The University of Kiel Cosmic Ray Instrument on board the solar probes HELIOS-1 and -2 measured angular distributions of electrons, protons, and heavier nuclei between 0.3 and 1 AU over one complete solar cycle between 1974 and 1986. Anisotropies are observed mainly during the rising phase of solar particle events or close to the passage of certain interplanetary shocks. The anisotropies are presented as proton data of energies between 27 and 37 MeV. The dependence of the anisotropies on particle energy and distance from the sun is provided based on diffusive propagation in interplanetary space. Strong anisotropies could provide a chance of efficient shielding of the passenger compartment by moving heavier parts of the spacecraft structure into the direction of the highest flux. A reduction of the total radiation dose by less than a factor of 2 might be achievable, however, selection of quiet times for the mission reduces the radiation hazard much more.
Bacterial spores are proper test organisms for studying problems of space biology and exobiology. During the Spacelab 1 mission, studies on the limiting factors for survival of Bacillus subtilis spores in free space have been performed. An exposure tray on the pallet of Spacelab 1 accomodated 316 samples of dry spores for treatment with space vacuum and/or the following selected wavelengths of solar UV: > 170 nm, 220 nm, 240nm, 260nm and 280 nm. After recovery, inactivation, mutation induction, reparability, and photochemical damages in DNA and protein have been studied. The results contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of increased UV sensitivity of bacterial spores in vacuo and to a better assessment of the chance of survival of resistant forms in space and of interplanetary transfer of life.
The European Space Agency's studies of a Comet Nucleus Sample Return mission (ROSETTA) as its Planetary Cornerstone in its long-term programme 'Horizon 2000' and the Marsnet mission, a potential contribution of the Agency to an international network of surface stations on Mars, has revived the interest in the present state of Planetary Protection requirements. MARSNET was one of the four candidate missions selected in April 1991 for further Design Feasibility (Phase A) Studies. Furthermore, of all space agencies participating in planetary exploration activities only the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration had a well established Planetary Protection Policy on Viking and other relevant planetary missions, whereas ESA is considering the feasibility and potential impact of a planetary protection policy on its Marsnet mission, within the framework of a tight budgetary envelope applicable to ESA's medium (M) class missions. This paper will discuss in general terms the impact of Planetary Protection measures, its implications for Marsnet and the issues arising from this for the implementation of the mission in ESA's scientific programme.
Aboard the NASA satellite Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) heavy ions of nuclear charge Z = 8-26 were detected with energies between 15 and 50 MeV/nuc which are far below the cutoff energy required of fully stripped ions to reach the LDEF orbit. The arrival directions and the falling energy spectra of these particles are consistent with a trapped component incident in the South Atlantic Anomaly at L = 1.4-1.6. The trapped oxygen, neon and argon ions probably originate from the anomalous cosmic rays, whereas the origin of the other particles like magnesium, silicon and iron is not yet solved but may be associated with the October 89 solar energetic particle events.
As part of the "Cellular Mechanisms of Spaceflight-Specific Stress to Plants" experiment, nine BRIC (Biological Research in Canisters) 100VC canisters, each containing four 100 mm dia polycarbonate petri dishes with embryogenic day lily (Hemerocallis sp.) cultures, were launched on 12 Jan 97 (STS-81), transferred to 'Mir' and returned on 24 May 97 (STS-84). Pre-flight, flight and ground control data for temperature, relative humidity, CO2 and ethylene in the BRIC canisters are presented. (C) 2000 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.
C3H 10T1/2 mouse-embryo fibroblasts were used for transformation experiments to study the effectiveness of various heavy ions with energies up to 20 MeV/u and LET values from 170 to 16,000 keV/micrometers. The transformation frequency per unit absorbed dose decreased with increasing ionization density; at the highest values of LET we found a decrease even of the transformation efficiency per unit fluence. Uranium ions at energies of 5, 9, and 16.3 MeV/u did not induce any transformation. In additional studies primary Syrian hamster embryo cells (SHE) were exposed to heavy ions in order to characterize cytological and molecular changes which may be correlated with neoplastic transformation. Growth behaviour, chromosomal status, tumorigenicity in nude mice, and expression of oncogenes of transformed cell lines were examined
Space flight experiments on Chinese silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) were conducted on board the Russian 10th Biosatellite for 12 days. The samples included silkworm eggs, larvae, cocoons, pupae and moths. The processes of spinning, cocooning, mating, oviposition, larval hatching, pupation and moth emergence all completed well in space. The following effects of space flight on silkworm development were observed: The times of hatching and oviposition in the flight group were 2 to 3 days earlier than in the control group; the hatching rate of diapause eggs during space flight seemed higher than that of the control group; the life span of 2 of the 7 varieties flown was shortened; genetical variations appeared in 3 varieties. The results showed that the embryonic stage was probably the period most sensitive to the space flight environment.
Experiments on insects, higher plants and lower fungi were carried out aboard the biological satellite Cosmos-l129, in Earth orbit, from 25 September to 14 October 1979. The main objective of these experiments was to gain more profound knowledge of the effect of weightlessness on living organisms and to study the mechanisms by which these various organisms with different life cycles can adjust and develop in weightlessness. Experiments on insects (Drosophila melanogaster) were made with a view towards understanding gravitational preference in flies, the life cycle of which took place on board the biosatellite under conditions of artificial gravity. Experiments on higher plants (Zea mays, Arabidopsis thaliana, Lycopersicum esculentum) and lower fungi (Physarum polycephalum) were performed.
Artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds were flown aboard the Cosmos 1129 for 19 days. A correlative method was used in order to determine the passage of cosmic heavy ions (HZE particles) through the biological test objects. This space flight resulted in a decrease on hatchability, nucleic acid and protein synthesis in hydrated Artemia cysts. HZE particle effects on plant cellular chromosomes are confirmed. In tobacco seeds, a stimulating effect on germination rate and a higher frequency of abnormalities were observed. Dormant biological objects are a very suitable material to study cosmic ray effects: these objects can be arranged in monolayers and sandwiched between visual track detectors in order to determine the passage of the cosmic heavy ions (HZE particles). On the other hand this method allows us to study effects of microgravity and those of the protonic component of cosmic rays in the objects not hit by the HZE articles.
The influence of track structure on chromosome damage and cell inactivation are being investigated. Plateau-phase normal human fibroblast cultures were irradiated with gamma rays, and He, Ne and Ar ions. Particle velocities were chosen so that all beams had an LET of 120 keV/micrometer. In this constant-LET experimental design, the radial distribution of excitations and ionizations about the particle track is the most significant variable. Using premature chromosome condensation, chromatin breaks were measured at two time points, promptly after irradiation and after a prolonged incubation to allow for repair. These measurements give an indication of both initial chromosomal damage and also residual damage that is either not repaired or is misrepaired. Survival was measured under the same conditions. Results indicate that the RBEs for both cell inactivation and, to a lesser extent, chromosome damage decrease as particle energy increases.
We measured the number of mutants and the kinds of mutations induced by 137Cs-gamma and by HZE-Fe (56Fe [600 MeV/amu, LET = 190 KeV/micrometer) in standard AL human hamster hybrid cells and in a new variant hybrid, AL-179. We found that HZE-Fe was more mutagenic than 137Cs-gamma per unit dose (about 1.6 fold), but was slightly less mutagenic per mean lethal dose, DO, at both the S1 and hprt- loci of AL cells. On the other hand, HZE-Fe induced about nine fold more complex S1- mutants than 137Cs-gamma rays, 28% vs 3%. 137Cs-gamma rays induced about twice as many S1- mutants and hprt-mutants in AL-179 as in AL cells, and about nine times more of the former were complex, and potentially unstable kinds of mutations.
Two thiophosphoroate compounds WR-2721 and WR-151327 were assessed for their ability to modify the deleterious effects (life shortening and carcinogenesis) of fission-spectrum neutrons (kerma-weighted mean energy of 0.85 MeV) or gamma rays on B6CF1 hybrid mice. Male and female mice, 200 of each sex per experimental group, were irradiated individually at 110 days of age. Radioprotectors (400 mg/kg of WR-2721 or 580 mg/kg of WR-151327) were administered intraperitoneally 30 min prior to irradiation. Neutron doses were 10 cGy or 40 cGy and gamma ray doses were 206 cGy or 417 cGy. Animals were housed five to a cage; cage locations in the holding rooms were randomized by computer. Animals were checked daily and all deceased animals were necropsied. WR-2721 afforded protection against both neutron- and gamma-ray-induced carcinogenesis and subsequent life shortening. Cumulative survival curves for unirradiated mice of either sex were unaffectecd by protectors. WR-2721 protected irradiated groups against life shortening by approximately 10 cGy of neutrons or 100 cGy of gamma rays. WR-151327 was as effective as WR-2721 against neutron irradiation.
Spaceflight personnel need treatment options that would enhance survival from radiation and would not disrupt task performance. Doses of prophylactic or therapeutic agents known to induce significant short-term (30-day) survival with minimal behavioral (locomotor) changes were used for 180-day survival studies. In protection studies, groups of mice were treated with the phosphorothioate WR-151327 (200 mg/kg, 25% of the LD(10)) or the immunomodulator, synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM; 8 mg/kg), before lethal irradiation with reactor-generated fission neutrons and gamma-rays (n/gamma=1) or 60Co gamma-rays. In therapy studies, groups of mice received either S-TDCM, the antimicrobial ofloxacin, or S-TDCM plus ofloxacin after irradiation. For WR-151327 treated-mice, survival at 180 days for n/gamma=1 and gamma-irradiated mice was 90% and 92%, respectively; for S-TDCM (protection), 57% and 78%, respectively; for S-TDCM (therapy), 20% and 25%, respectively; for ofloxacin, 38% and 5%, respectively; for S-TDCM combined with ofloxacin, 30% and 30%, respectively; and for saline, 8% and 5%, respectively. Ofloxacin or combined ofloxacin and S-TDCM increased survival from the gram-negative bacterial sepsis that predominated in n/gamma=1 irradiated mice. The efficacies of the treatments depended on radiation quality, treatment agent and its mode of use, and microflora of the host.
The program of the 7-day flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1667 launched in July 1985 included experiments on two rhesus monkeys, ten Wistar SPF rats, ten newts, Drosophila flies, maize seedlings, lettuce sprouts, and unicellular organisms--Tetrahymena. The primate study demonstrated that transition to orbital flight was accompanied by a greater excitability of the vestibular apparatus and an increased linear blood flow velocity in the common carotid artery. The rat studies showed that atrophy of antigravity muscles and osteoporosis of limb bones developed even during short-term exposure to microgravity. The experiments on other living systems revealed no microgravity effects on the cell division rate, proliferative activity of cells of regenerating tissues and organs, energy metabolism of developing insects, structure or chemical composition of higher plant seedlings.
The spectra of neutrons >10 MeV and gamma-rays 1.5-100 MeV under the Earth Radiation Belts, restored from the data, obtained onboard orbital complex "SALYUT-7" [correction of "SALUTE-7"]-"KOSMOS-1686", are presented. The spectra shapes are similar to those for albedo neutrons and gamma-rays, but absolute values of their fluxes (0.2 cm-2 s-1 for neutrons, 0.8 cm-2 s-1 for gamma-rays at the equator and 1.2 cm-2 s-1, 1.9 cm-2 s-1, accordingly, at L=1.9) are several times as large. It is possibly explained by the fact that most of the detected particles were produced by the cosmic ray interactions with the orbital complex matter. Neutron and gamma-ray fluxes obtained from "CORONAS-1" data are near those for albedo particles.
We have studied the effects of prolonged (up to 175 days) exposure of Lactuca sativa seeds to space flight factors, including primary cosmic radiation heavy ions. The data obtained evidence a significant fourfold increase of spontaneous mutagenesis in seeds both with regard to the total number of aberrant cells as well as the formation of single cells with multiple aberrations. Comparison of the present experiment with earlier works shows that the frequency of such aberrations increases with the duration of the flight.
From an investigation of the activity of six glucocorticoid dependent liver enzymes, the existence of chronic, transient, stress-induced hypercorticosteronaemia during flight is probable. This hypercorticosteronaemia arises from weightlessness and induces gluconeogenesis. Weightlessness also caused substantial increases in liver glycogen level. The increased lipolytic activity and that of lipoprotein lipase in several groups of animals could be interpreted as enhancement of fat mobilization and utilization under the influence of stress. As this latter enhancement was also found in ground-based controls, it may have been due to the stress of handling rather than to space flight per se.
Human exposure to ionizing radiation is one of the acknowledged potential showstoppers for long duration manned interplanetary missions. Human exploratory missions cannot be safely performed without a substantial reduction of the uncertainties associated with different space radiation health risks, and the development of effective countermeasures. Most of our knowledge of the biological effects of heavy charged particles comes from accelerator-based experiments. During the 35th COSPAR meeting, recent ground-based experiments with high-energy iron ions were discussed, and these results are briefly summarised in this paper. High quality accelerator-based research with heavy ions will continue to be the main source of knowledge of space radiation health effects and will lead to reductions of the uncertainties in predictions of human health risks. Efforts in materials science, nutrition and pharmaceutical sciences and their rigorous evaluation with biological model systems in ground-based accelerator experiments will lead to the development of safe and effective countermeasures to permit human exploration of the Solar System.
Flux and dose rate dynamics of solar cosmic rays were measured by the Lyulin dosimeter during the events 19 October 1989 and 23 March 1991. The maximum dose rate registered was 0.4, 0.12 and 0.01 cGy/hour, respectively. Based on the latitude distribution of particle flux a power law form for the energy spectra of solar protons in the anisotropic phase of the events on 19 October 1989 and 23 March 1991 was determined. It was obtained that after the development of geomagnetic storm protons with energies more than 1 GeV were registered.
The Liulin dosimeter-radiometer on the MIR space station detected the 19 October 1989 high energy solar proton event. These results show that the main particle increase contains protons with energies up to about 9 GeV. After the main particle onset the Liulin dosimeter observed a typical geomagnetic cutoff modulation of the dose rate from the solar particles as the MIR space station traversed magnetic latitudes. When the interplanetary shock and associated solar plasma enveloped the earth on 20 October between 14 and 17 UT the radiation exposure increased significantly due to the lowering of the geomagnetic cutoff. The analysis of this event shows how various geophysical phenomena can significantly modulate the dose rate encountered by earth-orbiting spacecraft.
Early difficulties with the light source in the study of vacuum-UV effects on biological materials were overcome largely by the introduction of the synchrotron radiation source in 1977. Highly monochromatic vacuum-UV radiation has been used to obtain action spectra of various biological targets in the range 50-190 nm. Bacillus subtilis spores were particularly suitable because of their inherent tolerance to vacuum, and action spectra for inactivation were measured down to 50 nm. Action spectra for DNA strand breaks were also measured in the same range with isolated plasmid DNA. Studies are in progress of vacuum-UV induced molecular changes in nucleic acids and their model compounds, especially of chain scission and base modification.
The best strategy for supporting long-duration space missions is believed to be bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). An integral part of a BLSS is a chamber supporting the growth of higher plants that would provide food, water, and atmosphere regeneration for the human crew. Such a chamber will have to be a complete plant growth system, capable of providing lighting, water, and nutrients to plants in microgravity. Other capabilities include temperature, humidity, and atmospheric gas composition controls. Many spaceflight experiments to date have utilized incomplete growth systems (typically having a hydration system but lacking lighting) to study tropic and metabolic changes in germinating seedlings and young plants. American, European, and Russian scientists have also developed a number of small complete plant growth systems for use in spaceflight research. Currently we are entering a new era of experimentation and hardware development as a result of long-term spaceflight opportunities available on the International Space Station. This is already impacting development of plant growth hardware. To take full advantage of these new opportunities and construct innovative systems, we must understand the results of past spaceflight experiments and the basic capabilities of the diverse plant growth systems that were used to conduct these experiments. The objective of this paper is to describe the most influential pieces of plant growth hardware that have been used for the purpose of conducting scientific experiments during the first 40 years of research.
The relativistic solar particle event of 4 May 1960, resulting in a cosmic ray ground level enhancement, occurred well before modern analysis techniques were available. We have located surviving data from 23 neutron monitors and have used these to estimate the spectrum, mean arrival direction and particle pitch angle distribution as the event progressed. We find that the apparent particle arrival direction was at equatorial latitudes, over northern South America, in contrast to contemporary analyses that proposed it to be over North America. Our modified power law spectra are broadly consistent with earlier results. Data from stations above sea level need to be corrected for altitude using a two-attenuation length technique. The standard method involves comparison of data from two relatively close stations at significantly different altitude. We have shown that this method may be unreliable in cases, such as this, of quite sharp anisotropy.
The power spectrum was calculated for the time series of the LDE-type flare occurrence during the last three solar cycles (the 20-th, the 21-st and the first part of the 22-nd cycle). LDE-type flares (Long Duration Events in SXR) are associated with the interplanetary protons (SEP and STIP as well), energized coronal arches and radio type IV emission. Generally, in all the cycles considered, LDE-type flares mainly originated during a 6-year interval of the respective cycle (2 years before and 4 years after the sunspot cycle maximum). The following significant periodicities were found: in the 20-th cycle: 1.4, 2.1, 2.9, 4.0, 10.7 and 54.2 of month; in the 21-st cycle: 1.2, 1.6, 2.8, 4.9, 7.8 and 44.5 of month; in the 22-nd cycle, till March 1992: 1.4, 1.8, 2.4, 7.2, 8.7, 11.8 and 29.1 of month; in all interval (1969-1992): 1. the longer periodicities: 232.1, 121.1 (the dominant at 10.1 of year), 80.7, 61.9 and 25.6 of month, 2. the shorter periodicities: 4.7, 5.0, 6.8, 7.9, 9.1, 15.8 and 20.4 of month. Solar variability has an extremely complex time dependence. The Sun is a multiperiodic system. The strong periodicities "near 155 and 270 days" were found also in the LDE-type flare occurrence.
A cytological study was performed on Maize roots (Zea mays) which were grown in space (flight Biocosmos 1985) and on control roots on earth. Two criteria were selected: cell elongation in the cortical zone in the four mm of the extremity of the root and mitotic activity of the meristem. The results show that in microgravity the length of the meristem is reduced of 1/3 and that its mitotic activity increases of about twofold comparatively to the synchronous control. In parallel the cell differentiation begin closer to the root cap junction. These results are discussed relative to the influence of gravistimulation on cell proliferation and cell differentiation in roots.
The proton telescope aboard the GOES-7 satellite continuously records the proton flux at geosynchronous orbit, and therefore provides a direct measurement of the energetic protons arriving during solar energetic particle (SEP) events. Microelectronic devices are susceptible to single event upset (SEU) caused by both energetic protons and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) ions. Some devices are so sensitive that their upsets can be used as a dosimetric indicator of a high fluence of particles. The 93L422 1K SRAM is one such device. Eight of them are on the TDRS-1 satellite in geosynchronous orbit, and collectively they had been experiencing 1-2 upset/day due to the GCR background. During the large SEP events of 1989 the upset rate increased dramatically, up to about 250 for the week of 19 Oct, due to the arrival of the SEP protons. Using the GOES proton spectra, the proton-induced SEU cross section curve for the 93L422 and the shielding distribution around the 93L422, the calculated upsets based on the GOES satellite data compared well against the log of measured upsets on TDRS-1.
Measurements on board the Mir space station have been used to study the dose rate and the particle flux distribution in the inner magnetosphere. The measurements have been performed with the Bulgarian-Russian dosimeter-radiometer Liulin. The paper concentrates on the dynamics of the observed "new" and "second" maxima which were created after Solar Proton Events (SPE) in the 1989-1994 time. The "second" belt was first observed after the SPE on October 20, 1989, and the last observation was after the SPE on February 20, 1994. The creation of the "new" belt is a unique phenomena seen in the Liulin data set after the SPE on March 23, 1991 and relates to the magnetic storm on March 24. The new belt fully disappears in the middle of 1993.
The large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and simultaneous large geomagnetic disturbances observed during October 1989 posed a significant, rapidly evolving space radiation hazard. Using data from the GOES-7, NOAA-10, IMP-8 and LDEF satellites, we determined the geomagnetic transmission, heavy ion fluences, mean Fe ionic charge state, and effective radiation hazard observed in low Earth orbit (LEO) for these SEPs. We modeled the geomagnetic transmission by tracing particles through the combination of the internal International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and the Tsyganenko (1989) magnetospheric field models, extending the modeling to large geomagnetic disturbances. We used our results to assess the radiation hazard such very large SEP events would pose in the anticipated 52 degrees inclination space station orbit.
Using data from dosimetry-radiometry system "Liulin" on board of "Mir"-space station the particle flux and doserate during September-October, 1989 has been studied. The orbit of the station was 379 km perigee, 410 km apogee and 51.6 degrees inclination. Special attention has been paid to the flux and doserate changes inside the station after intensive solar proton events (SPE) on 29 of September, 1989. The comparison between the doses before and after the solar flares shows increase of the calculated mean dose per day by factor of 10 to 200. During the SPE on the 29 of September the additional dose was 310 mrad. The results of the experiment are compared with the data for the solar proton fluxes obtained on the GOES-7 satellite.
The initial test of the Biosphere 2 agricultural system was to provide a nutritionally adequate diet for eight crew members during a two year closure experiment, 1991-1993. The overall results of that trial are presented in this paper. The 2000 m2 cropping area provided about 80 percent of overall nutritional needs during the two years. Adaptation of the crew to the diet which averaged 2200 calories, 73 g. of protein and 32 g. of fat per person over the course of the two years. The diet was primarily vegetarian, with only small amounts of milk, meat and eggs from the system's domestic animals. The crew experienced 10-20 percent weight loss, most of which occurred in the first six months of the closure reflecting adaptation to the diet and lower caloric intake during that period. Since Biosphere 2 is a tightly sealed system, non-toxic methods of pest and disease control were employed and inedible plant material, domestic animal wastes and human waste-water were processed and nutrients returned to the soil. Crop pests and diseases, especially broad mites and rootknot nematode, reduced yields, and forced the use of alternative crops. Outstanding crops included rice, sweet potato, beets, banana, and papaya. The African pygmy goats were the most productive of the domestic animals. Overall, the agriculture and food processing required some 45% of the crew time.
In March 1991 the CRRES spacecraft measured a new transient radiation belt resulting from a solar proton event and subsequent geomagnetic disturbance. The presence of this belt was also noted by dosimeter-radiometers aboard the Mir space station (approx. 400 km, 51 degrees orbit) and by particle telescopes on the NOAA-10 spacecraft (850 km, 98 degrees). This event provides a unique opportunity to compare particle flux and dose measurements made by different instruments in different orbits under changing conditions. We present here a comparison of the measurements made by the different detectors. We discuss the topology and dynamics of the transient radiation belt over a period of more than one year.
A set of instruments for measuring energetic particle fluxes, containing two neutron detectors under different plexiglas shielding thicknesses, a scintillation detector, measuring energy release >0.1 MeV and 0.5 MeV and a Geiger counter were launched onboard OS 'MIR'. The latitude dependencies of the cosmic ray measurements were obtained and studied. The distributions of primary particle fluxes (protons and elections) as well as secondary particle fluxes (bremsstrahlung gamma-rays and neutrons) produced in interactions of radiation belt particles with the station materials were obtained. The electron belt, generated during the storm of March 24 1991, is studied.
The Cosmic Radiation Environment & Activation Monitor (CREAM) was carried in high inclination (57.1 degrees) orbits on Shuttle missions STS-48 in September 1991 (altitude 570 km) and STS-53 (altitude 325 to 385 km) in December 1992. On both occasions the instrument observed an excess of counts due to protons of greater than 30 MeV in energy in the region off of South Africa where field lines of L=2.5 intersect low earth orbit. Meanwhile the Cosmic Radiation Environment and Dosimetry Experiment (CREDO) carried to 840 km, 98.7 degrees orbit on UOSAT-3 has continued to sample the high field portions of the L-shells around L = 2.5 from April 1990 until the present time. When careful subtraction of cosmic-ray contributions is made it can be seen that the March 91 enhancement persisted for approximately 8 months and explains the STS-48 observation. There would appear to have been a further increase produced by the 31 October 1992 flare event and seen by STS-53.
The solar activity and geomagnetic storm events of March and June 1991 were associated with the appearance of an enhanced particle flux in the trapped radiation belts as discovered by the CRRES satellite observations and later measured by shuttle radiation detectors. The solar-interplanetary conditions associated with these events appear to be a major sequence of activity near the sun's central meridian generating powerful fast interplanetary shocks resulting in major perturbations to the magnetosphere. The solar-interplanetary events in 1991 are discussed and compared to similar activity in the past such as the events in February 1986, August 1972, July 1961, November 1960, and July 1959.
Measurements of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) made with the Radiation Environment Monitor (REM) aboard Mir from November 1994 to February 1996 are presented. During this period an increase of the SAA radiation by approximately 25% is observed, which coincides with a lowering of the radio solar flux. Radio solar flux is one of the parameters controlling the earth's atmospheric distribution and with it the absorption of inner radiation belt protons forming the SAA. Due to the altitude gradient of the atmospheric density, the proton fluxes in the SAA are anisotropic (loss cone, east-west effect). The measured distribution can be accounted for by basic models.
The relativistic solar proton event of 6 November 1997 resulted in the first ground-level enhancement (GLE) of solar cycle 23. The earliest onset was around 1215 UT but was up to 15 minutes later at some neutron monitor locations. The time of maximum intensity also varied significantly over the world-wide neutron monitor network. The modeled particle distributions and spectra are presented. The apparent particle arrival direction is found to be largely consistent with propagation outward from the sun along interplanetary magnetic field lines.
Balloon measurements of cosmic rays were made practically every day at several locations of the former USSR and in Antarctica over a period of more than 30 years. These measurements provide a means for assessment and control of ionizing radiation at the altitudes from ground level up to 30-35 km.
A new version of the HZETRN code capable of validation with HZE ions in either the laboratory or the space environment is under development. The computational model consists of the lowest order asymptotic approximation followed by a Neumann series expansion with non-perturbative corrections. The physical description includes energy loss with straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and downshift. Measurements to test the model were performed at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory with iron ions. Surviving beam particles and produced fragments were measured with solid-state detectors. Beam analysis software has been written to relate the computational results to the measured energy loss spectra of the incident ions for rapid validation of modeled target transmission functions.
Deep-space manned flight as a reality depends on a viable solution to the radiation problem. Both acute and chronic radiation health threats are known to exist, with solar particle events as an example of the former and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) of the latter. In this experiment Iron ions of 1A GeV are used to simulate GCR and to determine the secondary radiation field created as the GCR-like particles interact with a thick target. A NASA prepared food pantry locker was subjected to the iron beam and the secondary fluence recorded. A modified version of the Monte Carlo heavy ion transport code developed by Zeitlin at LBNL is compared with experimental fluence. The foodstuff is modeled as mixed nuts as defined by the 71st edition of the Chemical Rubber Company (CRC) Handbook of Physics and Chemistry. The results indicate a good agreement between the experimental data and the model. The agreement between model and experiment is determined using a linear fit to ordered pairs of data. The intercept is forced to zero. The slope fit is 0.825 and the R2 value is 0.429 over the resolved fluence region. The removal of an outlier, Z=14, gives values of 0.888 and 0.705 for slope and R2 respectively.
Orbital debris impacts on the International Space Station occur frequently. To date, none of the impacting particles has been large enough to penetrate manned pressurized volumes. We used the Manned Spacecraft Crew Survivability code to evaluate the risk to crew of penetrations of pressurized modules at two assembly stages: after Flight 1J, when the pressurized elements of Kibo, the Japanese Experiment Module, are present, and after Flight 1E, when the European Columbus Module is present. Our code is a Monte-Carlo simulation of impacts on the Station that considers several potential event types that could lead to crew loss. Among the statistics tabulated by the program is the probability of death of one or more crew members in the event of a penetration, expressed as the risk factor, R. This risk factor is dependent on details of crew operations during both ordinary circumstances and decompression emergencies, as well as on details of internal module configurations. We conducted trade studies considering these procedure and configuration details to determine the bounds on R at the 1J and 1E stages in the assembly sequence. Here we compare the R-factor bounds, and procedures could that reduce R at these stages.
Size and asymmetry (size difference between the left and the right side) as well as calcium (Ca) content of inner ear otoliths of larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus were determined after a long-term stay at hypergravity conditions (3g; centrifuge). Both utricular and saccular otoliths (lapilli and sagittae, respectively) were significantly smaller after hyper-g exposure as compared to parallely raised 1g-control specimens and the absolute amount of otolith-Ca was diminished. The asymmetry of sagittae was significantly increased in the experimental animals, whereas the respective asymmetry concerning lapilli was markedly decreased. In the course of another experiment larvae were raised in aquarium hatch baskets, from which one was placed directly above aeration equipment which resulted in random water circulation shifting the fish around ("shifted" specimens). The lapillar asymmetry of the "stationary" specimens showed a highly significant increase during early development when larvae were forced to lay on their sides due to their prominent yolk-sacs. In later developmental stages, when they began to swim freely, a dramatic decrease in lapillar asymmetry was apparent. Taken together with own previous findings according to which otolith growth stops after vestibular nerve transaction, the results presented here suggest that the growth and the development of bilateral asymmetry of otoliths is guided by the environmental gravity vector, obviously involving a feedback loop between the brain and the inner ear.
The swimming behaviour of adult and neonate swordtail fish Xiphophorus helleri was qualitatively analysed from video recordings taken throughout the STS 89 spaceshuttle mission from launch to landing and thereafter. After the flight, the swimming behaviour of neonate samples was quantitatively assessed in the course of the readaptation to 1g earth gravity at days 0, 1 and 4 after recovery. Regarding the swimming behaviour during the mission, the adult fish swam thigmotactically (i.e., responding to tactile stimuli) along the walls of their aquarium, but like the neonates, they did not show any aberrant behavioural patterns. This indicates that they could easily adapt themselves to microgravity. On mission day 9, however, looping responses (most probably initiated by mechanical disturbances) occurred indicating a continuously performed "C-start" escape response (the respective body bend looks like the letter "C"). Immediately after landing (observed in videos recorded onboard the space shuttle), the adults performed a head-up swimming beating heavily with the caudal and pectoral fins; this aberrant behaviour gradually decreased during the first hours after recovery.
Vacuum exposure renders the survival of spores of Bacillus subtilis approximately five times more sensitive to ultraviolet light irradiation than exposure under atmospheric conditions. The photoproduct formation in spores irradiated under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions is compared to the photoproduct formation in spores irradiated at atmospheric pressure. Compared to irradiation at atmospheric pressure, where only the "spore photoproduct" 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine (TDHT) can be detected, two additional photoproducts, known as the c,s and t,s isomers of thymine dimer (T<>T) are produced in vacuo. The spectral efficiencies for photoproduct formation in spores under atmospheric and vacuum conditions are compared. Since there is no increased formation of TDHT after irradiation in vacuum, TDHT cannot be made responsible for the observed vacuum effect. "Vacuum specific" photoproducts may cause a synergistic response of spores to the simultaneous action of ultraviolet light (UV) and UHV. Three different mechanisms are discussed for the enhanced sensitivity of B. subtilis spores to UV radiation in vacuum. The experiments described contribute valuable research information on the chance for survival of microorganisms in outer space.
We have studied radiation effects utilizing the new 250 MeV Synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center. In this paper we present the data collected for the survival of Chinese hamster lung (V79) cells, that were irradiated with a beam of mixed energy protons up to 200 MeV. The RBE for protons, when compared to 60Co gamma rays, ranged from a low of 1.2 at the high energy portion of the field to 1.3+ at the low energy portion of the field. These results are consistent with the measured lineal energy (microdosimetric) spectra.
The aim of the proposed Beagle 2 small lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission is to search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars and to study the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will have a total mass of 60kg including entry, descent, and landing system. Experiments will be deployed on the surface using a robotic arm. It will use a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks, and inside rocks. Sample analysis by a mass spectrometer will include isotopic analysis. An optical microscope, an X-ray spectrometer and a Mossbauer spectrometer will conduct in-situ rock studies.
The sun has produced several high energy and large fluence solar proton events during solar cycle 22. This recent activity is similar to activity that occurred in the 19th solar cycle before the advent of routine space measurements. In a review of the recent events and a comparison with significant solar proton events of previous solar cycles, it appears that the 20th and 21st solar cycles were deficient in the total fluence of solar particles as detected at the earth. Therefore, when models of maximum solar proton fluxes to be encountered for deep space missions are developed, solar proton data acquired during the present solar cycle should be incorporated.
Some of the Ground Level Enhancements of Solar Cosmic Rays (SCR) recorded by neutron monitors during solar cycle 22 are analyzed. The events appeared in series, and their occurrence rate in 1989-1991 was a factor of 4 larger than the average value (approximately equal to 1/yr) for the total observation interval (since 1942). The events of Sept. 29 and Oct. 24, 1989 proved to be the more intensive. The analyzed events show no peculiarities as to the distribution of the T1/2 parameter, whereas the shape of the profile of some events is notable for a two peak structure. The latter implies the possibility of a two component SCR ejection from two different sources in the solar atmosphere. For the event of Sep. 29 we have estimated the ejection rigidity spectrum of protons to be D solar (R) = (1-2) 10(32)R(-2.9) Gv-1 at R greater than or equal to 1 Gv. As to its proton flux, this event proved to be by 1-2 orders less intensive than the well known event of Feb. 23 1956.
The flight procedure of "Experience Triton" on Cosmos 2229 made necessary to sacrifice the embarked females just after landing. In order to detect genetic abnormalities in the progency of these adult females, we have performed a surgical procedure based on the transplantation of an ovarian piece on a recipient animal. One year later, as observed after laparotomy, the grafted ovaries exhibit oogonies and some growing oocytes. In present time, out of 10 castrated and grafted adult females only one is still alive bearing a large grafted ovary. Out of 5 castrated and grafted juvenile males, three are still alive, two of them exhibit a developing grafted ovary. The grafted animals will be ready for mating within a few months. Therefore, it will soon be possible to study the progeny of animals that have been submitted to space conditions.