Adult Education Quarterly

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 0741-7136
Publications
Personal change. Photo © Alice Hardy, 2004. Reprinted with permission. 
Historical and cultural roots. Photo © Bobbie Hill, 2005. Reprinted with permission. 
Family and community. Photo © Alice Hardy, 2004. Reprinted with permission. 
Article
As change agents in the community, community health advisors (CHAs) are a viable solution to bridge the gap between health service delivery systems and the community. With many CHAs members of the underserved and minority populations they serve, change and empowerment experienced by CHAs should be documented. This phenomenological study describes the empowerment change processes of 30 African American CHAs who participated in focus groups that used photovoice, and were part of a breast and cervical cancer health promotion program in Mississippi and Alabama. Using photos and narratives as primary research methods, these CHAs gave voice to an often-overlooked resource in the improvement of vulnerable populations in the education and promotion of the community's health.
 
Article
Discusses functional differences between andragogy and pedagogy. Andragogy refers to situations where an adult teacher accompanies and assists an adult learner to an enriched adulthood, while pedagogy refers to situations where an adult teacher accompanies and assists a child learner so that he/she may become an adult. Differences in the participants and the aims of pedagogy and andragogy are highlighted. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Argues that world view construction can be supported by educational activities. It is maintained that exposure to different world views through the discussion of themes selected by learners can stimulate and reorient their thinking and help them become better equipped to pursue the fundamental human quest for meaning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Conducted a content analysis of 1,462 written responses provided by 359 adult learners explaining their rationales for preferring differing learning interaction patterns. The learners were 281 students (mean age 34.8 yrs) enrolled in professional coursework for graduate or continuing education credit and 165 students over 60 yrs old attending undergraduate and graduate courses on a noncredit basis. Eight major response categories emerged, such as the following: (1) the instructor should possess knowledge that the student does not, (2) the instructor should be authoritative, (3) students need structure, and (4) student involvement should meet student needs. The rationales found were compared to rationales suggested in the adult education literature. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the value of using personal documents such as diaries, case histories, eye-witness accounts, autobiographies, and memoirs as means for the systematic uncovering of human behavior. The concepts of validity, reliability, and generalizability and their applicability to research involving documentary data sources are examined. (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Argues that (1) a substantial number of individuals, usually later in life, well-educated, and with basic needs met, are motivated by higher needs of self-actualization and self-transcendence and (2) self-transcendence should be a vital purpose of adult education. The various purposes followed by most adult educators are reviewed to illustrate that the transcendent nature and needs of humankind are not addressed by adult education theory or practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Conceptualizes adult education (AE) as those activities designed to assist adults in their question for a sense of control in their own lives, within their interpersonal relationships, and with regard to the social forms and structures within which they live. Six principles of critical practice in AE are identified: (1) voluntary participation; (2) respect for self-worth; (3) collaboration; (4) praxis; (5) fostering of a spirit of critical reflection; and (6) an aim of nurturing self-directed, empowered adults. (60 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the process of educational therapy, a learning experience that allows the student and teacher to explore the student's negative self-images about learning ability and to reformulate the instructional interaction into more functional and productive learning experiences. It is suggested that, when learning problems are overcome, the successful client will experience an enhanced personal view of self, making the amelioration of related psychological and social difficulties more attainable. The case of a 40-yr-old functionally illiterate man is presented to illustrate the 4 phases of educational therapy: The exploration phase consists of a full-scale educational evaluation and interview. Experimentation consists of a series of distinct, measurable learning units in which the client can engage. The reflection phase involves the interpretation of conflict, and the working-through phase shifts the focus from awareness of issues that emerge during educational therapy to an integration of adjusted self-image into current thought and action. A strictly sequential development through these 4 phases is not necessary: clients may move in and out of phases as learning develops and new insights emerge. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Refutes R. Brockett's (see record 1986-22929-001) comments concerning the author's (see record 1985-29178-001) paradigm of self-directed learning and asserts that, while the 2 authors have disparate views, both are disturbed at the creeping orthodoxy that threatens to exercise a conceptual stranglehold on research and theoretical speculation in the field of self-directed learning. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents vignettes illustrating the shifting beliefs, values and behaviors of adolescents in different cultures. The contributions of teachers in guiding students across thresholds to exotic "tribes" (i.e., adulthood) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the work of J. Mezirow (published 1953–1985), which focused in the 1940s on youth work and community development and on the ways people understand their world and the possibilities open to them to effect social change, and later on a theory of adult development. The essence of this latter theory is that adulthood involves movement along a "maturity gradient." Mezirow developed ideas through studies of adult education. Some problems in Mezirow's theory are discussed, and it is concluded that his claim to have a theory is premature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Suggests that learning is the transformation of experience into knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Potential learning experiences can be natural or artificially created, apprehended by one or any combination of the senses, the process of thought itself, a specific situation or abstract ideas, and meaningful or meaningless. It is also suggested that the learning that results from and the meaning that is attributed to experience depends on the interrelationship between a personal stock of knowledge and the socio-cultural-temporal milieu within which the experience occurs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/67445/2/10.1177_074171365900900215.pdf
 
Article
From 1910 to 1935 a campaign was waged in the southern United States to eradicate adult illiteracy. This program was primarily based on volunteers, and it revolved around night, summer, or cotton mill schools that were often termed Opportunity Schools. Many parallels can be drawn to current efforts to address the problem of functional illiteracy among adults living in rural areas. These parallels can be readily illustrated by a comparison of the Alabama literacy campaign, which lasted from approximately 1915 to 1935, and current efforts to reduce functional illiteracy in rural Clay and Jackson counties in Tennessee. Like its counterpart in the early 20th century, the Tennessee campaign is one in which the scope of the problem far exceeds the resources committed to the problem. A second element of commonality between the two campaigns rests in the realm of the commitment and almost evangelical zeal of those providing financial support for and volunteering to tutor in the programs. It would seem, however, that as long as the reduction of adult illiteracy remains a peripheral enterprise rather than a central mission of the educational system, efforts to eliminate adult illiteracy will remain in the last two decades of the 20th century what they became in the first two decades--a lofty goal beyond the grasp of those who sought to reach it. (MN)
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/67658/2/10.1177_074171365100200110.pdf
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68255/2/10.1177_074171365900900217.pdf
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/67300/2/10.1177_074171366901900212.pdf
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68184/2/10.1177_074171367002000407.pdf
 
Article
A study was conducted to identify the major areas of investigation in recent Canadian adult education literature. During the study, questionnaires were distributed to 216 adult educators located at 32 postsecondary educational institutions throughout Canada. Materials including 556 articles, books, reports, and proceedings papers were identified. The adult learner was the focus of most of the papers, as evidenced by their titles; other approaches that received frequent attention in the literature examined were teaching methods and conditions for learning. Examination of the relative percentages of publications on various topics revealed that 32 percent of books and proceedings published dealt with adult education in general, 23 percent were concerned with continuing and extension education, 14 percent dealt with education, and 6 percent dealt with counseling and psychology. Other topics included higher education, vocational education, community development, distance education, and literacy and adult basic education. (Appended to this study are a brief thesaurus of adult education synonyms, a list of Canadian adult education authors, and a list of postsecondary sponsors of adult education. The bulk of this report comprises a bibliography of periodical articles, proceedings papers, reports, and books identified in the study.) (MN)
 
Article
In 2008, the Commission of Professors of Adult Education approved and published Standards for Graduate Programs in Adult Education, an update of the 1986 Standards. Using the program websites of the 37 North American programs ascertained to have doctoral programs in the field, this study evaluated all programs’ course descriptions for compliance with the nine “core topical areas” recommended for doctoral programs. Three evaluators (one new adult education PhD, one emeritus professor of adult education, and a professional evaluator and statistician with no background in adult education) found that collectively the 37 programs met 65.8% of standards by having courses which included the topical areas, with a 95.8% agreement among raters after discussion following independent assessments. All programs met at least two standards, but only two met all nine. Aggregate compliance data and implications for curricular review and development are presented.
 
Article
This exploration of the growing field of literacy voluntarism encompasses the literature, history, trends, and issues of the volunteer role in literacy programs. The majority of the literature is characterized as descriptive and program specific; the research is found to lack definition and theoretical foundation. The literature also reflects differing opinions on ideologies, professionalization of volunteers, methodology, and effectiveness. An overview of current delivery systems focuses on two national organizations--Literacy Volunteers of America and Laubach Literacy Action, the limited use of volunteers in adult basic education programs, the National Adult Literacy Initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education, the role of public libraries, and the Coalition for Literacy. The next section attempts to characterize literacy volunteer programs by (1) describing a dichotomy of individually oriented and community-oriented programs; (2) elaborating a four-part model--mass literacy through existing structures, literacy for immediate needs, movement-directed literacy, and literacy for political action; (3) listing six criteria for community-based literacy education; and (4) synthesizing these typologies into five variables--purpose, scope, organizational setting, professionalism, and finance. Specific programs illustrating each of these facets are then described. The next section addresses administrative concerns and policy considerations. These issues are discussed in terms of the five variables. A concluding section lists six common assumptions about literacy voluntarism and recommends further research to improve policy and practice. A reference list and bibliography are included. (SK)
 
Article
A study examined the effects of participation in Adult Basic Education (ABE) on quality of life. To gather data for the study, researchers mailed packages of questionnaires to the supervisors of 89 ABE programs that served 2,225 students throughout Tennessee. Packages of completed survey instruments were returned from 72 of these programs, thus providing data concerning 1,623 ABE students from the potential sample. Based on an analysis of the completed survey instruments, it was concluded that ABE is having a positive impact on the quality of life of the individuals participating in it. ABE program participation was perceived as having a positive effect on the individual in terms of self-expression, self-concept, family life, leisure, relationships with others, life in general, and the individual's function as a member of society. Males, older males, and those who have been in the program longest tended to be more positive than did other groups regarding the impact of ABE in improving quality of life. Since data indicated that older adults are more positive in their perceptions concerning the variables measured, it was recommended that ABE teachers and administrators review their curricula to see if the needs of young adults are being met. (MN)
 
Article
A holistic organizational structure that encourages faculty involvement in pursuit of excellence is critical to the future of higher education. At the same time, the mainstreaming of continuing professional education, while vital to institutional growth, must address the development of academic integrity in that field. (SK)
 
Article
The ACT College Outcomes Survey was used with a national sample of approximately 28,000 undergraduate students to evaluate the effects of the college environment on academic and intellectual development and to contrast the outcomes for adult learners with those of younger students. Adult and younger students were also compared regarding their involvement and participation in the college environment and a factor analysis was used to identify broad outcome themes deemed important by the adults. The findings show adults were much less involved than younger students in campus activities and much more involved in caring for their families. Despite this lower level of involvement in the college environment, adults reported slightly higher levels of growth than did younger students on most academic and intellectual items. The factor analysis of index scores resulted in five broad intellectual and academic themes including: broadening one's intellectual interests, critical thinking skills, enhancing study skills, career development, and understanding and applying science and technology.
 
Article
This art-informed, reflexive, autobiographical inquiry explores the struggles of a feminist academic committed to transformative adult education and subsistence learning, while engaged in program planning for fire service education. The author chronicles how her approach within the applied practice in a traditional, male dominant workplace setting is shaped by her rural Canadian heritage, the move from an isolated rural location to an urban setting followed by academic research in motherwork as a site of adult learning. By looking for day-to-day opportunities to promote equity, increased tolerance and mutual respect, the author describes the struggles and joys of her lived experience within a workplace where oppression is prominent, while seeking to contribute to the transformation of societal structures that create barriers, exclude or oppress.
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/66470/2/10.1177_074171366001000405.pdf
 
Article
In the years following World War II, American colleges and universities experienced unprecedented growth due to the numbers of returning veterans who, aided by the G.I. Bills, flocked to higher education. Administrators at all levels prepared for the new students with great apprehension. They experimented with new formats and approaches which would ease their way. This paper examines the development of testing and evaluation procedures during this period. In particular, it examines some of the assumptions associated with evaluation techniques and the assumptions connected to their widespread acceptance. In addition, it raises questions about the nature of the precedent set by these reforms and their importance to present-day adult education.
 
Article
Gaining proficiency in the host country language is a key element to successful integration of new immigrants. In this article, the author adopts Bourdieu’s perspective that accumulation and conversion of forms of capital is only possible through practice in a social field; therefore, the author puts forward the idea that language capital acquisition occurs through active participation in the host society. By employing data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada, this article demonstrates the variability in premigration language capital among recent adult immigrants to Canada and the effect of premigration language capital and individual factors on language proficiency gains over 4 years of arrival. The study examines opportunities for language acquisition through formal and informal learning and demonstrates that vulnerable groups, such as women, older immigrants, and less educated immigrants who have less language capital at arrival, report also limited access to learning opportunities.
 
Article
This qualitative case study investigated the impact of Workforce Investment Act (WIA) funding on the providers and planners of programs for incumbent workers in one Midwest WIA region. It examines the collaboration and power conflicts that are part of planning and implementing this legislation for the stakeholders. The study applied Matland's ambiguity/conflict framework to WIA implementation. The analysis revealed four themes that are important to policy makers and planners alike. The themes, change agent conflict, power broker conflict, policy interpretation conflict, and ambiguity of means, address the impact of the WIA and related processes on programs for incumbent workers. Conflicts over participants' roles, the interpretation of the legislation, and ambiguity about the process of implementation emerged. This article suggests methods for stakeholders to collaborate and address the needs of incumbent worker development.
 
Article
In this study, 15 future events were incorporated into a questionnaire which asked practitioners to state opinions regarding desirability and projected time periods for the occurrence of events and to indicate actions that should be taken in adult education to plan for those futures. The instrument was mailed to 601 randomly selected practitioners, from the individual membership of the Adult Education Association of the U.S.A. A response rate of 86% was obtained. Data analysis led to the following interpretations: (1) Denial of the proximity and intensity of change is apparent in many practitioners' responses. (2) Changes in work which provide release time for study or leisure are viewed as predominantly desirable while events which portray constriction of work opportunities are undesirable. (3) Unless actions are directed to the elderly, work, or educational events, practitioners do not uniformly see themselves involved in social events. (4) A limited role is perceived for adult education in a global context.
 
Article
This study explored innovative alternative processes of living, learning, and knowledge sharing of a loosely knit community of anarchist, anticapitalist “Do-It-Yourself” (DIY) activists. Generated through participant observation and interviews, findings reinforced adult education theories—that adults can diagnose their own learning needs and carry out appropriate learning activities. Participants also critiqued prevailing educational practices, suggesting alternatives such as autonomy, choice, critical thinking, cooperative learning, and deconstructing hierarchy. In particularly promising findings, the DIY activists described radical alternative channels for knowledge sharing: piracy, skillshares, Internet/open source media, the streets, and zines. Employing older and newer technologies, and legal and illegal methods, these modalities embodied in powerful ways the participants’ radical political commitments. The DIY activists also gave cause to reflect on the nature of cultural dialogism, community, and communities of practice as they struggled with the nature of their own identities, ideologies, and desires to broaden outreach beyond their immediate community.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to describe the reading activities of 26 adult Black high school equivalency students. The data were obtained through a questionnaire focusing on the subjects' previous day's activities. The procedures replicated those employed in the Educational Testing Ser vice's Study on Reading Activities of American Adults. The four questions asked about Black adult education students' reading activities were: What are the reading activities? How important is the reading? What are the reading difficulties? What other reading difficulties do students encounter? In addition to school related reading, the subjects engaged in reading an average of 82 minutes per day. Utilitarian activities, the Bible, and church related reading rated as more important than recreational reading. The newspaper, the Bible, and various types of forms and applications were fre quently noted as difficult.
 
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68034/2/10.1177_074171365800800209.pdf
 
Article
Quantitative and qualitative findings on barriers to participation in adult education are reviewed and some of the defining parameters that may explain observed national differences are considered. A theoretical perspective based on bounded agency is put forth to take account of the interaction between structurally and individually based barriers to participation. The Bounded Agency Model is premised on the assumption that the nature of welfare state regimes can affect a person's capability to participate. In particular, the state can foster broad structural conditions relevant to participation and construct targeted policy measures that are aimed at overcoming both structurally and individually based barriers. Features of the Nordic model of adult education and empirical results from the 2003 Eurobarometer are discussed in relation to this theoretical perspective. (Contains 3 tables, 3 figures, and 1 note.)
 
Article
The author attempts to synthesize some issues concerning adult education research. Topics include (1) the purpose of research, (2) epistemological assumptions being made by the researcher, (3) the politics and ethics of the research, (4) research design issues, and (5) consistency with the researcher's philosophy of adult education. (CH)
 
Article
Proposes to initiate dialog on ethical issues inherent in the field of adult education and to stimulate individual and collective ethical exploration by adult educators. (JOW)
 
Article
Examines the development of adult education as recorded in the journal "Adult Education" published by the National Institute of Adult Continuing Education. Topics covered include (1) financial challenges, (2) content of and philosophy behind adult education, and (3) current problems of survival. (CH)
 
Article
Adult education literature in the 1920's, 1930's, and early 1940's was examined to identify conceptions of and approaches to adult civic education held by leaders of the American adult edu cation movement. Adult education advocates and theorists began in the mid 1920's to distinguish between "adult education" and other forms of "education for adults." In this conception, adult education was a "study" and "learn" approach to life. Adult edu cators gave mixed answers to the questions of whether adult edu cation should have a program proinoting specific kinds of social action and what should comprise the content to adult civic educa tion. Several experimental approaches to adult education for civic intelligence were undertaken. Discussion as a method for coopera tive learning emerged as the educational method most congruent with the purposes of adult civic education.
 
Article
A study investigated the relationship of learning to problems that occur in the lives of adults. Of special interest were the dynamics of learning in natural/nonformal settings and the role of literacy in learning. Examination of research in reasoning and problem solving revealed two trends: increasing realization that much of what people do is determined by peculiarities and particularities of situations or context in which they find themselves, and what is important in understanding how people think and learn is not the process but the content or knowledge. Three problems were identified to aid in finding out how problem-solving and learning contribute to an adult's ability to cope with his environment. They were identification of some adults, selection of situations representative of these adults' normal task domains, and analysis and representation of adults' interaction with these situations. An interpretive framework for the research was indicated which involved interviews semi-structured, open-ended, and probing in nature. A second year of the project has been planned to involve data analysis, development of simulated problem solving scenarios, interviews with a new sample, and follow-up. Data analysis would be based on a "reduction"--a type of textual analysis accomplished in four stages: atomizing, categorizing, thematizing, and schematizing. (YLB)
 
Article
This paper has two purposes. The first is to underscore the relevance of historical events and social forces which influence the life experience of various cohorts of adults. To carry out this purpose, the study focuses on one particular cohort—a "cohort case study" as an example of how history and social forces shape the experiences as well as the educational needs of the adult population. The second purpose is to discuss some of the possible implications for adult education given these effects. The underlying assumption is that the more educators know about educational clientele—their social, historical, economic, and cultural pasts—the more successful will be the educational experiences.
 
Article
Attrition among students in adult basic and secondary education programs has been a perennial problem. Conducting research on this population is also problematic once they have dropped out of a program. A study surveyed 76 dropouts and 35 General Educational Development (GED) program completers from two large, multisite programs about factors influencing their continued participation in their program. Chi-squares were computed between the two groups on 14 reasons negatively affecting program attendance. Four demographic variables also were described. Results indicated that self-reported reasons for attrition of the dropout group were largely situational (trouble getting to class, child care problems, job responsibilities) rather than institutional or dispositional, following Cross's typology of barriers to participation in all forms of adult education programs. The major institutional reason given was the need for more individual attention. The GED completers cited many of the same problems, and, in fact, the only items on which the differences of the two groups were statistically significant were "trouble getting to class" and "stopped due to sickness." Three pages of references are included. (Author/KC)
 
Article
The authors examine the modernist underpinnings of traditional adult learning and development theories and evaluate elements of those theories through more contemporary lenses. Drawing on recent literature focused on “public pedagogy,” the authors argue that much learning takes place outside of formal educational institutions. They look beyond modernist narratives of adult development and consider the possible implications for critical adult learning occurring in and through contemporary fragmented, digital, media-saturated culture.
 
Article
The terms goals, objectives, and functions are differentiated and classified based on the particular meanings each term represents in the field of education. The importance of understanding the distinctions is emphasized. (EC)
 
Article
Beginning with the fall 1983 semester, a set of behavioristic principles was incorporated into the classroom management techniques used in the high school completion and general educational development (GED) programs offered at the South Dade Adult Education Center in Homestead, Florida. A study examined the effectiveness of these principles in reducing the student attrition rate by comparing course withdrawal data on 102 students who had participated in the GED program before the behaviorist techniques were instituted with data on 116 students who enrolled in the program in three different quarters after the new classroom management principles were in place. The student withdrawal rate for the 1982-1983 school year (before the new behavioristic approach was adopted) was 36 percent. After the new approach was instituted, the withdrawal rate decreased to 21 percent, thereby attaining a full 15 percent reduction of the previous year's rate. The change in classroom management techniques was determined to have yet another favorable outcome. Students attending classes in which the new principles were used actually recruited new students for the following term. It was concluded that the new behaviorist principles were effective because they helped students perceive themselves as part of a group (the principle of operant reinforcement through social facilitation), increased students' desire to excel by providing them with positive feedback on a regular basis, and reduced students' test-taking anxieties (through application of principles of extinction). (MN)
 
Article
This study examined the influence of past life experiences and current life biography on the learning of adult students in the undergraduate classroom. A total of 90 undergraduates at least 30 years old who had completed at least 15 hours of academic course work at community colleges, liberal arts colleges, and public universities participated. They completed semi-structured interviews on their own sense of meaning and actions as learners, as undergraduates, and as adults who maintained work, family, and community role involvements. Five belief structures of engagement in learning were delineated in the study. The "entry voice" belief structure reflected students who believed they could not judge or make initial personal sense of classroom knowledge, while the "outside voice" structure reflected students who brought a strong set of beliefs to college, anchored within their real world of work and family. The "critical voice" reflected students who entered college from a private cynical involvement to obtain a credential, while students with a "straddling voice" structure placed their beliefs and actions as intersecting and connecting both academic and adult world knowledge. Students with an "inclusion voice" belief structure actively sought immersion into the academic world and academic knowledge. (Contains 19 references.) (MDM)
 
Article
This study investigated adult educators' ethical dilemmas and attitudes regarding the need for a code of ethics to guide their practice. Through the use of survey methodology, three major groups of adult education practitioners in Indiana responded to various questions about ethical dilemmas they encountered, their personal experiences with codes of ethics, and their perceptions about the need for a code, as well as their ideas regarding the creation and implementation of a code of ethics for adult education. Results indicate that organizations associated with adult education should seriously consider codes of ethics. More emphasis on providing practitioners with training and education regarding ethics and more research conducted on ethics in adult education are suggested.
 
Article
Adult civic education assists adults to acquire the compe tencies necessary for participation in civic life. After World War II, adult civic education sought to promote citizen participation, individual development, and the creation of an aware and informed citizenry. These efforts were accomplished through liberal educa tion, public affairs education, political education, human relations, leadership, and participation training, and community develop ment. Both the community development study and action approach and forms of group learning were used extensively in developing adult citizens. The ultimate purpose of adult civic education was to create a public opinion able to assess critically the accomplish ment of government and citizens able to identify and solve com mon social problems.
 
Article
In this article, it is argued that capitalism and empiricism are dominant and implicit social paradigms that profoundly affect adult education in the United States in often deleterious ways. (CT)
 
Article
This paper includes a conceptual model of community development to be used by change agents and educators of adults to identify its processes and outcomes. Process variables are the number of people involved, amount of time, ability to organize, number of issues addressed, amount of local initiative, and how effectively resources are used. Outcome variables are people-related, organizational, and physical on micro and macro levels. The components of the model are the community development specialist, the core group of citizens, their local community and its extended boundaries, special interest groups, and the resources needed. A graphic presentation of the model is included.
 
Article
Discusses an alternative adult learning theory--the "lived experience." This theory states that learning needs to develop out of the current experience of the learner and builds from it. The learner brings into learning the totality of his being. (CT)
 
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