Advances in the Astronautical Sciences

Published by American Astronautical Society
Publications
Astronaut crew motions can produce some of the largest disturbances acting on a manned spacecraft which can affect vehicle attitude and pointing. Skylab Experiment T-013 was developed to investigate the magnitude and effects of some of these disturbances on the Skylab spacecraft. The methods and techniques used to carry out this experiment are discussed, and preliminary results of data analysis presented. Initial findings indicate that forces on the order of 300 N were exerted during vigorous soaring activities, and that certain experiment activities produced spacecraft angular rate excursions 0.03 to 0.07 deg/sec. Results of Experiment T-013 will be incorporated into mathematical models of crew-motion disturbances, and are expected to be of significant aid in the sizing, design, and analysis of stabilization and control systems for future manned spacecraft.
 
Accurate targeting of the Deep Space Program Science Experiment (DSPSE) spacecraft to achieve a 100 km sunward flyby of asteroid 1620 Geographos will require that the ground-based ephemeris of Geographos be well known in advance of the encounter. Efforts are underway to ensure that precision optical and radar observations are available for the final asteroid orbit update that takes place several hours prior to the DSPSE flyby. Because the asteroid passes very close to the Earth six days prior to the DSPSE encounter, precision ground-based optical and radar observations should be available. These ground-based data could reduce the asteroid's position uncertainties (1-sigma) to about 10 km. This ground-based target ephemeris error estimate is far lower than for any previous comet or asteroid that has been under consideration as a mission target.
 
Papers from the sixteenth annual American Astronautical Society Rocky Mountain Guidance and Control Conference are presented. The topics covered include the following: advances in guidance, navigation, and control; control system videos; guidance, navigation and control embedded flight control systems; recent experiences; guidance and control storyboard displays; and applications of modern control, featuring the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) performance enhancement study.
 
The present conference discusses topics in orbit determination, tethered satellite systems, celestial mechanics, guidance optimization, flexible body dynamics and control, attitude dynamics and control, Mars mission analyses, earth-orbiting mission analysis/debris, space probe mission analyses, and orbital computation numerical analyses. Attention is given to electrodynamic forces for control of tethered satellite systems, orbiting debris threats to asteroid flyby missions, launch velocity requirements for interceptors of short range ballistic missiles, transfers between libration-point orbits in the elliptic restricted problem, minimum fuel spacecraft reorientation, orbital guidance for hitting a fixed point at maximum speed, efficient computation of satellite visibility periods, orbit decay and reentry prediction for space debris, and the determination of satellite close approaches.
 
Papers from the third annual Spaceflight Mechanics Meeting (Pasadena, CA, Feb. 22-24, 1993) are presented. The topics covered include the following: attitude dynamics and control; large flexible structures; intercept and rendezvous; rendezvous and orbit transfer; and trajectory optimization.
 
A conference on spaceflight dynamics produced papers in the areas of orbit determination, spacecraft tracking, autonomous navigation, the Deep Space Program Science Experiment Mission (DSPSE), the Global Positioning System, attitude control, geostationary satellites, interplanetary missions and trajectories, applications of estimation theory, flight dynamics systems, low-Earth orbit missions, orbital mechanics, mission experience in attitude dynamics, mission experience in sensor studies, attitude dynamics theory and simulations, and orbit-related experience. These papaers covered NASA, European, Russian, Japanese, Chinese, and Brazilian space programs and hardware.
 
The entry of a blunt cone with a half-angle of 60 degrees, a base radius of 80 cm, and a mass of 250 kg into an atmosphere composed of 85 percent hydrogen and 15 percent helium is considered. Entry is assumed to take place in the equatorial region at a velocity of 50 km/sec and at an inertial reference angle of minus 6. 3, minus 15, or minus 30 degrees. Analysis of the surface heat balance indicates that the imposed heating is accommodated largely by convective and radiative blockage and graphite sublimation, and to a lesser extent by a conduction, reradiation and reflection. The influence of changes in atmospheric composition, radiation blockage, and sublimation chemistry on mass loss is investigated. It is shown that all these factors can affect the mass loss significantly.
 
Indexing of the components considered in this study
A method for the computation of the radiative momentum transfer in the Pioneer 10 & 11 spacecraft due to the diffusive and specular components of reflection is presented. The method provides a reliable estimate of the thermal contribution to the acceleration of these deep space probes and allows for a Monte-Carlo analysis from which an estimate of the impact of a possible variability of the parameters. It is shown that the whole anomalous acceleration can be explained by thermal effects. The model also allows one to estimate the expected time evolution of the acceleration due to thermal effects. The issue of thermal conduction between the different components of the spacecraft is discussed and confirmed to be negligible.
 
Cyclic thermal expansions and mechanical stiction effects in the Solar Arrays on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are triggering repeated occurrences of damped, relaxation-type flex-body vibrations of the solar arrays. Those solar array vibrations are, in turn, causing unwanted, oscillating disturbance torques on the HST main body, which cause unwanted deviations of the telescope from its specified pointing direction. In this paper we propose two strategies one can adopt in designing a telescope-pointing controller to cope with the aforementioned disturbances: (1) a `total isolation' (TI) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are designed to adaptively counteract and cancel-out the persistent disturbing torques that are causing the unwanted telescope motions, and (2) an `array damping' (AD) control strategy whereby the HST controller torques are used to actively augment the natural dampening of the solar array vibrations and the attendant telescope motions, between triggerings of the stiction-related flex-body relaxation oscillations. Using the principles of Disturbance-Accommodating Control (DAC) Theory a dual-mode controller for a generic, planar-motion (single-axis) model of the HST is proposed. This controller incorporates both the TI and AD modes of disturbance-accommodation. Simulation studies of the closed-loop system using generic parameter values clearly indicate, qualitatively, the enhanced pointing-performance such a controller can achieve.
 
The science mission of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) requires attitude solutions with uncertainties of 27, 16.7, 16.7 arcseconds (3 sigma) around the roll, pitch, and yaw axes, respectively. The primary input to the attitude determination process is provided by two NASA standard fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) and a Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) 2. The attitude determination requirements approach the limits attainable with the FHSTs and DRIRU. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designed and executed calibration procedures that far exceeded the extent and the data volume of any other FDF-supported mission. The techniques and results of this attempt to obtain attitude accuracies at the limit of sensor capability and the results of analysis of the factors that limit the attitude accuracy are the primary subjects of this paper. The success of the calibration effort is judged by the resulting measurement residuals and comparisons between ground- and onboard-determined attitudes. The FHST star position residuals have been reduced to less tha 4 arcsec per axis -- a value that appears to be limited by the sensor capabilities. The FDF ground system uses a batch least-squares estimator to determine attitude. The EUVE onboard computer (OBC) uses an extended Kalman filter. Currently, there are systematic differences between the two attitude solutions that occasionally exceed the mission requirements for 3 sigma attitude uncertainty. Attempts to understand and reduce these differences are continuing.
 
TOPEX/POSEIDON is a satellite mission that will use altimetry to make precise measurements of sea-level. The principal goal is to measure sea-level with unprecedented accuracy such that small-amplitude, basin wide sea-level changes caused by large-scale ocean circulation can be detected. To reach this goal, the sensor system and orbit must measure sea-level with decimeter accuracy. This requires that the radial component of the orbit be known to the decimeter level. Orbital errors are dominated by mismodelled gravitational and non-gravitational forces. This paper presents our analysis of non-gravitational forces acting on the satellite during the early days of the mission. Studies were conducted by comparing direct estimates of these forces with observed perturbations in the mean orbital elements. The results show that the satellite is experiencing an unexpected along-track acceleration. Hypotheses range from out-gassing to thruster leaks and drag forces to radiative force. Currently, these issues have not been resolved; however, the evidence suggests that out-gassing was dominant during the first weeks of the mission and that thermal imbalances persist.
 
The European Rosetta spacecraft is scheduled to approach the comet P/Wirtanen in early 2012, following a series of one Mars and two Earth swing-by maneuvers. Starting at a heliocentric distance of about 4 AU, a global characterization of the comet nucleus will be performed. In preparation of the cometary gravity field determination the orbital perturbations acting on the Rosetta spacecraft have been assessed. To this extent, the gravity field coefficients of an irregularly shaped sample body have been derived and used to compute representative accelerations as a function of spacecraft distance. In the absence of non-gravitational perturbations, gravity potential coefficients up to 4th degree may be determined. Among the non-gravitational perturbations, cometary outgassing may result in perturbations comparable to that of low-order harmonics of the cometary gravity field, even at heliocentric distances of 3 AU and up. This result is important in view of the decision, to delay critical proximity operations and the lander ejection up to the time where the Earth-s/c distance reduces to 3.25 AU.
 
Skylab required daily movement about the interior of a 340 cu m vehicle and the handling and transfer of numerous loose items. Planned and unplanned maintenance tasks were also included in the daily routine of activity. Experiment M516, Crew Activities/Maintenance Study, involved an investigation of crew activity during routine daily operations. The overall objective was to secure in-flight data relevant to the performance of tasks in the weightless environment. This paper will present an evaluation of man's ability to handle and transport items of various sizes and masses (logistics management) and to make equipment repairs (maintenance). Results and conclusions are based on subjective crew comments, motion-picture film, and television transmissions.
 
Attention is given to problems in international cooperation that will arise if NASA proceeds with a Space Station. The rise in space budgets in many countries is cited as an indication of the growing importance being placed on space activities. It is also pointed out that these nations are emphasizing areas which hold promise for eventual commercial payoff. Developing countries are also paying greater attention to space. As part of the European Space Agency's development program, it is underwriting the development of up to six multiuser facilities dedicated to microgravity research; these include furnaces and thermostats for processing metallurgical samples and for crystal growth and botanical investigations. Competition from Europe is seen as a spur to efficiency. Attention is also given to the question whether international cooperation will interfere with research carried out by the US for military purposes.
 
The deep space optical communications subsystem offers a higher bandwidth communications link in smaller size, lower mass, and lower power consumption subsystem than does RF. To demonstrate the benefit of this technology to deep space communications NASA plans to launch an optical telecommunications package on the 2009 Mars Telecommunications Orbiter spacecraft. Current performance goals are 30-Mbps from opposition, and 1-Mbps near conjunction ([similar to]3 degrees Sun-Earth-Probe angle). Yet, near conjunction the background noise from the day sky will degrade the performance of the optical link. Spectral and spatial filtering and higher modulation formats can mitigate the effects of background sky. Narrowband spectral filters can result in loss of link margin, and higher modulation formats require higher transmitted peak powers. In contrast, spatial filtering at the receiver has the potential of being lossless while providing the required sky background rejection. Adaptive optics techniques can correct wave front aberrations caused by atmospheric turbulence and enable near-diffraction-limited performance of the receiving telescope. Such performance facilitates spatial filtering, and allows the receiver field-of-view and hence the noise from the sky background to be reduced.
 
Analysis performed in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) measures error in the static Earth sensor onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-10 spacecraft using flight data. Errors are computed as the difference between Earth sensor pitch and roll angle telemetry and reference pitch and roll attitude histories propagated by gyros. The flight data error determination illustrates the effect on horizon sensing of systemic variation in the Earth infrared (IR) horizon radiance with latitude and season, as well as the effect of anomalies in the global IR radiance. Results of the analysis provide a comparison between static Earth sensor flight performance and that of scanning Earth sensors studied previously in the GSFC/FDD. The results also provide a baseline for evaluating various models of the static Earth sensor. Representative days from the NOAA-10 mission indicate the extent of uniformity and consistency over time of the global IR horizon. A unique aspect of the NOAA-10 analysis is the correlation of flight data errors with independent radiometric measurements of stratospheric temperature. The determination of the NOAA-10 static Earth sensor error contributes to realistic performance expectations for missions to be equipped with similar sensors.
 
The Mars Observer (MO) spacecraft was successfully launched on September 25, 1992 and will arrive at Mars on August 24, 1993. At Mars, the spacecraft will study the planet's surface, atmosphere, and gravitational and magnetic fields. In order to achieve these scientific objectives, MO will be placed in a 2 PM (descending node) sun-synchronous orbit. Upon arrival at Mars, however, the longitude of the descending node will be approximately 15 deg greater than the desired value. The baseline plan requires a 59 day `waiting' period for the correct solar orientation to occur. During this period, 28 days are required for scientific experimentation but the remaining 30.6 days potentially could be eliminated. The strategy developed in this study examined the possibility of using any `excess' Delta-V available at Mars arrival to rotate the node line to the desired value and thus allow mapping to begin earlier. A preliminary analysis completed prior to launch is described that examined the entire launch period including the required Delta-V to perform the needed nodal rotation. A more detailed study performed after launch is also summarized.
 
The present work describes three electronic devices designed for use in the Skylab airlock module: the teleprinter system, the quartz crystal microbalance contamination monitor (QCM), and the speaker. Design considerations, operation, characteristics, and system development are described for these systems, with accompanying diagrams, graphs, and photographs. The teleprinter is a thermal dot printer used to produce hard copy messages by electrically heating print elements in contact with heat-sensitive paper. The QCM was designed to estimate contamination buildup on optical surfaces of the earth resources experiment package. A vibrating quartz crystal is used as a microbalance relating deposited mass to shifts in the crystal's resonant frequency. Audio devices provide communication between crew members and between crew and STDN, and also provide audible alarms, via the caution and warning system, of out-of-limit-conditions.
 
A system definition study on the Solar Power Satellite System showed that a thin, 50 micrometers, silicon solar cell has significant advantages. The advantages include a significantly lower performance degradation in a radiation environment and high power-to-mass ratios. The advantages of such cells for an employment in space is further investigated. Basic questions concerning the operation of solar cells are considered along with aspects of radiation induced performance degradation. The question arose in this connection how thin a silicon solar cell had to be to achieve resistance to radiation degradation and still have good initial performance. It was found that single-crystal silicon solar cells could be as thin as 50 micrometers and still develop high conversion efficiencies. It is concluded that the use of 50 micrometer silicon solar cells in space-based photovoltaic power systems would be advantageous.
 
In May 1993 the Magellan spacecraft will be lowered into the Venus atmosphere for the purpose of `aerobraking' to slow the spacecraft and achieve a near-circular orbit. The unprecedented science return of a 99% surface map, already accomplished by Magellan, will then be augmented by new atmospheric data and the opportunity to produce a high-resolution global gravity map from this circular orbit. The aerobraking concept, attitude control modeling and simulation results, and on-board software modifications are presented.
 
This work reviews the use of aerodynamic forces to modify the velocity, and therefore, the orbital path of vehicles due to transit through planetary atmospheres, especially when high values of lift can be generated. The concepts of aerobraking and aerocapture are examined, and the limiting factors are discussed. The use of high L/D vehicles, such as hypersonic waveriders, is examined, and the advantages and disadvantages of their use for aerocapture are addressed. This preliminary study of non-optimized aerocapture trajectories suggests that entrance velocities at Mars can be 10 - 12 km/sec for a waverider while sustaining acceptable loads of about 3 - 4 Earth G's over a 3 minute period, diminishing to less than 1 G in about 15 minutes. The entrance velocities are greater than those for a more conventional biconic configuration with similar deceleration loads sustained. The convective heating rate on the waverider, increased due to the higher velocities and sharp leading edges, has an estimated upper bound of 14000 W/sq cm and a corresponding temperature of about 7500 degrees K.
 
A practical real-time guidance algorithm has been developed for aerobraking vehicles which nearly minimizes the maximum heating rate, the maximum structural loads, and the post-aeropass delta V requirement for orbit insertion. The algorithm is general and reusable in the sense that a minimum of assumptions are made, thus greatly reducing the number of parameters that must be determined prior to a given mission. A particularly interesting feature is that in-plane guidance performance is tuned by adjusting one mission-dependent, the bank margin; similarly, the out-of-plane guidance performance is tuned by adjusting a plane controller time constant. Other features of the algorithm are simplicity, efficiency and ease of use. The trimmed vehicle with bank angle modulation as the method of trajectory control. Performance of this guidance algorithm is examined by its use in an aerobraking testbed program. The performance inquiry extends to a wide range of entry speeds covering a number of potential mission applications. Favorable results have been obtained with a minimum of development effort, and directions for improvement of performance are indicated.
 
This paper describes a method for determining the drag coefficient of spacecraft in orbits significantly affected by aerodynamic forces. A spacecraft configuration and mission orbit is required for this method to be useful. An effective drag coefficient is determined that is useful for both attitude control disturbance torque and orbital mechanics perturbation force modeling. By using finite plate elements, used to approximate the shape of spacecraft in three dimensions, complex shapes can be readily modeled for high-accuracy computations. The net force created on the shape at any attitude can be readily computed along with the disturbance torque if the mass properties of the shape are also known. This model is validated using experimental data for hypersonic molecular beams and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) methods. Examples of spacecraft drag coefficient mapping in three dimensions are included for both simple shapes and a hypothesized spacecraft. It is the goal of this paper to show examples of how the satellite drag coefficient can be determined using a finite plate element model and to demonstrate some results using simple shapes.
 
Outer planets atmospheric entry vehicles atmospheric heating, discussing shock and boundary layer physical and chemical effects
 
This paper addresses the design of a forward-looking autopilot that is capable of employing a priori knowledge of wind gusts ahead of the flight path to reduce the bending loads experienced by a launch vehicle. The analysis presented in the present paper is only preliminary, employing a very simple vehicle dynamical model and restricting itself to wind gusts of the form of isolated spikes. The main result of the present study is that linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based feedback laws are inappropriate to handle spike-type wind perturbations with large amplitude and narrow base. The best performance is achieved with an interior-point penalty optimal control formulation which can be well approximated by a simple feedback control law. Reduction of the maximum bending loads by nearly 50% is demonstrated.
 
NASA Harvest Verification Site Satellite Laser Ranging Coverage 
COVARIANCE ANALYSIS ASSUMP'J'1ONS 
SHORT ARC ORBIT DETERMINATION OVERFLIGHT SUMMARY 
TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) is a joint mission of United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) design launched August 10, 1992. It carries two radar altimeters which alternately share a common antenna. There are two project designated verification sites, a NASA site off the coast at Pt. Conception, CA and a CNES site near Lampedusa Island in the Mediterranean Sea. Altimeter calibration and validation for T/P is performed over these highly instrumented sites by comparing the spacecraft's altimeter radar range to computed range based on in situ measurements which include the estimated orbit position. This paper presents selected results of orbit determination over each of these sites to support altimeter verification. A short arc orbit determination technique is used to estimate a locally accurate position determination of T/P from less than one revolution of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data. This technique is relatively insensitive to gravitational and non-gravitational force modeling errors and is demonstrated by covariance analysis and by comparison to orbits determined from longer arcs of data and other tracking data types, such as Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) and Global Positioning System Demonstration Receiver (GPSDR) data.
 
The Earth Observing System (EOS) AM mission requires tight pointing knowledge to meet scientific objectives, in a spacecraft with low frequency flexible appendage modes. As the spacecraft controller reacts to various disturbance sources and as the inherent appendage modes are excited by this control action, verification of precision pointing knowledge becomes particularly challenging for the EOS-AM mission. As presently conceived, this verification includes a complementary set of multi-disciplinary analyses, hardware tests and real-time computer in the loop simulations, followed by collection and analysis of hardware test and flight data and supported by a comprehensive data base repository for validated program values.
 
As the baseline navigation system for the Earth Observing System (EOS)-AM1 spacecraft, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (TONS) is required to provide precise position and velocity information for imaging instrument calibration and routine operations. This paper presents the results of real-time navigation performance evaluations with respect to TONS-based orbit and frequency determination to satisfy this requirement. Both covariance and simulation analysis of EOS-AM1 navigation accuracy and analysis using operational data from Landsat-4 are presented. Local (half orbit) and global (multiple orbits) tracking are considered using a way-forward link services. Improvements in navigation accuracies by using enhanced gravity models beyond the Goddard Earth Model (GEM)-T3 are also discussed. Key objectives of the analysis are to evaluate nominal performance and potential sensitivities and to address algorithm improvements such as TDRS ephemeris biasing, ionosphere model, and gravity process noise models slated for implementation. Results indicate that TONS can be configured to meet the proposed instrument navigation requirements of 20 meters, 3-sigma.
 
The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), built by the European Space Agency to study the Sun as part of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program, will be launched in July 1995 into a transfer trajectory that terminates in a large-amplitude halo orbit. The spacecraft will enter the halo orbit by performing one insertion maneuver at a specified point on the halo orbit. The position on the halo orbit that requires the least fuel for the insertion maneuver is identified using the planar, circular restricted three-body problem as a model. Fuel costs for halo orbit insertion at other points in the orbit are also identified. Practical trajectories incorporating all significant accelerations are discussed. The use of a lunar swingby to avoid any insertion maneuver is mentioned.
 
The attitude Control Electronics (ACE) Box is the center of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite. This unit is the single point interface for all of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) related sensors and actuators. Commands and telemetry between the SAMPEX flight computer and the ACE Box are routed via a MIL-STD-1773 bus interface, through the use of an 80C85 processor. The ACE Box consists of the flowing electronic elements: power supply, momentum wheel driver, electromagnet driver, coarse sun sensor interface, digital sun sensor interface, magnetometer interface, and satellite computer interface. In addition, the ACE Box also contains an independent Safehold electronics package capable of keeping the satellite pitch axis pointing towards the sun. The ACE Box has dimensions of 24 x 31 x 8 cm, a mass of 4.3 kg, and an average power consumption of 10.5 W. This set of electronics was completely designed, developed, integrated, and tested by personnel at NASA GSFC. SAMPEX was launched on July 3, 1992, and the initial attitude acquisition was successfully accomplished via the analog Safehold electronics in the ACE Box. This acquisition scenario removed the excess body rates via magnetic control and precessed the satellite pitch axis to within 10 deg of the sun line. The performance of the SAMPEX ACS in general and the ACE Box in particular has been quite satisfactory.
 
The Calibration Rocket (CALROC) Project was established to provide calibration data for the Harvard College Observatory (S055) and the Naval Research Laboratory (S082) ultraviolet solar experiments on Skylab to provide compensation for any change in performance during the long mission in the space environment after the preflight calibration. The calibration instruments were smaller-scale, lighter-weight, but similar in performance to the S055 and S082 experiments. They were launched on Black Brant VC sounding rockets from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. The CALROC instruments were calibrated before launch and verified after flight. Each flight obtained approximately four minutes of data on an area of the sun which was then observed by the Skylab astronauts with the ATM experiments on three successive orbits.
 
It is concluded tht combined measurements of acceleration, pressure, and temperature will define the atmospheric structure at pressures from 10** minus **5 atm to tens of hundreds of atmospheres. Elemental and isotopic compositon is the province of the mass spectrometer, which must have wide dynamic range and special sampling provisions. Organic analysis can also be performed by mass spectrometry but would be enhanced by chromatographic or absorption columns, and probably cannot be performed completely on the first probe mission. Cloud detection by simple optical detectors seems attractive and readily mechanized. A constraint on the measurements because of limited communication data rates is expected to reduce the reading frequency of all instruments, but apparently will permit a sufficient set of data to define the key features of the atmosphere and grossly increase our present knowledge of its properties.
 
The theoretical foundations of an optical array receiver consisting of small telescopes were developed and analyzed. It was shown that optical array receivers can be designed to perform as well as a single-aperture receiver on the ground. Optical array receivers for deep space communications applications were also analyzed using the accepted modal techniques for background radiation. It was shown that for ground-based reception the number of array elements can be increased without suffering any performance degradation as long as the telescope diameters exceed the coherence length of the atmosphere.
 
An approach for Kansas Universities Technology Evaluation Satellite (KUTESat) for sensing radiation energies, fluxes and exposure geometry in the space environment using a radiation field effect transistors (RADFET), was described. RADFETS utilize a convenient method for continuously monitoring the total radiation dose. KUTESat employ multiple small RADFET dosimeters placed throughout the structure, measuring the ionizing radiation in and around the satellite. The use of an array RADFET inside the KUTESat spacecraft allows for an increase in total data acquired as well as a higher value of that data.
 
Outer planet exploration spacecraft subsystems reliability and ten year flight requirements for planet orbiting and flyby missions
 
In 1995, an Atlas IIAS launch vehicle will loft the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) as part of the International Solar and Terrestrial Physics program. The operational phase of the SOHO mission will be conducted from a `halo orbit' about the Sun-Earth interior libration point. Depending on the time of the year of launch, the optimal transfer requires a parking orbit of variable duration to satisfy widely varying inertial targets. A simulation capability has been developed that optimizes the launch vehicle ascent and spacecraft transfer phases of flight together, subject to both launch vehicle and spacecraft constraints. It will be shown that this `ground-up' simulation removes the need for an intermediate target vector at Centaur upper stage/spacecraft separation. Although providing only a modest gain in deliverable satellite mass, this capability substantially improves the mission integration process by removing the strict reliance on near-Earth target vectors. Trajectory data from several cases are presented and future applications of this capability are also discussed.
 
Preliminary studies of Jupiter orbiters and entry probes have recently been completed, establishing the general characteristics, capabilities, and requirements of such missions. A summary of these studies is presented. These studies are then related to preliminary mission objectives for Jupiter exploration. Emphasis is on the following: (1) A summary of Jupiter entry probe objectives, spacecraft design, and mission description. (2) A summary of Jupiter orbiter objectives, spacecraft design, and mission description. (3) Sample mission sets utilizing favorable launch opportunities for both missions in concert with the Grand Tour program.
 
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing an operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (TONS) to provide onboard knowledge of high-accuracy navigation products autonomously to users of TDRSS and its successor, TDRS-2. A TONS experiment has been implemented on the Explorer Platform/Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EP/EUVE) spacecraft, launched June 7, 1992, to flight qualify the TONS operational system using TDRSS forward-link communications services. This paper assesses the performance of the TONS flight hardware, an ultrastable oscillator (USO) and Doppler extractor (DE) card in one of the TDRSS user transponders, and the protoype flight software, based on the TONS experiment results. An overview of onboard navigation via TDRSS is also presented for both the EP/EUVE experiment and for future users of TONS. USO and DE short-term and long-term stability performance has been excellent. TONS Flight Software analysis indicates that position accuracies of better than 25 meters root-mean-square are achievable with tracking every one to two orbits, for the EP/EUVE 525-kilometer altitudes, 28.5-degree inclination orbit. The success of the TONS experiment demonstrates the flight readiness of TONS, which is scheduled to provide autonomous navigation for the Earth Observing System (EOS)-AM mission.
 
The Interplanetary Physics Laboratory, WIND, will be placed in a small-amplitude halo orbit in late 1995. A lunar swingby is used to achieve the halo orbit. Using the lunar swingby reduces the fuel required to achieve the desired orbit. The spacecraft's position and velocity with respect to the Moon near the time of swingby are shown to determine the characteristics of the halo orbit. The shape of the halo orbit, its x-, y-, and z-amplitudes, must be designed to meet mission constraints. A convenient set of parameters for displaying the dependence of the halo orbit's shape upon the lunar swingby is formulated. The use of the lunar swingby adds additional constraints to the trajectory in terms of attainable swingby parameters. Strategies for obtaining the desired swingby parameters in view of these mission constraints are discussed. The limits on attainable halo orbit shapes using the lunar swingby technique are discussed in terms of minimum and maximum x-, y-, and z-amplitudes. The relevance of previous work on this topic is discussed.
 
Orbit-attitude hovering of a spacecraft at the natural relative equilibria in the body-fixed frame of a uniformly rotating asteroid is discussed in the framework of the full spacecraft dynamics, in which the spacecraft is modeled as a rigid body with the gravitational orbit-attitude coupling. In this hovering model, both the position and attitude of the spacecraft are kept to be stationary in the asteroid body-fixed frame. A Hamiltonian structure-based feedback control law is proposed to stabilize the relative equilibria of the full dynamics to achieve the orbit attitude hovering. The control law is consisted of two parts: potential shaping and energy dissipation. The potential shaping is to make the relative equilibrium a minimum of the modified Hamiltonian on the invariant manifold by modifying the potential artificially. With the energy-Casimir method, it is shown that the unstable relative equilibrium can always be stabilized in the Lyapunov sense by the potential shaping with sufficiently large feedback gains. Then the energy dissipation leads the motion to converge asymptotically to the minimum of the modified Hamiltonian on the invariant manifold, i.e., the relative equilibrium. The feasibility of the proposed stabilization control law is validated through numerical simulations in the case of a spacecraft orbiting around a small asteroid. The main advantage of the proposed hovering control law is that it is very simple and is easy to implement autonomously by the spacecraft with little computation. This advantage is attributed to the utilization of dynamical behaviors of the system in the control design.
 
The Clementine mission is designed to test Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) technology, the Brilliant Pebbles and Brilliant Eyes sensors, by mapping the moon surface and flying by the asteroid Geographos. The capability of two of the instruments available on board the spacecraft, the lidar (laser radar) and the UV/Visible camera is used in the covariance analysis to obtain the spacecraft delivery uncertainties at the asteroid. These uncertainties are due primarily to asteroid ephemeris uncertainties. On board optical navigation reduces the uncertainty in the knowledge of the spacecraft position in the direction perpendicular to the incoming asymptote to a one-sigma value of under 1 km, at the closest approach distance of 100 km. The uncertainty in the knowledge of the encounter time is about 0.1 seconds for a flyby velocity of 10.85 km/s. The magnitude of these uncertainties is due largely to Center Finding Errors (CFE). These systematic errors represent the accuracy expected in locating the center of the asteroid in the optical navigation images, in the absence of a topographic model for the asteroid. The direction of the incoming asymptote cannot be estimated accurately until minutes before the asteroid flyby, and correcting for it would require autonomous navigation. Orbit determination errors dominate over maneuver execution errors, and the final delivery accuracy attained is basically the orbit determination uncertainty before the final maneuver.
 
In August, 1994, the unusual asteroid (1620) Geographos will pass very close to the Earth. This provides one of the best opportunities for a low-cost asteroid flyby mission that can be achieved with the help of a gravity assist from the Moon during the years 1994 and 1995. A Geographos flyby mission, including a lunar orbiting phase, was recommended to the Startegic Defense Initiative (SDI) Office when they were searching for ideas for a deep-space mission to test small imaging systems and other lightweight technologies. The goals for this mission, called Clementine, were defined to consist of a comprehensive lunar mapping phase before leaving the Earth-Moon system to encounter Geographos. This paper describes how the authors calculated a trajectory that met the mission goals within a reasonable total Delta-V budget. The paper also describes some refinements of the initially computed trajectory and alternative trajectories were investigated. The paper concludes with a list of trajectories to fly by other near-Earth asteroids during the two years following the Geographos opportunity. Some of these could be used if the Geographos schedule can not be met. If the 140 deg phase angle of the Geographos encounter turns out to be too risky, a flyby of (2120) Tantalus in January, 1995, has a much more favorable approach illumination. Tantalus apparently can be reached from the same lunar orbit needed to get to Geographos. However, both the flyby speed and distance from the Earth are much larger for Tantalus than for Geographos.
 
Atmospheric entry probe from flyby mission to Jupiter, considering descent trajectory feasibility and instrument package
 
The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), as with the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 spacecraft, experiences large attitude disturbances when entering and exiting the Earth's shadow. Previous investigations have provided some evidence linking these disturbances to rapid bending of the solar array but have also raised questions. For example, the magnitudes of the roll attitude disturbances have shown an unmolested asymmetry, and the timing of the disturbances at sunrise appears to disagree with the modeled timing. A better understanding of this phenomenon is important in assessing the implications for UARS science gathering and for future mission design analysis. To this end, UARS attitude, sensor, and actuator data are used to evaluate the disturbances as they vary with solar beta angle and solar array drive angle. The attitude data are examined during specific periods of interest, such as the month in which the solar array was parked in its high-noon position, and are also tracked from the beginning of the mission to determine any trends that may result from changing mass properties due to cryogen boiloff and propellant usage. Attitude rate and torque profiles are derived from inertial reference until data and related to the disturbances seen in the attitude data. The timing of the disturbances with respect to spacecraft sunset and sunrise is characterized to allow event predictions. Stability during the disturbances is discussed in terms of science instrument requirements. Finally, the results are compared with the behavior predicted by models that are based on solar array bending.
 
Since observations indicate that all the giant outer planets appear to have hydrogen-rich atmospheres, a nominal composition of 0. 85 H//2-0. 15 He (by mole fraction) was assumed. It is found that for most entries considered, a blunt body with nose radius equal to the maximum body diameter was close to having the lightest heat shield. For a graphitic ablator, the total heat-shield fractions, including insulation, are found to vary from about 0. 12 to 0. 26 for Saturn and 0. 10 to 0. 14 for Uranus and Neptune over the entry angle range from 10 to 90 degrees. Therefore, much less heat shielding is required than for a Jupiter probe, for which heat-shield fractions range from 0. 37 to 0. 46. In fact, it might be economical to design a single entry probe for Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. With a heat-shield fraction of 0. 16, all atmospheric entries into Uranus and Neptune appear possible, while for Saturn the entry angle would have to be limited to about 40 degrees.
 
Onboard data base
Total onboard storage
Number of subcatalog centers and FOV size
There are many algorithms in use today which determine spacecraft attitude by identifying stars in the field of view of a star tracker. Some methods, which date from the early 1960's, compare the angular separation between observed stars with a small catalog. In the last 10 years, several methods have been developed which speed up the process and reduce the amount of memory needed, a key element to onboard attitude determination. However, each of these methods require some a priori knowledge of the spacecraft attitude. Although the Sun and magnetic field generally provide the necessary coarse attitude information, there are occasions when a spacecraft could get lost when it is not prudent to wait for sunlight. Also, the possibility of efficient attitude determination using only the highly accurate CCD star tracker could lead to fully autonomous spacecraft attitude determination. The need for redundant coarse sensors could thus be eliminated at substantial cost reduction. Some groups have extended their algorithms to implement a computation intense full sky scan. Some require large data bases. Both storage and speed are concerns for autonomous onboard systems. Neural network technology is even being explored by some as a possible solution, but because of the limited number of patterns that can be stored and large overhead, nothing concrete has resulted from these efforts. This paper presents an algorithm which, by descretizing the sky and filtering by visual magnitude of the brightness observed star, speeds up the lost in space star identification process while reducing the amount of necessary onboard computer storage compared to existing techniques.
 
Simulation results for a 700-m leader-follower maneuver in the normal flight mode.
Simulation results for a 700-m same ground track maneuver in the sideways flight mode.
Simulation results for initial velocity errors (1m/sec) in the sideways flight mode (a) ˆ o 1-axis direction error-S21002, (b) random direction velocity error-S21003, (c) position and random direction velocity error-S21013, (d) o 1-axis direction error with eclipseS21102.
Small satellites tend to be power-limited, so that actuators used to control the orbit and attitude must compete with each other as well as with other subsystems for limited electrical power. The Virginia Tech nanosatellite project, HokieSat, must use its limited power resources to operate pulsed-plasma thrusters for orbit control and magnetic torque coils for attitude control, while also providing power to a GPS receiver, a crosslink transceiver, and other subsystems. The orbit and attitude control strategies were developed independently. The attitude control system is based on an application of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) to an averaged system of equations, whereas the orbit control is based on orbit element feedback. In this paper we describe the strategy for integrating these two control systems and present simulation results to verify the strategy.
 
A new star pattern recognition method is developed using singular value decomposition of a measured unit column vector matrix in a measurement frame and the corresponding cataloged vector matrix in a reference frame. It is shown that singular values and right singular vectors are invariant with respect to coordinate transformation and robust under uncertainty. One advantage of singular value comparison is that a pairing process for individual measured and cataloged stars is not necessary, and the attitude estimation and pattern recognition process are not separated. An associated method for mission catalog design is introduced and simulation results are presented.
 
A nonlinear filtering theory from a deterministic point of view is presented and an application to attitude determination is considered. The approach that is taken in this paper is motivated largely by the H(sun infinity) control and estimation theory for linear systems which has been evolved within the last decade. Rather than formulating the estimation problem as a game played by two adversaries, as has been done in the linear case, we employ in this work some notions from the theory of dissipative systems as a vehicle for arriving at certain Hamilton-Jacobi inequality, which in turn, provides a solution to the filtering problem, whenever it is satisfied. Application of this method to a linear estimation problem and to the problem of estimating a spacecraft attitude quaternion and gyro drift bias vector are presented. In limiting cases, these give the Kalman filter and the extended Kalman filter, respectively. The main advantages of this approach over its probabilistic counterpart are that this approach does not require a prior knowledge of any statistics, and that in general it is more amenable to a quantitative assessment regarding approximations such as linearization, and that in certain cases this approach yields an exact solution to the nonlinear filtering.
 
The accuracy of both onboard and ground attitude determination can be significantly enhanced by calibrating spacecraft attitude instruments (sensors) after launch. Although attitude sensors are accurately calibrated before launch, the stresses of launch and the space environment inevitably cause changes in sensor parameters. During the mission, these parameters may continue to drift requiring repeated on-orbit calibrations. The goal of attitude sensor calibration is to reduce the systematic errors in the measurement models. There are two stages at which systematic errors may enter. The first occurs in the conversion of sensor output into an observation vector in the sensor frame. The second occurs in the transformation of the vector from the sensor frame to the spacecraft attitude reference frame. This paper presents postlaunch alignment and transfer function calibration of the attitude sensors for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE).
 
Top-cited authors
Anil V. Rao
  • University of Florida
John Junkins
  • Texas A&M University
Richard Longman
  • Columbia University
Kathleen Howell
  • Purdue University
Martin Wen-Yu Lo