beginning of September to early November as do most of the populations in the mopane woodlands but differs from them by having one outbreak per season instead of two. Imbrasia belina is polyphagous and feeds off hosts including marula (Sclerocarya birrea [(A. Rich.) Hochst.] [Anacardiaceae]) and seven other tree species. There is therefore scope to use the northern KwaZulu-Natal coastal region as a sanctuary for biodiversity conservation of I. belina. There are initiatives to cultivate marula for its fruit in the region, which further increases the potential of the area as a sanctuary for I. belina by farming marula for both its fruit and I. belina. The protected nature reserves present in the region will ensure areas of controlled use by humans.
Queen of Tapinoma wilsoni, CASENT0264400; A, body in profile; B, body in dorsal view; C, head in full-face view, (Estella Ortega),
We describe the queen caste of the Arabian endemic species Tapinoma wilsoni Sharaf & Aldawood, 2012 from the type locality (Dhi Ayn Archaeological Village) located in the southwestern mountains of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We present the first illustrated key to the Arabian TapinomaFoerster, 1850 based on the queen castes. Three species are recognised from the Arabian Peninsula,T. melanocephalum (Fabricius, 1793), T. simrothi Krausse, 1911 and T. wilsoni Sharaf & Aldawood, 2012.
Mean development rates for Chilo sacchariphagus egg, larval and pupal stages raised at fixed temperatures  
Daily mean temperatures recorded at the experiment station, St-Denis, Réunion, during the field experiments, January to September 1997.  
Effect of temperature on the proportion of Chilo sacchariphagus females successfully mated (male: female ratio = 2:1). Means (bars) with the same letter are not significantly different at P = 0.05 (Student-Newman-Keuls, GLM Proc, SAS Institute 1990).  
Oviposition pattern of Chilo sacchariphagus, expressed as percentage of the total number of eggs produced per night, at four constant temperatures.
Development duration was measured for the spotted sugarcane stalk borer, Chilo sacchariphagus, under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures of 15°C, 17°C, 20°C, 25°C, 30°C and 35°C. Degree days (°D) and temperature thresholds, were determined: egg to adult 872°D, eggs 114°D above 13,1°C, larvae 586°D above 12,7°C and pupa 172°D above 13°C. Development times were validated with field data. The highest proportion of mated females, 74 % at 25°C, was obtained with a male to female ratio of 2:1. No moths mated below 15°C. At lower and upper temperatures tested mating success, fecundity and longevity were adversely affected. Females laid 254 eggs on average under laboratory conditions at 25°C. The implications of these results are discussed with regard to the ecology, distribution, and control of this sugarcane pest.
Map of Egypt showing the ecological zones where insects were collected.
Seasonal abundance of Heterotrioza chenopodii (bars) and mean air temperature variation (in °C) in a rural area of Wadi El-Natroun between February 2014 and December 2016. Values of the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient test (rs), degree of freedom (df), and probability (P) are given.
Seasonal abundance of Heterotrioza chenopodii (bars) and mean relative humidity (%) in a rural area of Wadi El-Natroun between February 2014 and December 2016. Values of the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient test (rs), degree of freedom (df), and probability (P ) are given.
Psylloids cause severe damages to their host plants and transmit serious plant diseases for several crops in different parts of the world. The species composition and geographical distribution of psylloids in Egypt were assessed. The abundance of Heterotrioza chenopodii (Reuter, 1876) on various host plants in different ecological zones and their monthly abundance in Wadi El-Natroun were monitored throughout three successive seasons. We used a sweep net and a mechanical aspirator to survey populations of Psylloidea species from 2014 to 2017. Twenty-six psylloid species belong to four families were recorded from six geographical zones. H. chenopodii was the most widely distributed psylloid species in Egypt. The total number of species collected per zone ranged from a minimum of two at Fayoum Basin (FB) to a maximum of 15 at Lower Nile Valley and Delta (LNVD). The highest number of psylloid species were sampled from the host plant Tamarix sp. (6 species) followed by Zygophyllum sp. (5 species). The negative binomial regression analysis showed that the abundance of H. chenopodii is more dependent on host plants (χ2 = 61.5, P < 0.001) than ecological zones (χ2 = 11.9, P = 0.018). Density of H. chenopodii in Wadi El-Natroun showed a bimodal seasonal pattern with two peaks of adult abundance: spring (April) and late autumn (December). Moreover, we recorded a drop in the psylloid densities during hot (summer) and cold (winter) seasons. Additional ecological and taxonomic studies on Psylloidea are needed to conduct integrated pest management against species with economic and pharmaceutical interests.
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile generated by the three primers in individual Ectomyelois ceratoniae populations, pomegranate, citrus and date. Lane M = molecular marker (100 bp). Lanes C1-C2 (Citrus). Lanes G1-G2 (pomegranate). Lanes P1-P2 (date pa.
Dendrogram of the 30 Ectomyelois ceratoniae larvae belonging to three different host-plants (E: citrus, P: date and G: pomegranate) generated by UPGMA cluster analysis from the similarity matrix obtained using Jaccard's coefficient based on the results of three RAPD markers.
Two-dimensional principal component analysis of 30 larvae of Ectomyelois ceratoniae belonging to three different hosts-plants (E: citrus, P: date and G: pomegranate) using three RAPD markers. The percentage of variation is presented on each corresponding axis.
The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is an insect pest that causes damage to various crops and fruit trees throughout the world. In Tunisia, this pest attacks date, pomegranate and citrus by seriously affecting the fruit quality. Therefore, the objective of this work is to investigate genetic variation in the carob moth among and within three host-plants by three RAPD markers. The results showed high genetic diversity in the pest. The mean percentage of polymorphic loci was 78.38 %. The total variance percentage of 5 % among populations and 95 % within the populations is suggestive of the role of sexual reproduction for generating high genetic diversity. The average genetic distances among populations ranged from 0.028 to 0.043. The date population is more related to the pomegranate population compared to citrus specimens. The UPGMA dendrogram and the two-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) showed that there is no correlation between E. ceratoniae genotypes and their host plants and geographic localisation suggesting that gene flow between populations is independent of geographic distance and appears to be unrestricted.
Prionotolytta binotata, first instar larva. 8, Left antenna, inner lateral view; 9, antennomere III (dorsal view) with corrugated, scale-like microsculpture; 10, labial palpi, dorsal view; 11, left maxillary palpus, outer lateral view; 12, mesothoracic spiracle; 13, abdominal spiracle I; 14, prothoracic tarsungulus; 15, pygopod ventral view. Scale bars: Figs 8, 11, 13, 14, 20 µm; Figs 9, 10, 12, 10 µm; Fig. 15, 50 µm.  
The egg and first instar larva of Prionotolytta binotata (Péringuey, 1888) are described. The triungulin morphology of this southern African genus was previously unknown. Larval characters of Prionotolytta are compared to those of other blister beetle genera in the tribe Lyttini, and systematic inferences are discussed.
Producers in the Western Cape province of South Africa are looking towards a push-pull strategy to reduce oviposition damage to plums by western flower thrips (WFT). White clover, Trifolium repens L., a favoured host plant of WFT, was investigated as a possible trap crop to provide the “pull” element. The attractiveness of collected volatiles of white clover flowers and of unopened (balloon stage) and open plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Sapphire) blossoms to WFT females was determined, using a Y-tube olfactometer. E-β-Farnesene, a known attractant for WFT, was included as positive control. Clover flower and open plum blossom volatiles exhibited statistically significant attraction of 69% and 71%, respectively, to WFT females. E-β-Farnesene and balloon stage plum blossom volatiles attracted 63% and 65% of WFT, respectively. When compared directly, 69% of WFT females chose the arm with the plum blossom volatiles over the clover flower volatiles. The clear preference shown by WFT for plum blossom volatiles indicates the use of a semiochemical to deter WFT from the plum blossoms would be required to enhance the efficacy of white clover as a trap crop in a push-pull strategy.
The genus Graptartia, presently known only from Africa, is revised. The type species, G. granulosa Simon, 1896, is redescribed and the genitalia drawn. Two new species, G. mutillica and G. tropicalis, are described. Notes on the distribution and biology of the species are provided. All species are mimics of wingless female velvet ants (Mutillidae).
Top-cited authors
John Hoffmann
  • University of Cape Town
Martin P. Hill
  • Centre for Biological Control Rhodes University
Debora Montezano
  • University of Nebraska at Lincoln
Jan H Giliomee
  • Stellenbosch University
Terence Olckers
  • University of KwaZulu-Natal