This article gives a brief history of abortion law in the US and reports some findings from a study of individual abortion and birth decisions among 92 pregnant mothers. It is argued that a "wide gap exists between the language of public debate and private decision making." Private decision making involves a moral standard that is absent from the public debate. Social adjustment to a birth or abortion outcome was better among women who made their own decisions and retained their right to choose during the decision-making process. Women in the study reported that they experienced some conflict during the decision-making process. The feeling of lack of choice or that partners or health officials were making the decision for them exacerbated women's conflicting emotional responses. Women who chose abortion desired a return to their original emotional state. Women who experienced more conflict during decision making experienced greater difficulty during the abortion procedure or had a negative reaction to the abortion procedure. Poor or neglectful abortion treatment was related to both physical and emotional negative reactions during the procedure. Good treatment led to positive experiences. Long-term negative reactions tended to occur among women who had poor treatment during illegal abortions, conflict over the meaning of abortion, bonding with the fetus prior to abortion, and ambivalence about the degree to which the pregnancy was desired. Postabortion social support was less important in reducing postabortion trauma than women's sense of their right to choose. Unfortunately, the legal debate focuses only two positions, pro-life or pro-choice.
Results from an ongoing 4-phase research and intervention project on women in relationships in Brazil, Tanzania, and Indonesia are discussed. The project is being conducted with the goal of increasing the levels of discussion with women's partners about sex, health, and ways to protect themselves from AIDS. Like men, women are at risk of contracting HIV from both their own behavior and that of their partners. Regarding condom use, however, women are at a particular disadvantage in that they must ask for and subsequently receive the consent of male partners before condoms will be used. Talking, discussing, and negotiating are therefore important processes to understand and employ when helping women to reduce their exposure to HIV. Preliminary results suggest that many women recognize the benefits of communicating in protecting themselves against AIDS, in bringing them closer to their partners, and in helping men change their behavior. Participants also recognize the potential of communication and negotiation in making male partners angry and suspicious, ultimately driving them away. Women who talked with their partners differed significantly from those who did not in their perceptions of what significant others, such as closest friends, doctors, church members, thought they should do. Strategies are discussed for increasing dialogue, with special attention given to the challenges of applying consumer research tools in developing countries.
A knowledge, attitude, belief, and practices survey was given to a sample of 591 residents of St. Lucia in the fall of 1990. The survey posed a host of questions relating to whether respondents were inclined to use condoms when having sex. Respondents were sexually experienced, aged 15-60 years, and interviewed in their homes. Questions were posed and viewed as possible indicators of AIDS knowledge, cues to action, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived locus of control, normative pressure, and condom use outcome expectancies. Statistical analysis suggests that each variable is related to condom use. Analysis also indicates that perceived normative pressure to use condoms was by far the single most important determinant of condom use among the sample. The author closes by discussing the implications of these findings for designing mass media campaigns to increase condom use and strongly recommends a normative campaign.
A recent conceptualization of the structure of attitudes proposes that people may hold associations that contribute to their personal attitudes about an object (personal associations) but also highly salient associations that do not contribute to their attitudes toward the object (extrapersonal associations; Olson and Fazio 2004). We conducted three studies with brands in the automobile industry to investigate the applicability of this new association typology to consumer attitude domains. Study 1 suggests the presence of extrapersonal associations for all brands investigated, by showing that some highly salient brand associations indeed contribute to brand attitudes but other similarly salient associations do not. Experimental data in Study 2 indicate that an individual difference, consumer expertise with the category, impacts the accessibility of personal associations in a brand evaluation context. Study 3 further strengthens the validity of the new typology by showing that it can meaningfully explain the different types of associations made accessible by persuasive messages. Taken together, our three studies provide strong support for Olson and Fazio’s (2004) framework and highlight its value for a better understanding of the nature of the brand associations that shape consumer brand attitudes. 2
We examined the usefulness of an implicit attitude measure (IAT) to explain the weak attitude-behavior relationships often found in research about ethical consumer behavior. The results indicated that the IAT effects for buyers and non-buyers of Fair Trade products were significantly different, showing that the IAT can be used to differentiate between buyers and non-buyers. Further, the authors conclude that the IAT has unique predictive validity and that most importantly implicit attitudes need to be enhanced to raise ethical consumer behavior.
The PAD-scale has extensively been used in consumer research. Since studies on the impact of store interior color on affective responses are scarce and have focussed solely on color hue, neglecting color brightness and saturation, and furthermore only investigated a maximum of four hues, the research objective was to validate the PAD scale by means of an 8 (hue) by 2 (brightness) by 2 (saturation) experimental design. The data do not seem to underlie three, but four factors: pleasure, tension, excitement and dominance. Overall, the four-dimensional PAD-scores prove to have adequate reliability and validity, although the dominance construct is rather weak.
Introduction Every brand in the consumer's mind is associated with both positive and negative realities. If the brand is, for example, considered high quality, it will most likely be associated with high price in which case a tradeoff is made. Such duality represents a dilemma for marketing communication where a decision has to be made as to the content of persuasive messages. Should it contain both positive and negative information (i.e. be a two-sided message) or should it present only positive information (i.e. be a one-sided message)? Therefore the central question is typically whether, and under what conditions, a two-sided message can enhance the persuasiveness of marketing communication (Cho 1995; Faison 1961; Smith and Hunt 1978). Previous Findings There are conflicting results from studies on the effectiveness of two-sided messages. Some studies have found that the inclusion of negative information about a product enhances the persuasiveness of a mes
To test the Pythagorean hypothesis that women are more sharing than men, gender differences in materialism were sought in re-analyses of 1969 West German university student data and 1986 Canadian data. The West German data, taken from the Multinational Student Survey, included 2 questions on attitudes towards the institution of private property and 6 scales from L. V. Gordon's Survey of Interpersonal Values. Women were found to be more sharing than men, and female gender was distinguished by more favorable attitudes towards private property and by preferences for benevolence over dominance and for independence over benevolence. The Canadian data were from 2 samples of adults, one school teacher, the other general public. They completed R. W. Belk's scales of materialism and 10 scales from D. N. Jackson's Personality Research Form. In both samples, women were more generous, more nurturant, and less dominating than men. In comparing the German and Canadian data, there are gender differences in the psychology of material relations and the Pythagorean Hypothesis was supported by both sets of data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Leisure activities are considered here as a subset of consumption, and we are interested in the relationship between gender schema and leisure activities. In order to test rival predictions about gender schema, sex-typing of leisure activities is related to two individual difference measures: gender personality (Bem 1981) and gender-role attitudes (Spence 1984). 271 subjects were given a list of 75 leisure activities and asked to indicate whether they felt the activity was masculine, feminine, or somewhere in between. We do not find support for Bem’s (1981) theory, but do find partial support for Spence’s (1984) theory. The findings indicate that males sex-type leisure activities to a greater extent than females. Both sex and gender-role attitudes are found to be significant (p
Online advertisers change banner ad executions to overcome negative returns from repetition, improve clickrates and communication outcomes. We investigate the effect of level of repetition to banner ads, same and varying ad executions and consumer navigation orientation on behavioral response (clickrate) and memory-based outcomes (unaided recall, aided recall and recognition). We found that number of clickthroughs, aided recall and recognition scores are higher when subjects are experientially oriented. There is no significant effect of executions or repetition on clickthroughs and unaided recall. Recognition is higher under high repetition and same ads in goal-directed condition and varying executions in experiential orientation.
Acknowledging underlying theories of materiality encourages researchers to comprehend selves that form in relation to experiential modes of otherness – including aspects of material culture – and that emerge in contexts constituted through consumption practices and consumer culture. The called-for theoretical coherence and conceptual transparency point out the potential for understanding multiple investigative starting points, which draw upon materiality based notions of subject formation, intersubjectivity and subject/object relations, and moreover engage concerns over pre-emptively designating particular notions of relevant “entities,” such as subject and object, and their apparent boundaries, or lack thereof. In Miller’s view (1987), material culture participates in the larger process of the development of any possible subject/subjectivity; that is, he insists upon the overall material environment’s role in creating us as subjects/selves. Members of a consumer culture – in which the processes of consumption facilitate and constitute contexts basic to human life – engage in and are engaged by particular consumption activities, objects and meanings that have the potential to create, transform, intensify or call into question consumer subject identity.
An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of strengthening the association between particular brands and a superordinate choice category on the likelihood of those brands being included in the consideration set, and chosen in a memory-based choice context. Results showed that a brand was more likely to be present in the consideration set, and indicated as an intended choice, if the association between the brand and the choice category was strengthened vs. not strengthened. Attitudinal data suggest that the positive effects of a brand being strongly associated with the choice category operate independently of attitude toward the brand.
This study investigates the influence of procedural justice theory on measures of customer satisfaction. Service scenario scripts were devised to depict a service breakdown. The scripts, which varied in terms of(a) level of concern shown by the service provider, (b) whether policy was adhered to, and (c) degree of 'voice' given to the customer, were presented to 130 respondents. Respondents were asked to rate their likely level of satisfaction with a range of aspects of the service. Analyzes using between subject MANOVA revealed higher ratings of customer satisfaction when service providers expressed concern and did not follow policy.
The article presents the results of a study conducted in order to determine the role of corporate brands in relation to product failure. The authors hypothesize that there is a correlation between the corporate entity's endorsement of a product brand and a consumer's response to it. In order to test this theory, the endorsement of a product brand was manipulated as either strong or weak and the responses to this were evaluated. Results showed that consumers hold a corporate entity more responsible for brand failure or success when their endorsement of a product is strong or when their name is similar to that of the product brand. However, consumers' attitudes toward the corporate brand were less negative when the corporation took responsibility in the event of product failure.
In recent years, consumer research has been enlivened by the advent of perspectives drawn from the humanities in general and literary theory in particular. This paper introduces a comparatively recent development in contemporary literary theory-autobiographical criticism-and notes its relevance to the on-going debate surrounding 'subjective personal introspection', a controversial technique espoused by several leading consumer researchers. The paper contend that, instead of trying to establish its 'scientific' credentials, :he champions of subjective personal introspection might be better served by considering the procedure's predominantly aesthetic character. Just because introspection fails to meet the formal criteria for scientific acceptability, does not mean that the technique is uninsightful.
While much research in ethical consumption has focused on contexts such as food, this research explores ethical consumer decision-making in the context of intention to avoid sweatshop apparel. This research seeks to deepen the Theory of Planned Behavior with respect to the motivation and volitional stages underlying behavior. The findings of the research, based on 794 consumers, are novel and support an enriched framework which reveals that the role of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control are mediated by desire, intention and plan. The findings have implications for research seeking to address the ‘intention-behavior’ gap.
When judging an object described by limited evidence, people often make judgments based on the evaluative implications of what is known and fail to adjust for what is unknown. Consequently, people tend to form extreme and confident judgments of an object even when little information is provided. The present study investigates the extent to which the tendency to form strong judgments on the basis of weak evidence stems from conversational inferences and assumptions about the intent of the communicator or from insensitivity to the limitations of the presented evidence. Participants received a brief description of a target object provided by a credible or a noncredible communicator. Attributions for omissions (missing information) were assessed either before or after assessing overall evaluations of the target object. The least favorable attributions and the least favorable evaluations were formed toward a target object described by a non-credible communicator, but only when evaluations were elicited after attributions. In the remaining conditions, participants exhibited more sensitivity to the credibility of the communicator and to the limitations of the evidence. Implications of the results for understanding judgment based on limited evidence are discussed.
Literary analysis is emerging as a major focus of contemporary marketing and consumer research. This paper aims to contribute to this growing body of scholarship by examining consumption behaviour in two best-selling "sex 'n' shopping" novels, Scruples and Scruples Two by Judith Krantz. Although the sex 'n' shopping sub-genre is renowned for its brand name-dropping and celebration of conspicuous consumption, the analysis reveals that the two Scruples novels offer contrasting visions of consumer behaviour. In appropriately post-structuralist fashion, the underpinning binary oppositions - sacred/profane and male/female - are transposed and self-cancelling in the course of both books.
Drawing on Jensen Schau and Gilly's findings (2003) on selfpresentation on personal webspaces, the purpose of this research is to get a better description of how consumers self digitalize on personal webspaces using specific digital stimuli. Using a semiotic approach on fashion blogs, we demonstrate that consumers selfdigitalize to generate authenticity, caricature, fiction or artefact. Strategies employed pertain to exemplarity, "mise-en-scène", "digital likeness" or "brand overwhelming". Possible impacts on brand relationship management are further developed, for example, brandconsumer association through self-stereotypes.
There has been a recent increase in consumer research on the topic of brand dislike: it can be defined as the negative judgment expressed by the consumer and/or implied in the choice not to buy. The sparse literature in this field is fragmented into different streams of research that will be reviewed in this paper: a) consumer criticism and resistance b) dislike as a means of communicating and constructing self image, and c) consumer/brand relationship. After the literature review, the method and results from fieldwork will be presented. The data converge towards a unitary and consistent framework, in which various levels and factors can be interpreted in the light of the theoretical perspectives outlined above.
The idea that endless numbers of brands shape people's dayto- day life is known as “brandscape” (Biel, 1993; Sherry, 1998; Soloman, 2003). When consumers live in another country for an extended period of time not only it is necessary to engage in various consumer behaviors in order to conduct everyday life but also brandscape becomes part of their life. The aim of this study was to explore consumer acculturation to an unfamiliar brandscape. A grounded theory analysis of case study type interviews resulted in three broader domains with seven themes: “sentiments” with experiential tension, nostalgia and patriotism; “brandscape” with global brands, missing brands, ethno-brands and beloved brands; and “consumer acculturation”. The paper discusses the findings of the study and the implications of the emergent themes. Yes Yes
Building on the security function of both money and food, we show in 5 studies that monetary cues can induce people to hoard calories as a means of securing their resources. In study 1 we test the main effect of money cues on food (caloric) preferences. In study 2 and 3 we illustrate the moderating effects of a resource manipulation (study 2) and individual differences in the security-worry meaning of money (study 3). Study 2 also reveals that calorie underestimation is mediating the effect of monetary stimuli on food preferences. Finally, in study 4, a general reward explanation is ruled out.
The article analyzes the impact of design characteristics and factors of promotional games based on chance on the participation likelihood of consumers. One significant factor that consumers always consider is the number of prizes and the number of winners. Results of a survey show that the number of prizes and winners contribute to the attractiveness of the game. Moreover, consumers are also conscious on their chance of winning based on how the game is administered and facilitated.
A pervasive aspect of time pressure is the salience of negative information, which causes individuals to adopt strategies that are consistent with risk-aversion. In four studies, however, we find that time pressure reverses risk preferences: risk-seeking individuals adopt risk-averse strategies whereas risk-averse individuals adopt risk-seeking ones. Study 1 demonstrates the basic effect, while Studies 2 and 3 explore the emphasis on negative (vs. positive) outcomes as the underlying mediator. Study 4 extends the findings to the domain of regulatory focus. Taken together, the four studies reveal the existence of a preference reversal in risky choices under time pressure, in direct contrast to the extant understanding of time pressure and decision-making. Consequences for everyday decision-making and consumers are discussed.
Questionnaires completed by 301 junior and senior high school students provided data for a study of family influences on the development of various consumer competencies, materialistic values, communication behaviors, and attitudes toward marketing stimuli. Family influences were studied in the context of two dimensions of communication structure--socio-oriented (emphasizing the importance of pleasant family social relationships) and concept-oriented (emphasizing conceptual matters)--that produce four types of family communication patterns: laissez-faire (little parent/child communication), protective (stressing obedience), pluralistic (encouraging open discussion), and consensual (encouraging discussion that does not disturb internal harmony). Analysis of the data indicated that adolescents from pluralistic families knew more than other adolescents about consumer-related matters, were better able to detect puffery in advertising and to manage a family budget, knew more about products, and were more likely to show socially desirable consumer behaviors. The findings further suggested that a socio-oriented family structure may encourage the development of materialistic orientations. Family communication patterns predicted some aspects of adolescents' communication behavior and appeared to affect their perceptions of various marketing stimuli. (GW)
This paper aims to improve our understanding of the sociality that emanates from virtual communities of consumption. We have collected life narratives, with a focus on agency in consumers' experiences of forums in a virtual community of video game players. Findings reveal the existence of different means of appropriation built on identified dimensions and leading to various knowledge projects. These projects are experienced throughout subject positions around which consumers build more or less salient identities. The roles that forums play in knowledge projects lead to four main interrelated consumption logics that are collectively embodied in different ways by social practices.
This paper is about consumers’ relationship proneness, i.e. their conscious tendency to engage in relationships, and it purports to assess if the aspects that are relevant to interpersonal relations can be applied to commercial relationships as well. An exploratory factor analysis points to the existence of three facets of relationship proneness, in line with previous research: they relate to social benefits deriving, first of all, from the personal contact with the supplier; second, from special treatment; third, from search for assistance and guidance. It is also suggested that relationship proneness may be related to general personality traits (Big Five).
New products hold the promise of the future for most companies. Without successful new products, revenues, market share, and profits eventually decline in accordance with product life-cycle models. Thus, new product development is a high priority and a large expenditure item for most companies. Yet, the failure rate of new products is rather high and higher still for products that are more novel (Urban and Hauser 1993). Indeed, this is one reason why many firms have opted for brand extension as the preferred method of new product introduction. While brand extensions are seen as vehicles for steady profit expansion, on average they don’t have the same ability to reshape the competitive landscape as really-new products (RNPs) do. In fact, a reshaping of the competitive landscape has become definitional of RNPs: RNPs create new product categories and lead to major shifts in market share (Lehmann 1997). In addition, a company’s ability to successfully develop RNPs impacts their future growth capabilities. John E. Pepper, CEO of Procter & Gamble states "Our greatest periods of growth have occurred when we’ve been able to bring truly new-to-the-world products to market."
Ongoing relationships between firms and their customers are receiving renewed interest in marketing. Marketing research has shown that building strong customer relationships is a means for gaining a competitive advantage for firms (McKenna 1991; Reichheld 1993), and has benefits for consumers as well (Gwinner, Gremler and Bitner 1998). But in what circumstances is this most likely to be a viable form of advantage? What consumers would be more likely to want to engage in a relationship with a marketer? This paper builds on the existing consumer relationship marketing literature by providing insight into the characteristics of relational consumers, an issue requiring further research suggested by Berry (1995). Second, a conceptual framework with several propositions for future testing is proposed. Finally, by linking gender and cultural variables to relational marketing, this paper adds to the existing theory on relationship marketing.
Valentine’s Day is a day associated with lavish consumption, rituals, expectations, and commercialism. Much of the romance is displayed with store-bought and marketing-driven exchanges, contrary to the unique personalized and intimate nature sometimes associated with Valentine’s Day. The objective of our multi-method study is to provide insight into Valentine’s rituals, themes, and meanings (as expressed in the U.S.) as a basis for understanding consumer behavior for this holiday. Our three research questions focus on: consumer behaviors and rituals (both in-store and in the private spheres), key consumer meanings and emergent themes, and roles of marketing communications during this holiday.We identify many consumer behaviors associated with Valentine’s Day (Table 2). In turn, we categorize these behaviors (also illustrated in Table 2) into the areas of: gift exchange, Valentine (card) exchange, affection, food and drink preparation and consumption, and grooming/clothing. Many of these behaviors revolve around intimacy and sexuality. Some key meanings associated with these behaviors include: 'belongingness', 'altruism', 'affection and intimacy', 'mutual expectations', 'self-gifts', and 'negative feelings'.Specific gender patterns emerge in our findings. For some examples, we find that males are inclined to use gifts as a form of nonverbal communication. Females engage in self-gift behaviors, especially in relation to grooming rituals. Members of both sexes do discuss themes of belongingness and romance in a non-materialistic manner; however, such themes are not devoid of marketed products and services.We find that this holiday is associated with extremes (e.g., consumers either love it or hate it). Furthermore, we find that commercialism and marketing communications contribute to consumer’s feelings and experiences concerning their love or hate for this day. For example, many ads depicting couples and affection flood the market as much as a month before February 14th – triggering feelings of warmth or disgust. While some welcome this holiday, there is a strain of anti-consumerism or anti-commercialism associated with the holiday 'for love'.
Although social norms can substantially impact consumer decision making, understanding of how the specification of the norm determines its impact is limited. This meta-analysis (200 independent studies, 659 effect sizes) examines how aspects of social norm specification determine the effect of norms on attitudes, behavioral intentions, and behavior. It argues and shows that descriptive norms have a larger impact on behavior than injunctive norms, whereas injunctive norms have a larger impact on attitudes than descriptive norms. Effects on behavior are also stronger when norms come from close and concrete sources (vs. authority figures or abstract others) and when the behavior is public (vs. private). No effects were found for specifications of the expected behavior, the consequences, or the target person.
We seek to advance understanding of consumers’ resistance manifest in the Valentine’s Day market. Our objectives include: to introduce a definition of 'market resistance', to understand and explain consumer experiences that are associated with resistance to a market and its related events, to show what consumers are moving towards via their acts of resistance.To address the objectives, we use multiple methods. We focus on describing a category of experiences that are associated with resistance and creation of new traditions. The article is organized as follows. First, we conceptually define terms and introduce relevantareas of resistance theories. Second, we discuss the analytical methods, data analysis, and theme development. Then, we present findings and interpretation of meaning. To clarify the processes, we deploy constructs based in resistance theory. We ultimately discuss limitations, implications, and avenues for future research.
The use of the WWW as a venue for voicing opinions, complaints and recommendations on products and firms has been widely reported in the popular media. However little is known how consumers use these reviews and if they subsequently have any influence on evaluations and purchase intentions of products and retailers. This study examines the effect of negative reviews on retailer evaluation and patronage intention given that the consumer has already made a product/brand decision. Our results indicate that the extent of WOM search depends on the consumer's reasons for choosing an online retailer. Further the influence of negative WOM information on perceived reliability and purchase intentions is determined largely by familiarity with the retailer and differs based on whether the retailer is a pure-Internet or clicks-and-mortar firm. Managerial implications for positioning strategies to minimize the effect of negative word-of-mouth have been discussed.
Ethical consumption is part of a broader consumption picture. This paper conceptualizes ethical consumption by theoretically positioning it within Holt’s typology of consumption practices (1995). In particular it focuses upon ethical consumption as an integration process, identifying four possible dimensions of ethical consumption as, a distinction process, as hedonistic pleasure, as a sign of love and as engaging an aesthetic response. The theoretical underpinnings for these dimensions are considered and some recent communications from fairly traded producers are examined to see how they correspond with the dimensions suggested.
This study draws attention to the integrating role of exploration in online shopping. Online, the shopping experience, product search and product information search all happen through the exploration of different pages of a website. A survey among 301 respondents who first navigated an online bookstore for eight minutes was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results show that exploratory potential (the perceived ability of a retail website to provide scope for further exploration) plays a central role in creating utilitarian and hedonic value, which in turn contribute to site commitment. Further, sense-making potential only produces utilitarian value if mediated by exploratory potential, thus further reinforcing the notion that exploratory potential is the real 'killer attribute' of a retail website.
The article focuses on the impact of interpersonal similarity on the participation of consumers in promotional games based on chance. Results of a survey show that consumers are most likely to join promotional games based on chance if they find similarities with the previous winners. Such similarities will motivate consumers to believe that they have more chances to win the game.
Rumi: "It's a day of errands for me. wearing vintage collar, Ralph Lauren blazer, Zara skirt, Céline bag, and Rag & Bone boots." Comment: "I remember that blazer! It's super old, right? It's neat to see how it still fits into your style like 5 years later haha." Comment: "You always look great when things get hectic. And I've told you before how well you wear Céline." This posting by famous fashion blogger Rumi (fashiontoast. com) along with two of the many comments that she received on that day illustrates how Rumi has successfully created a communication environment where brands are discussed and celebrated but also one where friendships and intimate relationships might prevail. Although it is unlikely that Rumi has a meaningful relationship with each of her 133,672 readers, it is clear that many of them believe they have a relationship and close friendship with her. They relate to and connect with her at an interpersonal level, sharing slice of life stories, remembering past events, and engaging in brand level discussions. This level of closeness is rather counterintuitive especially if we consider that blogs are, by definition, a form of broadcast media in which a blogger shares his or her views with a large audience. In this paper, we examine how bloggers like Rumi develop different communication strategies that allow them to achieve specific objectives.
It has been suggested that advertising could be considered the picture album of a society. Embedding advertising in the times in which it is made and interpreting it in that historical context is akin to having the people whose pictures one is watching tell the story. Sociological Imagination is one approach to achieve this. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how historical research of advertising may be conducted under sociological imagination. The paper presents evidence from a larger study to elaborate the procedures and merits of historical research under sociological imagination.
Thai and Vietnamese print advertisements were content analyzed to examine how content and advertising expression differed in the two countries at two different time periods, 1994 and 2004. Analysis focused on traditional Eastern and Western, and Informational and Emotional appeals. As hypothesized, Vietnamese ads contained more traditional and informational appeals than Thai ads, while Thai ads were found to contain fewer informational and traditional Eastern appeals than Vietnamese ads. Implications for practitioners and theoreticians are discussed.
Using qualitative data from 230 respondent descriptions of four consumers' auto-photographical product selections, this paper examines whether Aaker's model of brand personality should be expanded; and if the concept of brand personality is also transferable to products not clearly identified or presented to respondents as recognisable brands.