Advances in Environmental Biology

Online ISSN: 1998-1066
Publications
This paper presents a novel combinational phonetic algorithm for Sindhi Language, to be used in developing Sindhi Spell Checker which has yet not been developed prior to this work. The compound textual forms and glyphs of Sindhi language presents a substantial challenge for developing Sindhi spell checker system and generating similar suggestion list for misspelled words. In order to implement such a system, phonetic based Sindhi language rules and patterns must be considered into account for increasing the accuracy and efficiency. The proposed system is developed with a blend between Phonetic based SoundEx algorithm and ShapeEx algorithm for pattern or glyph matching, generating accurate and efficient suggestion list for incorrect or misspelled Sindhi words. A table of phonetically similar sounding Sindhi characters for SoundEx algorithm is also generated along with another table containing similar glyph or shape based character groups for ShapeEx algorithm. Both these are first ever attempt of any such type of categorization and representation for Sindhi Language.
 
The economic agents now realize knowledge as an active relavant for the market organization differentiation. This scenario explains the need for systems that assist the user in the acquisition process and knowledge management. Intelligent systems, known as expert systems serve to this purpose in the extent that they have signed as facilitators in this process. These are systems that are based on expert knowledge, on any subject, in order to emulate human expertise in the specific field. To obtain this knowledge, the knowledge engineers, also called software engineers, need to develop methodologies for intelligent systems. In this area there is still no unified methodology that provides effective methods, notations and tools to aid in development. The use of the recommendations helps the designer to interface with more knowledge giving the possibility to access them in an automated fashion and with various features, resulting in better recommendations and with best models specified by users.
 
Kotler and Armstrong’s organizational buying model (source: Kotler and Armstrong (2008). Principles of marketing. P240). 
Decision purchase process are effected by two types of controllable and uncontrollable factors that some of the most important of them are socio-cultural group, Situational factors and the factors as for Marketing mixes (stokes, 2002: 121).Today, controllable environmental factors or marketing mixes elements of Steel manufacturer is typically influence on the decision process of steel buyer. In this research, one main aim meaning the influence of Marketing mixes elements on the process of organizational buyers is considered. The orientation of this research was applied and according to nature and way, is descriptive – survey and is used from inferential tests like T test and Co-relational test and ANOVA to analyze the data for testing the hypothesis and other results. The result of this research is that researcher could get acceptable significant relationship between the payment conditions of goods value and delivery conditions and payment conditions of goods and organizational personality consists of both real and legal person of steel manufacturer.
 
Fluoxymesterone, a synthetic androgenic anabolic steroid is used to treat breast cancer. Androgenic steroidshave been reported to induce different types of cancer. In the present study we have tested the genotoxicpotential of fluoxymesterone in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The study was performed in theabsence as well as presence of metabolic activation with and without NADP, to see the effect offluoxymesterone on chromosomal aberrations (CAs), mitotic index (MI), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs)and replication index (RI). Fluoxymesterone neither induced CAs and SCEs nor affected MI and RI,significantly in the absence as well as in the presence of metabolic activation (S9 mix) without NADP.However, in the presence of metabolic activation with NADP it was found to be genotoxic at 30 and 40 ìM.
 
Jordan is considered as a transcendent area between the African and the Asian countries. To provide amore precise picture of the genetic structure of varroa populations in Jordan compare with world wide picture,a total of 60 female mites belong to 10 A.m ligustica colonies collected from north of Jordan and 20 mitesfrom A.m syriaca colonies collected from two locations; one from south where the bees are kept in traditionalwooden hives and the second from the north in which bees are kept in a clay mode hives. These twotraditional apiaries were found to be closest to the historical samples collected by Brother Adam in 1952.Using specific oligo nucleotide primers CO1F.F and CO1N.R and the amplified products were sequenced usingBig Dye 2.0 end- terminal cycle sequencing and analyzed on an Applied Biosystems 3130 DNA analyzer.Sixteen varroa mites collected from several sites in Jordan were successfully sequenced and compared to thosefrom Algeria, Bolivia, South Korea, Vietnam, China, Japan, Nepal and Sri Lanka. All Jordanian samples werematches with Korean haplotype of V.destructor. This is the first analysis of V.destructor types in Jordanparasitizing on A.m.syriaca. Further collection within A.m.syriaca can help confirm that the mites in thissubspecies are as with A.m ligustica predominantly the Korean haplotype.
 
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity on health related quality of life. The population of this study consisted of Tehran city citizens that questionnaires distributed among 400 individuals that selected through sample random sampling. In this study, Physical activity was assessed using by Baecke et al (1982) and Health related quality of life assessed using by SF-36 (Ware et al, 1993).Pearson correlation test and verify the research hypotheses Regression multivariate (simultaneous and stepwise method) was used. The results indicate that physical activity have effect on men’s health related quality of life. Whereas, physical activity subscales haven’t effect on women’s health related quality of life.
 
Most of the medicines which are currently used were discovered by empirical synthesis. The chance of obtaining newer medicines increases through simulation studies in biological and chemical properties of the newly synthesized compounds. In this study we reported a convenient synthesis of (Z)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-oxo-3-(propylamino)pent-2- en-2-yl)-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione and evaluated this synthesized compound for cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.
 
The cyclic ether 1,4 dioxane is a carcinogenic, emerging micropollutant present in water and wastewater. The treatment methods are ineffective due to its high solubility (low Henrys law constant 5 x 10-6 atm m3/ mol) and also its heterocyclic structure (with two linear ethers). The present study was focused on biodegradation of 1,4 dioxane by a bacterial consortium enriched from 1,4 dioxane contaminated industrial sludge. The Bacterial consortium degraded 74% of 1,4 dioxane in 72 h. To enhance the biodegradation process, additional carbon substrates such as glucose, yeast extract and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were used. Among those carbon substrate, THF acts as a best substrate in accelerating the biodegradation process for complete degradation of 1,4 dioxane and also reducing the time taken for biodegradation. Yeast extract as additional substrate showed 92% of 1,4 dioxane degradation in 72 h whereas glucose showed 59% degradation in 72 h and also extended the time taken for complete degradation of 1,4 dioxane which was at 168 h. Further, the bacterial strains present in the consortium were identified as: bacterium enrichment culture clone strain AYS1 (JQ419749), Runella sp. AYS2 (JQ419750), Achromobacter sp. AYS3 (JQ419751), Marinobacter sp. AYS4 (JQ419752) and Rhodanobacter sp. AYS5 (JQ419753) using molecular techniques.
 
SH.Lorzadeh; Investigation efficiency of Krismat (75WG) herbicide on Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Var CP69-1062 fields of Khuzestan, Iran ABSTRACT In order to investigate the efficacy of Krismat (Trifloxysulforun sodium+Ametryn) herbicide on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) fields in Khuzestan province,Iran, Afield study was conducted during 2008-2009.The experiment was conducted in aRandomized Complete Block Design in 7 treatments with 4 replications. Trifloxysulforun sodium+Ametryn were applied to sugarcane variety of CP69-1062 at 2 and 2.5Kg.ha -1 of commercial formulation with a non ionic surfactant (Cytowet). Also other treatments included: 2,4D at 2.5 Lit .ha -1 +Cytowet, Glyphosate at 2.5Lit.ha -1 +Cytowet, Combination of 2,4D at 1.25 Lit.ha -1 +Ametryn at 1.25 Kg.ha -1 +Cytowet, Combination of 2,4D at1.25 Kg.ha -1 +Metribuzin at 1.25 Kg.ha -1 +Cytowet and control (untreated) was added to treatments.The total herbicide treatments at Post-emergence were applied. In during of growing season the different traits such as: purple nutsedge density at before and after herbicide application, purple nutsedge dry matter weight and in sugarcane the traits such as: plant height,middle internode ienght and diameter, stem density and stem weight were measured. The results showed that weed density and weed dry matter weight were decreased by Krismat herbicide application at 2Kg.ha-1 but this herbicide had no significant effect on traits such as: height, middle internode diameter,and stem density in sugarcane.
 
Recently, many studies have shown that gene polymorphism is related to osteoporosis. However, no studies have linked the association between IL11 gene polymorphism and bone mass in AIS. Methods: This study examined the association between bone mass and IL11 gene polymorphism in 198 girls with AIS between 07, 2011 till 08.2012 in the 5th hospital of Paris university. The polymorphisms of IL11-597 G→A, IL11-572 G→C and IL11-174 G→A and the bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck were analyzed and compared with their levels in healthy controls. The mean bone mineral density at both sites in patients with AIS was decreased compared with controls (p = 0.0012 and p = 0.0013, respectively). Comparison of genotype frequencies between AIS and healthy controls revealed a statistically significant difference in IL11-572 G→C polymorphism (p = 0.0302). There was a significant association between the IL11-572 G→C polymorphism and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine, with the CC genotype significantly higher with the GC (p = 0.0124) or GG (p = 0.0066) genotypes. These results suggest that the IL11-572 G→C polymorphism is associated with bone mineral density in the lumbar spine in Frence girls with AIS.
 
Perum Perhutani (Indonesian Forest Enterprise) improves the productivity of forest teak wood for construction through high genetic value namely Perhutani’s Teak Plus or Jati Plus Perhutani (JPP). This JPP clonal seed was planted at Perum Perhutani area in period of 2002 to 2007 by spacing arrangement 3 x 3 m. This research purpose was to determine the competition level of JPP clonal seed from at 6 to 11 years age in Madiun forest district. Competition zone level was determined based on 480 dominant trees selected from 16 good-performing growth and easy access compartments. Parameters measurement for this zone was at radius of four radii of crown projection and of widest crown height. High and distance between subject and neighbor trees were measured, diameter of subject and neighbor trees were used to calculate competitor trees using Hegyi's competition index method. Research result showed that angles 32.3°, 31.3°, 30.6°, 30.0°, 29.6° and 29.3° were proposed to determine competition zone level teaks of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 years old. Average competition index for 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 years old respectively were 0.148, 0.323, 0909, 0.537, 0.774 and 0.753. High value for 8 years old was related to more competitor’s trees.
 
This research studies the impact from free flow of 11 logistics service provider to overall equipment efficiency: OEE in beverage industrial sector in Thailand. The registered letters had been distributed to 293 factories. The analysis process had taken factor analysis for construct factors of free flow of 11 logistics service provider and OEE; in addition, multiple regression analysis had been taken for assessment the impact from free flow of 11 logistics service provider to OEE. Then, the results of 78 firms show that free flow of 11 logistics service provider can be explained by 1 factor; OEE can be explained by 2 factors. Next, the finding suggests that free flow of 11 logistics service provider improves OEE which greatly improve in availability and performance efficiency in term of machine operating time and machine speed. Later, this is an opportunity for logistics service providers should exceedingly develop the transfer service in the machine and tooling supply for which notably improve OEE in beverage manufacturing firms in Thailand.
 
Nowadays the important role of manpower in improuing of organizations in comparison with eaehothers is uncouer In this case the loyalty of manpower is adaptable with goals and values of organizations play important roles. In other word by focusing to the important role of orgnizatioual ethic in important facts like impressing and efficiency and imployees with high organizational ethic in the case of need are higher than limited duty in being service of organization and its goals. we try to survey meaning of the relations of organizational ethic with efficiency of imployees who works in branches of area 13 Islamic azad university. this survey with method of description _ correlation between imployees of branches of area 13 Islamic Azad university with a main and three sideway hypothesis have been adjusted for testing of this gustioneries consist of 40 guestions that have been designed. After reliability validity aveluetirg, guestioneries of organizational ethic with stability modulus /82 and efficiency guestionaries with stability modulus /85 with based of keranbakh Alfa have been calulated. guestionaries used for statictic sample that its numbers have been estimated 294 by kokeran formule and through random samplizing the classes of statictic society have been choosen. after gathering guestionares, data resulted from eliciting and classifying, have been done, then after analyzing gatherd information, statictic and elicitation values(r –testing pearson) have been used and at last by using fredman testing, set of each ranks with triple organizational ethic have been comparized with eachother(ego centric, benevolent and loyality to ethic). Result shows that there are positive relations between organizational ethic with efficiency of imployees of branches of area 13 Islamic Azad university. Although acording to ranking table each of organizational ethic, loyality to organizational ethic placed in first rank, in second rank benevolent and organizational egoc entric in third rank.
 
According to data shortage of the research literature, the purpose of the present study was determination of arm circumference, ankle circumference, elbow width and knee width of Iran's elite 13 to 17 years old male swimmers, who have 1st to 8th ranks in Iran. Fifty-two 13-17 years old male swimmers, who have 1st to 8th country ranks in various materials, were chosen purposefully and in access. Their arm circumference, ankle circumference, elbow width and knee width were measured, and mean and standard deviation were calculated. Arm circumference, ankle circumference, elbow width and knee width were calculated as 29.72±3.04 cm, 35.48±2.89 cm, 7.13±0.31 cm, 9.77±0.41 cm, respectively. The present results are some indices of Iran's elite swimmers and could be noticed by swimming talent exploration instructors. However, before an accurate conclusion, further studies, specifically with separation of various swimming materials, are required, because of data shortcoming in the literature.
 
The purpose of present paper is to estimate and evaluate the relationship between EPI and GDP. In this paper I have estimated a model for considering the relationship between EPI and GDP for Developed Countries in 2010 based on cross section analysis. Also I have tested Granger Causality Tests for 130 countries for considering Causality between EPI and GDP. Results indicate that the EPI does Granger Cause GDP and GDP does not Granger Cause EPI, and the EPI has a positive effect on GDP in developed countries.
 
This study presents a framework for text mining in systems management utilities to run on the 137 system for Tehran Municipality deals. Data needed for the investigation of the 30 recorded messages were collected on the 137 system. To identify the best model for text mining algorithms were used based on a system of 137 municipal experts and faculty. Many systems offer a simple prediction techniques are used. Another widely used technique is also called correlation-based methods. To explore what problems occur, the first way that comes to mind is using association rules. In this study, our aim is to get problems that occur together in a day in the winter. At this stage, the problem that we face is converting data into a format for many fields. Here we propose a way to use the a priori algorithm is a two stage process. The goal is too especially on a day to investigate problems that have occurred in the winter time, the issues with which are most likely to occur in winter. Data Analysis was done using MATLAB software, and Rapid Miner. The results of the analysis based on the problems of concurrency, most average problems linked to the 5 & 6 District 1. Major problems related to improper construction and non-construction of such principles, violation of privacy passages and crossings, as well as problems related to the park. On the other hand, the problems are related to each area of distribution. That's an area at a given date, there are many reports of problems.
 
Now a day's internet addiction is common problem that difines as abuse in computer and online informention.The present study aimed at exploring the internet addiction between students inIranshar Faculty of nursing and Midwifery.Thise analytical cross-section study was conducted on 355 students passing at least one term of his/her course in spring 2009 with metod census. a Yang standard internet addiction questionnaire applied for data gathering and after data entry was analyzed in 0/05 signification levels. the results showed that %57 light addiction and %30 intermedicate and intense addiction among students.Chi-square test was signification relationship between addiction by sex, train, years study.Since internet addiction can affected status inversely and occupation burnot,and reduces average score and education subsidence,endeavor for beneficial opportunities prevention is essential.
 
Europium behavior (Eu) and change of carbon isotopic composition in buried organic matter (sapropelites) in different areas of West-Siberian Plate are considered. During the analysis it was registered that two different geochemical parameters are independent of the depth of organic matter burial, and that there is parallelism of two different geochemical parameters changing in organic matter depending on the stages of its transformation in the Bazhenov Suite. Detailed consideration of these geochemical parameters changing within the stages of organic matter catagenesis is given. By the example of Eu behavior, its capability of migration with hydrocarbons of oil and gas in the bivalent form (Eu2+), an assumption is made about the possibility of similar processes in source rock masses. The data concerning this assumption are supported by the researches of high-molecular compositions of oil (tars, oils and pyrobitumens) studying changing of REE content (TR) in them and variations of REE content in different samples of fraction content of oil-and-gas-bearing deposits in Western Siberia. It should be mentioned that the obtained results concerning changing of europium (Eu) concentration, as an additional parameter, may appear to be the most important indicators of buried organic matter maturity, necessary for research and prognosis works.
 
This paper aims to investigate the relationship between Kolb’s learning styles and general self-efficacy of high school female students' in Tehran.The research method was corrletion. The participants were 374 high school female students' in Tehran and they were selected by multistage cluster random sampling. The instruments used for collecting data were Kolbs learning styles inventory and the sherers general selfefficacy scale. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation cofficient and stepwise regression analysis. The study results indicated that there is a significant and positive relationship between the converger learning style with the general self-efficacy of high school female students', while there is a negative and significant relationship between the general self-efficacy and diverger learning style of the high school female students'. also Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the diverger learning style was negative predictor of high school female students's general self-efficacy.
 
The main purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 14 days Beta-Alanin supplementation on the power of the non-aerobic, tiredness index and blood lactate in the recovery cycle and the maximal activity among the male athletes. For the reason, about 20 soccer players voluntarily were taken up that they were ranging from 24.1± 5.19 years old having 4.9 ±184.9cm height and 9.30± 76.80kg for the experimental group and 4.55±22.4 years old for the control group. These participants were asked to have an intense workout before 24h and try to prevent any eating and drinking with beta-alanin ingredients before 48h. The first session had carried out only whenthe players were never taken any supplementations. After the test, the whole participants were taken blood sampling about 6min later. Also they were re-taken blood sampling after 15min recovery. After passing two weeks and the consumption of Beta-Alanin supplementation, the blood sampling achieved again over the whole participants in two shifts. The results of the study were analyzed by the use of SPSS Software and covariance analysis test along with a dependent variable (pre and post tests) in sig level equaling alpha 0.05 representing that the consumption of the Beta-Alanin with 4.8g dose for 14 days did not have any effect on the non-aerobic power, tiredness index and blood lactate during the recovery cycle after a maximal activity. Hence, the present study was not significant statistically and its hypotheses were rejected concluding that the consumption of Beta-Alanin with 4.8g dose for 14 days cannot play a key role in removing lactate during the recovery cycle after a maximal activity. Also it did not have any effects on the non-aerobic power of the whole players.
 
Background: Gastric cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer in the world, and the performance of some miRNAs as oncogene and tumor suppressor in carcinogenesis has been recently on focus. Furthermore, SNPs in miRNA specifically mir-146aG>C have been under investigation and numerous studies have been reported the relationship between this polymorphism and its potential to become a tumor in many types of cancer, especially those related to the digestive system such as gastric and liver cancer. Materials and Methods:Mir-146aG>C polymorphism was genotyped in 100 blood samples including 50 patients suffered cancer and 50 healthy individuals, using PCR-RFLP method. Results: No statistical significant association was found for the miR-146a G/C genotypes with susceptibility to gastric cancer risk. Conclusion: In the present study demonstrate that the miR-146aG/C polymorphismwas not association with gastric cancer risk, at least in the sample size studied here.
 
The present article is devoted to answer this question: what would be the social consequences of constructing 15 Khordad sidewalks (12 district of Tehran Municipality)? And what alterations or modifications may be done in order to achieve the best aspect of it? This research has been done by descriptive research method in its path and the data were gathered through applied research method in its purpose. In the documentary section, all the documents involved have been taken into account, and 880 individuals are selected as a sample including: residents, customers, and active shopkeepers limited to the scope of the project and asked to fill the questionnaire. Some subjects including local managers and beneficiary organizations have been interviewed by accessible and purposive sampling method, the other groups of people snowball sampling. This research has been done by some instruments such as fishes, Researcher-made questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, and observation. The research findings indicates that the pavement though leads onto economic growth or increasing tourism and activity and expansion of leisure spaces, but at the same time, it causes conveyance of environmental pollution to the other places of the city and alteration of the identity of its neighbor regions. Finally, creation of loading bays, using furniture and historical elements of old Tehran and so on as public spaces will be proposed as mechanism for achieving to the research goals.
 
Organic contaminants from industrial and/or domestic effluents may be harmful to humans directly or indirectly by degrading the quality of the environment. Consequently these contaminants must be reduced to levels that are not harmful to humans and the environment before disposal. Among the available chemical methods heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation has been found particularly to be effective in removal of large number of persistent organics in water. Degradation of the organics was achieved by exposing synthetic effluents to UV light in a photocatalytic reactor in a dark compartment in the presence of catalyst. The degradation of RO16 was conducted at pH 5.5, 24 hr, 294 K and lamp power of 200 W. RO16 was prepared in 200 ml dye solution with concentrations of 20, 40 and 60 mg/L and the degradation took place in presence of TiO2 at concentrations of (0.5-4.0) g/L. While photolysis (in absence of TiO2) was found to have no effect on the degradation of RO16, photocatalysis (in presence of TiO2 catalyst) degraded the dye to 0.4 mg/L.
 
Mean variance of the subjects in different stages of the study
The purpose of the present research was to determine the effects of 8 weeks resistance training with submaximal intensity on Muscle Fitness in 16-18 Years Old Male Soccer Players. The research was quasiexperimental and the population consisted of all the 16-18 Years Old male soccer players. Twenty soccer players invited to a local team's camp in Minudasht were selected as sample. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups-one experimental groups and a control group (Experimental group: 17.19±0.73 years, 59.49 ± 9.82 kg, 171.50 ± 6.93cm; and the control group: 17.40 ± 0.42 years, 52.64± 4.41 kg, 170.10 ± 6.93 cm). The independent variables of the research were 8 weeks resistance training with submaximal intensity and the dependent variables were lower-body muscle endurance, maximum lower-body strength and abdominal muscle endurance. First, the subjects took the pretest, and then the experimental group performed the selected exercises along with technical soccer exercises, while the control group only performed the technical soccer exercises for 8 weeks. Finally, all the subjects took the posttest. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential (correlated t-test) statistics. The results showed that resistance training led to change in lower-body muscle endurance, maximum lower-body strength and abdominal muscle endurance. Thus, considering the results of the research, resistance training is probably effective for improving lower-body muscle endurance, maximum lower-body strength and abdominal muscle endurance in 16-18 Years Old male soccer players.
 
16S rRNA is a preserved biomolecule within a cell. The 16S rRNA gene sequences are used for bacterial identification, phylogeny and taxonomy. Sequencing data was analyzed and examined by sequencing the matching 16s rRNA regions of isolates from different part of prawn. Different biochemical tests definite isolates as Aeromonas hydrophila; those were designed and tested following PCR assays and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis by few online and offline method and computational tools. The result showed that method has useful for identification of Aeromonas species. Our experiment results emphasize the need to take into account the intragenomic diversity of the 16S rRNA gene, and must attend to potential risk and plan for prevention.
 
Colony of endophytic Streptomyces spp. isolated from rice plant grown in YSA media, after 10 days incubation (above), and microscopic of spores chain type of endophytic Streptomyces spp., with 400x magnification (below). A= IPBCC.b.14.1531, B= IPBCC.b.14.1532, C= IPBCC.b.14.1533, D= IPBCC.b.14.1534, E= IPBCC.b.14.1535, F= IPBCC.b.14.1536, G= IPBCC.b.13.1530. 
Percent similarity the sequences of a nifH gene from rice endophytic actinomycetes. 
Genetic relationships among partial nifH gene sequences of rice endophytic actinomycetes.
Production of ammonia from rice endophytic actinomycetes after incubation 10 days. B. japonicum as positive control and E. coli as negative control.
Indigenous actinomycetes are known to have high biodiversity and chance to acquire a novel species. Molecular identification and the role of rice endophytic actinomycetes need to be studied. The research aimed to identify endophytic actinomycetes from Indonesian rice plant based on 16S rRNA and nifH genes properties. DNA genome from the seven isolates of endophytic actinomycetes was isolated using Genomic DNA Mini Kit followed by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA and nifH genes. Indication of their nitrogen fixing activities was conducted based on their capability to grow in N-free medium, ammonia production, and presence of nifH gene. PCR products were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatics software to construct phylogenetic tree. An analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the seven isolates are most closely related to Streptomyces spp. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the six isolates were closed related with S. albolongus, S. cavourensis subsp. cavourensis, S. anulatus, and S. bungoensis with < 97% maximum identity, and another isolate was closed related with S. misionensis, with 99% maximum identity. Based on nifH gene sequences analysis, three isolates of endophytic actinomycetes showed that they were closely related to nifH from Herbaspirillum sp., the similarity was 93 to 99%. Data derived from the phylogenetic tree with p-distance analysis which showed diversity of genetic distances between three isolates of endophytic actinomycetes compared with Frankia sp., Rhizobium sp., L. ferrooxidans, also K. pneumonia, were about 18-28%, and more than 59% when compared with B. japonicum. Those differences indicated diversity of rice endophytic actinomycetes nifH gene. Based on in vitro assay, IPBCC.b.13.1530, IPBCC.b.14.1531, and IPBCC.b.14.1536 isolates were also capable to grow in N-free medium and produced 0.065 ppm, 0.014 ppm, and 0.076 ppm ammonia in N-free medium, respectively. The results indicated that the three isolates had promising role as a N2 fixing bacteria on rice plant.
 
Primers, annealing temperatures, restriction enzymes and the size of RFLP products for IL17A and F genotyping. 
Background: Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. The inflammatory response that occurs during the activation of immune responses in most solid tumors may led to tumor cell eradication from one side but help tumor growth from the other side. IL17 is the main cytokine secreted by Th17 cells. This cytokine promotes a localized tissue inflammation by releasing pro inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The association of gene polymorphism in IL17 A G197A (rs2275913) and IL17F A7488G (rs763780) with disorders such as stomach cancer and lung cancer have been reported.The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of these gene polymorphisms with breast cancer in the population of southern Iran. Material and Method: 192 patients and 215 healthy individuals as control participated in this case-control study. PCR-RFLP technique was used to determine the genotypes. The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS software package and the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium was assessed by the Arlequin 3.1. Results: The results indicated that there is no significant difference in the frequency of genotypes and alleles at position IL17 A G197A and IL17F A7488G in patients with breast cancer and the control group (Pv>0.05). Furthermore, we found no significant correlation between the frequency of genotypes and alleles with the clinicopathological factors in the patients. Conclusion: it seems that polymorphism in IL-17A and IL-17 F genes plays no important role in increasing the susceptibility of women to breast cancer in the population of southern Iran.
 
In many species of finfish, females exhibit higher growth rates than males and achieve larger sizes. In addition, in some species, males mature before reaching marketable size. Therefore, there is great interest from the fish farmers to produce all-female stocks. In this project tried to reversing the sex of rainbow trout larvae by 17β estradiol and direct method, further more finding the optimum dose of this natural estrogen for endocrine sex reversion of Rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Four experimental treatments were designed with doses of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kgf. Trout which treated with 40 mg/kgf yielded 96% female and greatest growth.
 
Studies of stress tolerance in marine organisms are key in considerate effects on larval survival. A change between environmental factors has been assumed the first mechanism restricting survival of larvae. Therefore, Zoea I and Zoea 2 larvae of P. pelagicus were exposed to various regimes of activity stress tests such as oxygen, starvation, pH, temperature, and salinity to examine larval competency against these factors. Larval performance was affected at extreme increase or by decreases in stress activity. In oxygen test, no survival achieved in treated groups. However, only some Zoea 2 survived in starvation test. Temperature 30°C did produce highest survival (p<0.05) and elevated temperature stress adversely affected larvae and no survival was achieved at temperature 40°C and 45°C respectively. Low pH 4, 6 and higher pH 10 did affect negatively, thus no survival of larvae, and only pH 8 did produce better survival (p<0.05). However, salinity greatly influenced the larval survival and only low survival 4.67±1.15% of Zoea 1 larvae and 5.33±1.53% of Zoea 2 determined at salinity 40 ppt was not significantly different (p>0.05). The significantly highest survival (p<0.05) of larvae was achieved in untreated groups (controls). The findings of this study indicate that the larval survival of P. pelagicus was compromised with certain level of stressor, elevated and low stressor had shown unfavourable effect on larval survival.
 
Parts of an organism are coordinated to form a functional whole. These are referred to as modules. Modules are units within a developmental system that are defined by their internal coherence and relative independence from other parts of the system. Butterfly wings are composed of compartments divided into several veins. These compartments have sets of genes that are correlated to serve the function of a wing either it’s the fore or the hind wing. In this study, developmental modules in the fore and hind wing of the Peacock Pansy butterfly (Junoniaalmana) was determined by analyzing seven priori models using the MINT software. A total of 195 points were used to trace and outline the margins of the wings as well as the major veins. The test was conducted based on a Wishart/Monte Carlo test on a total of 1,000 replicates. Different pattern of developmental modules were found indicating the presence of sexual dimorphism and variations caused by factors of modularity. Results also suggest that the compartments of the wings are autonomous unit of morphological variation and that they correspond to distinct cell lineages and domains of gene expression.
 
Tripneustesgratillais known throughout the Philippines because of its economic importance. Its population has been said to decline significantly due to over-extraction and unregulated harvesting. This study aims to assess the abundance of T. gratillaon the “no take” zone (site A) and open-access area (site B) of Binuni, Bacolod, Lanao del Norte using belt-transectmethod. Correlation between physico-chemical parameters and species abundance was determined using Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Only the third quadrats (101-150 meters away from the shoreline) of site B were inhabited by T. gratilla. A total of 825 individuals were counted, mostly juveniles, with an average density of 6individuals/m ² . Complete sun exposure during low tide and lack of seagrass bed were seen as factors for its absence in site A and in the first and second quadrats (up to 100 meters off-shore) of site B. Furthermore, water temperature and soil temperature were influential factors to the presence and abundance of T. gratilla. The abundance of T. gratilla in site Bis an indicator that sea urchin spawning on this part of the coast is occurring. Moreover, seagrass bed and Sargassum observed on this site makes it ideal for grow-out culture of the said species. It is recommended that establishment of grow-out cultures should be carried out in the open-access area to also promote strict conservation of mangroves in the “no-take” zone.
 
Background: Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) is defined as chemical compounds in which naturally or synthetically occurring in environment that can cause endocrine disruption. Recent occurrence of EDCs is emerging environmental issue that arising in global public concerns. 17a-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is one of the synthetic compounds that recognised as EDCs. Its stability and persistent molecular structure can lead to longer half-life, which indicating that the low degradable rate in natural environment. Thus, this research was important to conduct as this compound may alter the environmental health especially for aquatic life. Objective: The research objectives were (a) to determine and quantify synthetic estrogens (17a-ethinylestradiol); and (b) to investigate the influences of present selective water quality analysis (WQA) on the occurrence and concentration of EE2. Results:The range of the EE2 occurrence were <LOD- 30.89 ng/L. The highest concentration of EE2 occurred in Taipan area, Inanam, meanwhile most of the stations showed < LOD occurrence of EE2. Through the correlation statistical analysis, turbidity (r=0.975, P=0.0052), TSS (r=0.794, P=0.0545), BOD (r=0.801, P=0.052), AN (r=0.753, P=0.071) and DO (r=-0.917, P=0.014) are the main contributors and the most influencing criteria on EE2 occurrence.
 
Background: Cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules are important factors determining the outcome of transplantation. Since host immune response to the transplanted organs may be affected by cytokine and co-stimulatory molecules single nucleotide gene polymorphisms [SNPs), the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of IL-18 and CD40 SNPs in outcome of kidney transplantation in Iranian patients. Objective: A total of 240 kidney transplant recipients were included in this study consisted of 79 acutely rejected (AR group) and 161 non-acutely rejected (Non- AR group) patients. Allele and genotype frequencies of IL-18 (rs1946519) and CD40 (rs1883832) SNPs were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results: There was no significant association between IL-18 and CD40 SNPs and acute kidney allograft rejection. Also, after grouping the kidney recipients according to living and cadaver donors, we did not find significant association between these SNPs and acute kidney allograft rejection. In addition, after categorization of recipients according to their gender, no significant association between these SNPs and kidney rejection was seen. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no correlation between genotype and allele frequencies of IL-18 (rs1946519) and CD40 (rs1883832) SNPs and outcome of kidney transplantation in Iranian population.
 
In this study the performance of slots as a way to reduce the scouring around the installed flat spur dike in a 180 degree bend has been evaluated and development of scouring in slotted spur dike was compared with spur dike with no slot. To evaluate the effect of slot position to spur dike tip on the development of scouring around it, a flat spur dike made of Plax glass was installed in a position of 70 degree at 180 degree bend in the flume. After determining the maximum of scouring depth at tip, to reduce the scouring caused by secondary and eddy flows around the spur dike, a slot with a fixed height was placed in four different positions in spur dike. Experiments with four different discharges and constant flow depth in clear water conditions were conducted. The results of the experiments showed that creating slot reduces the scouring depth toward the spur dike with no slot and the effects of slot in reducing the scouring in different models is variable between 16 to 69 percent. The minimum of scouring depth was seen in a model with closest position of slot toward tip, and its maximum was seen in a model with farthest position of the slot.
 
Scales have numerous hidden details in their structures that contribute effectively to fish identification and classification. A traditional approach has been made to study the scale morphology of the Indian goatfish Parupeneus indicus using a stereomicroscope in tandem with a 12.2 megapixel Samsung ST500 digital camera in which digitized images were processed using Adobe Photoshop CS4 Extended software. Two specimens of fish sample of both sexes were described qualitatively and observed quantitatively. Thirty scales in every region were obtained for description and comparison. In describing the scales, several distinguishable characteristics were considered such as the type of the scale, overall scale shape, scale size, the shape of the posterior margin group of ctenii square, the position of the focus, circuli appearance, and the type of radii. Results of the study revealed that there are significant variations of shapes observed between male and female species. The presence of disrupted circuli, the same type of radii existing in each body regions in both sexes of the fish cannot be used to establish sexual dimorphism in P. indicus due to their similarities. The existence of an oblong scale shape is unique to males and that of a cycloid shape unique to females. Also, the variation of other scale shapes in region G where male has rectangular while female has triangular shapes but both have square scale shape and in region J where male has rectangular shape while female has square shape but both have triangular shape. Thus, these are significant indicator of sexual dimorphism between the sexes of P. indicus.
 
This study was conducted to determine shape differences in the mandible among the workers of the eusocial ant Odontomachus. The mandible is used by the ant to kill or maim preys to be brought to the nest or simply lock and snap its jaws if one bite is not enough, or to cut off bits of larger food. The mandibles also permit slow and fine movements for other tasks such as nest building and care of larvae. Because of the so many functions of the mandible, changes in its morphology may differ within and between species thus this study was conducted. Morphological wear could occur in the mandibles which can be quantitatively measured using imaging, shape geometry and multivariate statistical tools. In this study a comparison was made between workers of the three species. A total of 30 worker ants per species were examined where the outlines of the left and right mandibles were digitized and the coordinates were subjected to Elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA). The resultant shape variables were then analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the shape variations described for the three species. Results showed no continuous allometric size variation, but significant shape differences were found between the mandibles of the three Odontomachus species which can be correlated to their morphological functions and constraints.
 
Map of the approximate sampling location M. cancellatus catch largely in brackishial intersections of Tagoloan River, Misamis Oriental.
Traditional morphometric measurement (in mm) references.
Summary of variants of the realtive warp analysis from both sexes of M. Cancellatus.
Sexual dimorphism and morphology are inevitable key for a sucessful fish culture of the protandic fish Mesopristescancellatus. With the use of geometric and morphometric tools, phenotypic relationship between male and female sexes were identified to describe evident variation in the overall body shapes. Relative warp analysis of procrustes-fited coordinates show variations between sexes was oberved to be within the range of the mean shapes. A total of 68.79% explained variance from warp analysis is associated with the body depths and the length of the abdomen, the position of the eye and the distance of the eye to the pectoral fins. Major shifts of the shape transformation are projected longitudinally with relative constrictions towards the anterior portion of the body. The morphometric references shows a linear relationship and direct proportionality ralated to the length of samples. Generally males have highly-fit shapes while females greatly vary and particularly observed in the abdominal area which may explain the results of the discriminant analysis that revealed 85.54% correct classification. This study has shown the importance of the tools of geometric morphometrics specifically relative warp analysis in describing quanitatively and understanding the nature of variation in the shape of the fish body.
 
This study aimed to determine morphological variation within and between two populations of S.woodiana (Lea, 1834) from Lake Lanao, Marantao and Lawis stream, Iligan City using elliptic Fourier analysis. Results showed morphological divergence between the two populations. The MANOVA/ CVA resulted to the rejection of allometry as the cause of variations between the two populations. The observed differentiation may reflect some underlying genetic basis. There was considerable difference in the distribution of the CVA scores between the two sites which is suggestive of varying selection pressure on the populations.
 
Localization of National Park of El Kala [15].
Sample sites in Righia (Photos Taken by Boukheroufa, 2013).
Comparison by sex, of morphometric parameters at Atelerix algirus.
Background: Reproduction phenology of hibernant or potentially hibernant species has always intrigued many scientists. Indeed, their capacity to decrease their activity during winter (heart rate, respiratory, digestive ...), or to trigger reproductive cycle (ovulation and spermatogenesis) during spring period, make the species, including Micro mammals, a favorite models in ecophysiology studies. Objective: Our study aims to identify and analyze some indicators testifying the onset of breeding season at Atelerix algirus in a semi urban area of National Parc of El Kala. Results: The results showed that Males are more abundant than females during the spring period, the morphometric parameters of males, specially the body weight, are higher than females and the tissular observation of gonads reveals an intense sexual activity. Conclusion: the analyzed indicators confirm the triggering of breeding season.
 
Analysis of ectoparasites rates.
Background: Parasites are ubiquitous in the biology of host components, and must therefore be sampled to analyze interspecific as well as other aspects of their natural history relationships, both hosts of parasites themselves. Objective: This study has focused on the ecology of ectoparasitic of Algerian hedgehog at the mountains of Edough, through sampling of host specimens and collection of ectoparasites for their identification and quantification. Results: The results showed that the 54 ectoparasites collected are divided into 25 ticks and 29 fleas. Taxonomic identification of ticks allowed us to distinguish Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus bursa and Ixodes ricinus. The identification of fleas allowed us to distinguish Archaeopsylla erinacei. The parasite rates also calculated determine the predominance of Archaeopsylla erinacei. Conclusion: The diversity and abundance of ecotparasites of Algerian hedgehog are highly dependent on climate, vegetation and lifestyle of the host species.
 
This study focuses on the Malay stories collection which were found at KITLV (Koninklij Instituut Voor de Taal-Lan-en Volkenkunde or well known as the Institute of Royal Linguistic and East Hindia Dutch Anthropology) and the manuscripts at the main library in Leiden, Netherland. The study examines Malay stories collection from the perspective of community. The methodology uses the psychological approach by Maslow. Maslow stresses several principles like physiological need, guaranteed safety, love, self appreciation and self perfection. The results of the study showed that traditional Malay stories community whether concious or unconscious incorporated the psychological elements in the stories. Thus, it showed that human has distinctive needs in continuity of life.
 
The tropical oyster Crassostreairedalei (Faustino 1932) was successfully cultured in west coastal area of Peninsular Malaysia. It was spawned in hatchery and the larvae were reared to setting. But there was no documented information regarding to the early development of C. iredalei larvae in Malaysia. Thus, this research will describe the embryology and larval development of tropical oyster in the hatchery. The size of unfertilized eggs averaged 44.71±1.80μm. First polar body was observed at 3 min after fertilization followed by second polar body and meiosis up to 20 min. Embryos developed into morula after 2-3 h and swimming blastula after 3-5 h. Trochophore larvae seen at 16-18 h. The larvae grew through veliger, umbo, eye-spot and pediveliger stages in the planktonic phase about 2 weeks before settling as plantigrade and metamorphosing to spat on a suitable substratum. Spatfall began on day 16 and continued until day 21. The linear relationship between shell length and shell height in larvae is given by y= 1.2217x – 7.374, R ² = 0.939 and growth of the larvae is linear. This study will contributevaluable knowledge needed for aquaculture to optimize larval rearing conditions and spat production in hatchery.
 
This study aims to experts' evaluation of Iran sports heads performance in terms of financial development, sport playgrounds development, public sport development and medals wining during 1978- 2013. Research methodology is a mixed method (descriptive and qualitative). A questionnaire was used with content reliability approved by the group of experts. In the quantitative part descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentiles as well as inferential statistical methods were used. In inferential statistics, quantitative Likert scale to transform the opinion of the repliers from qualitative to quantitative and normalizing observations. One-sample non-parametric statistical sign test method and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance was used. Statistical population in qualitative section consists of Iran sports heads. Statistical population in survey consists of sport department heads and staff, journalists and sports professors. 225 subjects have been selected according to Morgan formula using stratified sampling method correspondent to the volume. The Kolmogorov - Smirnov test was used to determine the normality of variables. Results showed that there is a significant difference in the evaluation of Iran sports heads performance in terms of financial development, sport playgrounds development, public sport development and medals wining during 1978- 2013.
 
Background: Population increase and its impact on natural ecosystem may lead to land use change and destruction of nature. Consequently, evaluation of the land use changes gives us an opportunity to plan and to manage the lands in order to reduce the destruction effects of the exploitation of the lands. Hence, detection and evaluation of the changes can be performed by remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) with the least cost and time. Satellite images with their high spectral and spatial resolution as well as having various image processing techniques are able to estimate the lands use changes and to manage them. This study was an attempt to evaluate the percentage of the ground's coverage and the land use changes in Qazvin plain during the period of 1987 to 2002. For this purpose, the map of Qazvin plain's land use (during 1987 to 2002 years) with the supervised classification method and algorithm of maximum similarity likelihood was provided by using TM and ETM+ satellite images and geometric atmospheric error correction as well as choosing the best combination band. The accuracy of the map was computed by utilizing overall accuracy test and Kappa statistic. The result indicated that the rate of variability of the orchard increased from 16 to 21 percent, irrigated cultivation increased from 17 to 27 percent and the salt marsh increased from 24 to 26 percent. On the other hand, two decreases from 19 to 9 percent and 24 to 15 percent were reported for dry and arid lands respectively. According to the obtained results it can be concluded that the dominant trend of the land use change has been positive in the period. The produced maps were investigated by control points in the field and previous studies in order to evaluate the accuracy of the classification results. The Kappa coefficient of the maps from ETM+ and TM images was calculated 80 and 77 percent respectively.
 
Convention on the rights of the child 1989(CRC)is from the most important and general documents which has been approved so far in the field of supporting the children. This document has a special significance due to the numerous member countries and has created many commitments for the governments, so, it can be considered from the most acceptable documents in the field of child’s rights. In this paper, the stages of forming the convention have been considered and it has been tried to indicate its strengths and problems as far as possible. The main subject of the discussion is to analyze the articles of the convention and comparing it with the laws of Iran.
 
Objective: One of the objectives of economic policy makers in the distribution of funds is to push banking resources and funds toward productive activities in order to increase investment. Therefore, evaluating the impact of lending interest rates and loan balance in the Iranian economy is of particular importance. Materials and Methods: This study estimates the investment function using the VAR method and time series data for the period 1991 to 2012 in the Iranian economy with the following variables: GDP, loan balance by the public sector, loan balance by the private sector, real interest rates of the unofficial market, and weighted average interest rate. Results: The results show that real interest rates for bank loans to those who have applied for a loan is lower than market rates. Therefore, the optimal allocation of unrequited loan balance and its impact on this sector’s investment is very low. Interest rates for loans and interest rates for deposit accounts in our country do not follow the factors affecting expected interest rates. With a look at the unofficial money market, a lack of coordination is quite evident between lending interest rates and in deposit interest rates on the one hand and interest rates expected by the market on the other. This is because interest rates of the unofficial market have a high variation range. The effects of bank lending to the public sector are insignificant, with a near-zero coefficient. Conclusion: In fact, it shows that bank lending to the public sector does not lead to increased investment. Therefore, according to estimated model, it can be said that an increased volume of bank lending to the private sector increases investment. However, weighted average interest rate does not have a significant effect on investment. In this sense, the lowering of interest rates cannot increase investment. Rather, financial liberalization followed by the destruction of credit rationing and the increase of credit volume increases investment.
 
Results of dependent t-test for comparing the height of girls in 1998 and 2012 
Results of single-sample t-test for comparing the weight of girls in 1998 and 2012
Background: Developmental changes over time could be considered as the physical growth of children of a society during different generations (Simsek and et al, 2005). In this regard, the growth changes during time actually include increase of height, and weight during childhood, adolescence and decreasing the puberty age (Malina, 2004). The fundamental mechanism of developmental changes over time is not fully discovered, but the process of growth during time is considered as one of the important indicators of health in societies. Evaluating these processes could be an appropriate indicator for studying different dimensions of developmental changes in generations and also studying the relation between these changes and the environmental factors such as health condition, economic condition and social condition of the society (Simsek, 2005; Malina, 2004). Objective: In the current study in order to study the height and weight of rural children under 6 over time, the research conducted on the rural children of Gorgan city in 1998 was used as a reference. In the research conducted in 1998, the height and weight of rural children less than 6 years old were used as the children's growth indicators the same as the mentioned instructions. Results: Results of single-sample t-test are shown in table 1, and it shows that the height of 6 month-old girls in 2012 is more than the height of girls in 1998 Conclusion: The socioeconomic status of the child's family is an important factor in growth and development of the child and it affects its development.
 
Background: The aim of this study is to highlight the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis surgical cases in Ilam district, west of Iran during a 13 year period (1999 to 2012). Methods: All patients who had went under CE surgery in Imam Khomeini hospital of Ilam (as a referral center), were enrolled as participants in the study. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected for each patient. Results: During the period of study, A total of 51 patients were operated for hydatidosis. The average age of patients was 17.24 ± 40.29 years (range: 12-76 years) with the most of them being 20-30 year olds (18.7% of the cases). The infection rate was higher in females (33, 64.7%) than males (18, 35.3%). The liver was the most frequently infected organ (92.2%). 49 (96%) of patients had a single organ CE cyst while four percent showed multi-organ involvement. The average hospitalization time was 5 days. The majority (51%) of all cases were from urban residents. Conclusion: The relatively high frequency of cystic echinococcosis in the studied region was largely due to the natural transmission of the parasite resulted from the lack of control and prevention strategies. The public health authorities should promote public knowledge regarding prevention and control methods of disease through mass media such as brochures and radio programs.
 
Background: Indoor air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2) have been known to pose great risks to the human respiratory system. A slight airway inflammatory response in the adult might produce a potentially significant obstruction in the airway of a preschool child. The main objective of this study is to determine the association between indoor air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, and NO2) and airway inflammation among preschool children. A cross sectional comparative study was conducted among healthy preschool children selected from 3 preschools in industrial (n=62) and 3 preschools in sub-urban (n=62) areas. Questionnaires were used to determine reported respiratory symptoms among respondents. Indoor exposures to PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 in classes were measured using DustTrak DRX Aerosol Monitor and LaMotte Air Sampler. Meanwhile, Fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) was measured using NIOX MINO device. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in measurements of indoor air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2) between both study areas. Concentration of indoor PM10 [87.00 (59.00) μg/m3], PM2.5 [75.0 (47.0) μg/m3] and NO2 [0.14 (0.14) ppm] in preschools at the industrial area were significantly higher than the preschools at the sub-urban area (Z=-8.517, p=0.001). A significant difference (p<0.05) was found in measurements between the two areas. Indoor PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 were found to be significantly associated with the concentration levels of Fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) measured in both areas (p<0.05). Preschool children living near an industrial area are highly exposed to indoor air pollutants as compared to those in the sub-urban area. Exposure to indoor PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 were associated with concentration levels of Fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide in both areas. Therefore, it was suggested that greater exposure to PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 may increase the chances of airway inflammation occurrences among those exposed.
 
Deficit irrigation is an optimum technique for producing products under drought stress that is with decrease of products per area and increase of them with extent of area. Given the large share of water use in the agriculture sector and very low efficiencies in this sector, selection and development of the new strategies to improve and optimize irrigation water use with significant savings in this sector is essential. The usage of deficit irrigation and Superabsorbent polymers are the useful strategies in this regard. This research was planned in order to study the effect of drought stress and different levels of Superabsorbent (super AB and A 200) and their effect on water use efficiency (WUE) and yield response factor (Ky). The experimental site was an agricultural land with sandy soil in Hamidieh region near Ahwaz city. In this study, 3 different depths of irrigation were considered as the main treatment I1, I2, I3 as 100, 75 and 50 percent of water requirement of plants respectively and different levels of Superabsorbent were used as secondary treatment (S0, S1, S2 and S3, equal to 0 (control), 15, 30 and 45 gr/m2 respectively). According to the results, independent effect of irrigation and Superabsorbent treatments at 1% level and interaction between them at 1% level on WUE of corn were significant. I1S3 treatment had the most WUE amount (16.18 kg/ha.mm) and I3S0 treatment had the least WUE amount (6.48 kg/ha.mm). Also, by using of Superabsorbent, variations of the relative yield decrease toward variations of the relative evapotranspiration deficit had low correlation and achieved points had low R2.
 
Top-cited authors
Shah Jahan Leghari 贾南
  • China Agricultural University
Ghulam Mustafa Laghari
  • Sindh Agriculture University
Abdul Hafeez Laghari
  • Government Boys Degree College Sakrand, Nawabshah
Tofique Ahmed
  • Sindh Agriculture University
Niaz Ahmed Wahocho
  • Sindh Agriculture University