Adolescence

Publications
This study examined age and gender differences in physical activity levels and various physical activity patterns of 11-14-year-old Turkish adolescents and also determined if these differ between genders. Six hundred and fifty girls and 666 boys between the ages of 11 and 14 years constituted the sample of this study. Participants self-reported physical activity levels and patterns were determined by a Weekly Activity Checklist. A 2 x 4 (Gender x Age) MANOVA revealed overall significant main effect of gender and age on the physical activity level of adolescents; however, gender x age interaction effect was not significant. The findings indicated an interaction effect was not significant. The findings indicated an age-related decline in physical activity level, an increase in participation in low activities, and a decrease in participation in moderate and vigorous activities in 11-14-year-old Turkish adolescents. In addition it was found that boys were more active than girls and participated more in moderate and vigorous activities.
 
The Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and the Profile of Mood States were used to assess a broad range of psychological characteristics in 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use. In addition, a steroid knowledge questionnaire was administered and an evaluation of physical symptoms of steroid use was conducted. Corresponding data were obtained from 24 adolescent athletes who did not use steroids, and 24 nonathletic adolescents. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables significantly differentiated between athletes who used steroids and athletes who did not use steroids. Steroid users, however, had significantly higher levels of muscular density and hardness, bloating, gynecomastia, and acne than did athletes who did not use steroids; steroid users who were currently on a steroid use cycle had significantly more depression, anger, vigor, and total mood disturbance than those who were not on a cycle. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to develop our understanding of psychological issues related to adolescent steroid use.
 
There are several avenues of inquiry that seek to understand and ameliorate the problem of bullying in schools, including the strategy of fostering respect. To date, however, there is little empirical literature testing the presumed relationship between respect and bullying. This study examined this relationship with surveys (N = 3,147) and interviews (N = 315) administered to 5th through 12th grade students in 26 public schools. Surveys assessed perceptions of respect from adults, respect from peers, and frequency ratings of observed and experienced bullying. Analyses indicated that perceived levels of respect were moderate overall and varied greatly by school and demographics. Approximately 15% of students reported that they observed physical bullying at least weekly and 12% said they were picked on daily. Demographically, males, minorities, 9th and 10th graders, and non-college bound students perceived significantly lower levels of adult and peer respect and higher amounts of bullying relative to comparative groups. Levels of respect significantly predicted frequency of bullying in a regression. Interviews indicated that, contrary to common belief, bullies were the popular students. This study highlights the importance of respect in understanding and improving the socioemotional and physical experience of students.
 
This study investigated the associations among first sexual intercourse and body image, future educational plans, depressed moods, as well as the influence of parental education and income. These associations were tested by gender and ethnicity and adjusted for variables likely to affect the findings, such as perceived social support, sexual abuse, and age. Tenth graders from Lower Secondary Schools in Oslo enrolled in 2000 and 2001 were invited to participate in this cross-sectional in-school study (participation rate: 88%). Out of the 7,343 participants, only those 15 or 16 years of age were included in the analyses (N = 7,187). Data on both parents' level of education and income were obtained from official registries. Body image was independently associated with sexual intercourse for adolescent girls. Those with high scores on body image concerns were more likely to have experienced first intercourse. For both male and female adolescents, future education plans including higher education were negatively associated with first sexual intercourse. Depressed mood and sexual abuse had positive associations with reported first sexual intercourse. Independent associations between sexual debut and parental education and income were also found. Adolescents of fathers with higher education were less likely to report having had first sexual intercourse. A similar relationship was observed between mothers' levels of education and their sons. It was found that first sexual intercourse among 15- and 16-year-olds is associated with higher scores on body image concerns for adolescent girls. Social support and parental higher education seem to decrease the likelihood of having had first sexual intercourse in this age group. In future research, body image and various aspects of social support need to be better understood in relation to adolescent sexuality in various social and cultural contexts.
 
Using a sample of 1,269 high school students, black and white, male and female, this study compared the actual and preferred weights of dieters and nondieters and examined the relationship of increasing weight to preferred weight and the decision to diet. Seventy-two percent of the enrolled students in ten schools of a large metropolitan area participated in the study by completing a self-administered questionnaire designed for the research. The mean age was 17.5 + or - 0.6 years. To be identified as a dieter a student had to report having lost five or more pounds through dieting. Nearly half of the black and white males, two thirds of the black females, and three quarters of the white females met this criterion. Although mean heights of dieters and nondieters did not differ significantly in each race-sex group, dieters weighed at least 14 pounds more than nondieters. While dieters set higher preferred weights for themselves as their own weight increased, white male and female dieters preferred to weigh about 11 pounds less than black male and female dieters, respectively. The majority of dieters were not overweight; some were even underweight. This study documents the need for effective nutrition and exercise programs in the schools to help students accept and achieve reasonable weights.
 
The present study indicates that there is no significant discrimination (except on the F scale) between the 5 diagnostic groups on the 16PF. The 16PF inadequately represents the anxious, neurotic, depressive component of psychopathology in a state mental hospital population. It is suggested that in order for the 16PF to become a more meaningful personality technique with emotionally disturbed adolescent state mental hospital patients, further investigation into the test's validity and reliability with this type of population will have to be undertaken.
 
This paper describes the laying of a foundation for transformation of the inner world and the emergence of "self" in young people using the Conversational Model. The author works with young people in a technical college in a remote part of Victoria Australia. Some of the clients have experienced extreme trauma as children and live in an ongoing state of traumatic stress. The young clients are deep thinkers and intelligent, yet trapped by dysfunctional family settings. Their situations are compounded by the remote and rural location of their community. The conversational process promotes the gradual transformation of their inner world and the emergence of a healthier "self."
 
Juvenile firesetting behavior has received relatively little research attention and previous attempts to systematically classify this heterogeneous population of children has been only partially successful. Currently there is no literature available that defines treatment and intervention needs of adolescents in residential treatment with problematic firesetting behavior and whether these needs differ from their outpatient cohorts. Data were gathered from a residential (N=17) and outpatient (N=30) sample detailing firesetting history, behavioral functioning, aggression, and personality traits associated with behavioral difficulties. Study subjects were asked to complete the Youth Self Report (Achenbach), Aggression Questionnaire, and Jesness Inventory and to participate in a structured firesetting history interview by project directors. Parents/guardians were asked to complete a Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach). Adolescents in residential care were significantly more likely to come from a single-parent home, display increased delinquent behaviors, greater depressive symptoms, and report significantly more aggressive thoughts and attitudes than those in outpatient settings. Few differences were found on personality characteristics associated with behavior and conduct problems and few differences were found relative to fire history and firesetting characteristics. Implications for treatment and intervention within a residential setting are discussed as well as factors possibly associated with delaying and/or avoiding initial residential placement.
 
Sexual behavior was surveyed in 1991 for the fourth time in 17 years at a northeastern college with 98 male and 148 female participants. Variables included virginity, religiosity, relationship to parents, relationship to last sex partner, sex philosophy, attractiveness, drug use, contraceptives used, fear of AIDS and effect of this fear on behavior. Results indicated a 91% nonvirginity rate for men, 76% for women. Both genders initiated sex at the same age. Men exhibited a more liberal sexual philosophy. Neither gender had a sexual double standard. Women's attractiveness, but not men's, related to nonvirginity. Relationship with parents was not associated with virginity, but religiosity was. Drug use was related to nonvirginity. Frequent drug users had less commitment to last sex partner than did infrequent users. Nondisease-protective contraceptive methods decreased. Despite fear of AIDS, only one-third of the students practiced "safe sex" consistently, and men were less concerned with practicing it than women. Commitment has not increased since the 1986 survey.
 
Suicide is one of the three leading causes of death among adolescents. More importantly, the rate of suicide is on the increase among both male and female adolescents (Tischler, McKenry, & Morgan, 1981). Data from the United States show that approximately 25,000 persons commit suicide each year (Coleman, 1976), and almost one-fifth of these are in the 15 to 24 year age group (Hendin, 1975). More disturbing is that a large number of adolescent suicides go unreported and that up to 50% of all these unreported suicides are categorized as "accidents" (Toolan, 1964). Utilizing suicide data collected in Sacramento County, California between 1925 and 1979, we analyzed suicides among persons aged 10 to 24 to determine if there are sociodemographic factors or presuicide behaviors which discriminate between male and female suicides, suicides of different ages, or explain the increase in suicide rates, and to compare adolescent suicide rates in Sacramento County with national findings.
 
This study investigated the sexual attitudes and experiences in adolescence of 242 individuals who graduated from the same high school in the northeastern United States over a 50-year period. Specifically, a survey was mailed to members of the class of 1950, the class of 1975, and the class of 2000 to examine changes over time. Overall findings suggest a significant change in sexual attitudes and experiences when comparing the class of 1950 to the class of 1975 and 2000.
 
Comparison of adolescent sex information sources for black and white males and females in a Northeast Texas community was made from 1964 and 1974 questionnaire data (N = 367 and 432 respectively). A general change from parents to friends as the stated sources of major sex information was noted over the decade. While parents are still the preferred source of sex information for most of these adolescents, friends as a preferred source increased in frequency especially for males. Overall, both stated and preferred sex information sources showed more significant changes for males than females.
 
McFalls and Gallagher (1979) have found a strong relationship between the occupational values and political orientations of college students. Their study was based on the results of a sample survey conducted in 1969. However, the political climate on college campuses has changed dramatically, and so has the nature of the job market. A new survey was conducted in 1981 which was identical to the 1969 survey. Its objective was to determine if the same political group differentials in occupational values which existed in the politically tumultuous late sixties and early seventies still hold in the more placid 1980s. The findings are reported here.
 
Utilizing the Allport, Vernon and Lindzey Scale of Values, six scale values: Theoretical, Economical, Aesthetic, Social Political and Religious were measured. The subjects were in grades 10-12 of seven Greater Cincinnati Catholic High Schools (N = 205) and one public high school (N = 43), tested as a potential control. The scores were compared to 1970 national norms (N = 12,616) with added intra-comparisons between male and female scores. It was shown that local Catholic subjects scored significantly higher than the national general norms on the Aesthetic and Social values and significantly lower on the Theoretical, Economic and Religious values. This pattern was identical for both the Catholic males and females. In addition, the local males scored significantly higher than the local females on the Theoretical value and significantly lower on the Aesthetic and Social values. And, the local public control high school scored significantly higher on the Aesthetic value and significantly lower on the Theoretical value.
 
This study compared 1974 and 1980 university student experience with various sexual outlets. Fifty single males and fifty single females in 1974 and 1980, randomly selected from all the single males and single females taking a sexuality course at University of Northern Iowa in those years, answered a questionnaire requiring yes or no responses to twenty-four questions on experience with various sexual outlets. Fewer students in 1980 than in 1974 had: 1) sexual experience with a person of their own sex as an adult, 2) group sex experience, and 3) sexual contact with an animal but more students in 1980 than in 1974 had stimulated a partner's genitals orally. Within each student group, more males than females had experienced 1) masturbation and 2) pre-marital intercourse with other than an intended marriage partner, while more females than males had experienced 1) anal intercourse as a passive partner and 2) being a victim of rape or attempted rape.
 
Malicious destruction of property in the suburbs should be treated a a twentieth century social problem reflecting an epidemic of youthful destructiveness. This suggests the existence of an enormous amount of teenage hostility and subsequent uncontrolled aggression vented on the property of others. Over the past year, malicious destruction of property has been among the top anti social acts committed by suburban youth. Costs resulting from this misbehavior may well escalate into the thousands, perhaps tens of thousands of dollars. The act itself is described as: Malicious Destruction Of Property. (Felony - Over $100); (Misdemeanor - $100 or less)
 
Adolescence is one of the few journals devoted exclusively to topics that are important to adolescents and researchers in adolescent psychology. Developmental psychologists, clinicians, and others can keep abreast of current studies in their specialties. With a few years' perspective, a researcher can estimate the importance of particular topics by noting the frequency of their occurrence. This study examines the 455 articles published in the 24 issues of Adolescence between Spring 1976 and Winter 1981. The most frequently appearing topics are noted. Some interesting observations with reference to these topics are made. The important conclusions reached in the eight most frequent topics are also compiled.
 
Although interest in identifying effective psychotherapies for adolescent mental health problems has increased dramatically in the last decade, there have been few attempts to summarize and integrate the recent empirical literature on psychotherapy outcomes with adolescents. The present paper reviews the methods and findings of adolescent psychotherapy outcome studies published from 1978 to 1988. Evaluations of individual psychotherapy with adolescents generally reveal positive short-term outcomes, but long-term outcomes are still to be determined. Evaluations of systemic therapies (especially family therapy) with adolescents often reveal positive outcomes that are maintained over extended follow-up periods. Recommendations are presented for improving the methodology of future psychotherapy outcome studies with adolescents.
 
This paper examines changes in adolescent gender norms in the 1980s, using data collected from 496 college students who graduated from high school in 1979-82 (N = 271), and 1988-89 (N = 225). Each student was asked to list five ways in which male and female students could gain prestige in the high school from which they had recently graduated. The findings indicate relatively little change in gender norms across the decade. While there are some indications of less traditionalism-most importantly, an increase in girls' acquisition of prestige through sports, and a decrease in girls' acquisition of prestige through cheerleading-the overall pattern shows that boys and girls continue to acquire prestige through largely different means. Boys continue to acquire prestige primarily through participation in sports and school achievement, while girls continue to acquire prestige primarily through a combination of physical appearance, sociability, and school achievement.
 
The purpose of this paper is to examine the long-term economic outcomes (education, labor force participation, occupation, and income) associated with female adolescent marriage and childbearing. The 1981 Canadian census is the data source for all women in Canada at age 30, controlling for age at marriage and at first birth. The data suggest that women at age 30 in Canada are in the best economic circumstances when they remain single or when they marry at age 20 or older and either remain childless or begin their childbearing at age 25 or older. The implications of these findings are discussed.
 
This study used data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 to examine the relationship of social and cultural resources and teachers' perception of ability to the educational aspirations of African American eighth graders. The results were compared by social class. It was found that discussions with parents about school or careers, participation in activities outside of school, parental involvement, and parents' expectations were positively related to educational aspirations, while poverty status and teachers' perception of low achievement level were negatively related to aspirations.
 
In the past 20 years, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including AIDS, and the physical, psychological, and economic difficulties associated with unwanted pregnancy have increased steadily among American adolescents. The objective of this study was to evaluate Adventist lifestyle as a modification of popular American culture which reduces the risk of early sexual activity in adolescents and thus also reduces the risk for both STDs and teen pregnancy. The study was based on 8,321 respondents to a questionnaire concerning specific behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes among Seventh-Day Adventist youth attending 58 high schools in North American. Analysis of the data demonstrated that a wide variety of behaviors were associated with premature sexual activity, including previously reported high-risk behaviors such as drug or alcohol use. In addition, several behaviors that are discouraged within Adventist culture, such as going to a movie theater or participating in competitive sports, also were associated with early sexual activity. It is hypothesized that these latter behaviors may predict the emergence of other high-risk behaviors, such as early sexual activity, in both Adventist and popular cultures, and thus may be "transition-marking behaviors" as described by Jessor and Jessor (1975).
 
An electronic search of Medline and PsycInfo produced 29 studies that specifically investigated the effects of religion on adolescent tobacco use. Independent (religion) and dependent (tobacco use) variables and variables controlled for in statistical analyses were categorized. Twenty-two of the 29 studies reported at least one significant effect of religion on tobacco use, with 31 of 43 separate analyses of religious variables yielding significant negative correlations between religion and tobacco use. Religion was inversely related to all measures of tobacco use (lifetime, occasional, and regular use), but the findings suggest religion's primary effect is its prohibitive influence against ever using tobacco.
 
In contrast to earlier research, Watson and Protinsky (1991) found that African American students did not experience identity foreclosure to a greater extent than did their Caucasian peers. Watson and Protinsky, however, examined only ideological identity. The purpose of the present study was to extend this line of research by examining identity development in the interpersonal domain as well as the ideological domain. Forty-eight African American students completed a revised version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOM-EIS II). Supporting the conclusions of Watson and Protinsky, the results showed that few of the African American students were foreclosed. Instead, most of the students were in moratorium; that is, they were engaged in the identity-exploration process. Results for the interpersonal domain were similar to those for the ideological domain.
 
The objective of this study was to test whether the Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scales of Meertens and Pettigrew (1992) are valid for the evaluation of prejudicial attitudes in Spanish school-based adolescents. To do so gypsies and immigrants were chosen as two exogroups that might be the object of prejudice among the Spanish population. Participants were 1,378 Spanish school-based adolescents in the Autonomous Community of the Principality of Asturias, Spain. The results indicate that the scales present a factor structure different from that of the original study. Also, covariates of both blatant and subtle prejudice scales scores were explored. A different pattern of relationships between covariates and scores on blatant and subtle prejudice were found.
 
In the United States today, the use of tobacco has become an entrenched part of teenage culture. The present study used the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which collected data from a nationally representative sample of 16,262 students in public and private high schools, to compare the tobacco use patterns of athletes and nonathletes. The independent variable, athletic participation, differentiated between moderately involved (1 or 2 teams) and highly involved (3 or more teams) athletes. Frequency of cigarette and cigar smoking and smokeless tobacco use served as the operational measure of tobacco use. Age, race/ethnicity, parental education, and residence were controlled. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for female and male athletes and nonathletes for each of the tobacco use variables. It was found that both male and female athletes were less likely to have ever smoked regularly, the effect being stronger for more highly involved athletes of both genders. Cigar smoking was unrelated to athlete status. Both female and male athletes were more likely to have used smokeless tobacco, the effect being stronger for more highly involved athletes of both genders. The findings are discussed in terms of access to health information, performance considerations, social status factors, the salience of an athletic identity, and the influence of the athletic subculture on its members.
 
This study is a replication and extension of the work of Forbes and Ashton (1998). Seventy-seven African American high school students completed the revised version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status. Most of the students were found to be in uncommitted identity statuses. Similar results were found in both the ideological and interpersonal domains.
 
The travails of 19th-century urban youth were a precondition to the invention of modern adolescence and the rise of the modern secondary school. These travails led to a child-saving movement during the last century aimed at taking youth off the streets, putting them in schools, stretching out the normal home-leaving age from 14 to 18 and, in general, prolonging a developmental period. While the ultimate solution to the youth crisis would be the creation of the modern school, other solutions-less expensive, less innovative, and much less effective-were tried first. As unproductive as these attempts were, they nevertheless underscore an increased readiness on the part of the American people to solve the youth problem, not out of egalitarianism or increased moral acuity, but out of social necessity.
 
Broken free of any semblance of family control or community restraints, thousands of American youth roamed entirely at will throughout the cities of 19th-century America and supported themselves alternately from the legitimate street trades and from outright thievery. The invention of modern adolescence was partially a response to this neglected condition of urban youth.
 
One of the factors leading up to the "invention" of modern adolescence was what reformers saw as the corruption of youth by the city. It was the plight of these youth--all too visible to reformers, intellectuals, opinion makers, and trend setters--which set the stage for a child-saving movement during the last century aimed at taking youth off the streets, putting them in schools, stretching out the home-leaving age from 14 to 18, and in general, prolonging a developmental period.
 
This article draws on data from a 1999 survey on youth victimization, crime and delinquency in Alberta conducted by the Canadian Research Institute for Law and the Family in collaboration with researchers from the University of Alberta. The survey included 2,001 youth attending Grades 7 to 12 in public and Catholic schools in selected urban and rural areas in the province. Analyses focus on self-reported past-year delinquency. Statistically significant results were found for relationships between extent of delinquency and gender, grade level, psychosocial problems (as measured by conduct, hyperactivity, and emotional problems), and extent of past-year victimization. For low/moderate delinquency, females were comparable to males, and even reported slightly higher rates for low/moderate violence-related delinquency. Younger students were more likely to indicate engaging in violence-related delinquency, while older students were more likely to report property-related delinquent acts. Overall, Grade 9 students had the highest rates of delinquency. For personal characteristics, a high score on conduct problems was most strongly correlated with moderate/high delinquency. The relationship between high levels of delinquency and victimization was stronger for violence-related delinquency than for property-related delinquency.
 
McGuckin and Lewis (2003, 2006, 2008), Mc Guckin, Lewis and Cummins (under review b) have reported that little is known about the nature, incidence and correlates of bully/victim problems in the Northern Ireland school system. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported experiences of bully/victim problems among a representative sample of 7,223 11- to 16-year-olds living in Northern Ireland who participated in the 2003 Young Persons' Behaviour and Attitude Survey (YPBAS: Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency [NISRA], 2003). Respondents were presented with three questions inquiring explicitly and three questions inquiring implicitly about bully/victim problems. Among other questions, respondents volunteered other salient information about personal experiences of bully/victim problems (i.e., through use of the "other" response option). Almost one-fifth of all respondents (17.2%, n = 1,026) reported being a victim of bullying behavior, and 8.1% (n = 492) reported that they had picked on or bullied another school pupil. Bully/victim problems also pervaded personal experiences of school meal times, sporting activities, and perceptions of personal safety. These findings are placed within the context of previous findings.
 
Recent studies have found that many young women just beginning their sexual lives use alcohol prior to intercourse. A large number appear to drink heavily enough prior to sex to compromise their ability to use contraceptives. The question emerges whether there is a relationship between drinking before intercourse, the nonuse of birth control methods, and unplanned pregnancies. The present research describes 43 instances of intercourse which resulted in unplanned pregnancies in 14- to 21-year-olds. Variables examined included alcohol use prior to sex, amount of alcohol consumed, the use of other drugs, the planning of intercourse, respondents' stated reasons for nonuse of contraceptives, and other general demographic data.
 
Eating breakfast is important for the health and development of children and adolescents. This paper reports on the findings of an Australian survey of 699 thirteen-year-olds concerning the extent of skipping breakfast. Results indicated that approximately 12% of the sample skipped breakfast. Gender was the only statistically significant sociodemographic variable, with females skipping at over three times the rate of males. Skippers were more likely to be dissatisfied with their body shape and to have been on a diet to lose weight than were those who ate breakfast. However, in a follow-up telephone survey, the reasons given for skipping breakfast were almost exclusively lack of time and not being hungry in the morning. While North American school nutrition programs have considered poverty to be a key issue in breakfast skipping, these findings suggest that, for Australian adolescents, skipping breakfast is a matter of individual choice.
 
Seventy-nine high school seniors were administered the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), as well as a questionnaire on parent relationships, peer relationships, positive and negative feelings including suicidal thoughts, and lifestyle variables including academic performance, exercise, and drug use. The group of adolescents who scored above the clinical cutoff for depression on the CES-D (n = 29) had poorer relations with parents. Further, the incidence of paternal depression in that group was greater. The depressed adolescents also had less optimal peer relationships, fewer friends, and were less popular. They experienced less happiness and more frequent suicidal thoughts. They spent less time doing homework, had a lower grade point average, and spent less time exercising. The depressed group also reported more use of marijuana and cocaine. A stepwise regression indicated that physical affection with parents, homework, well-being, exercise, happiness, and parent relations explained 55% of the variance.
 
The objective of this study is to provide preliminary psychometric properties of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-37 (HSCL-37A) for refugee adolescents. The HSCL-37A is a modification of the well-known HSCL-25 and assesses symptoms of internalizing and externalizing problems that have been associated with reactions to trauma. Four independent heterogeneous samples (N=3890) of unaccompanied refugee minors, immigrants, and native Dutch and Belgian adolescents were assessed at school. The confirmative factor analyses, per language version, support the two-factor structure of internalizing and externalizing behavior. The total and subscales show good internal consistency and acceptable test-retest reliability in spite of the heterogeneous sample populations. The construct, content, and criterion validity of the HSCL-37A were also examined and found to be good. The findings of this study suggest that the HSCL-37A is a reliable and valid instrument to be used among culturally diverse refugee adolescents to assess emotional distress and maladaptive behaviors.
 
Little has been systematically studied regarding the adjustment period following the birth of an illegitimate child and finalizing the decision to either raise or relinquish the child for adoption. In order to better understand the phenomenon it was decided to ask the UM herself regarding her experience. Seven hundred UMs were sent a questionnaire, each being randomly assigned to several time intervals varying from 3 to 18 months post decision time. The UMs were approximately 98% Caucasian, coming from primarily low and middle socioeconomic levels, and residing in the Upper Midwest. Questionnaires were returned by 79% of the UMs (n equals 550). Over 75% of thses had relinquished their child for adoption. The majority of the UMs reported they were dating (86%), with approximately one-half dating someone steadily at the time of the study. Those who relinquished reported a higher incidence of dating in general, however, those who kept their children were more linely to date and marry the alleged father (AF). Approximately one-half of the UMs had indicated having had sexual intercourse, and over 75% of these indicated that they were contracepting. However, of those not having had intercourse, approximately 10% were contracepting. These dating patterns and sexual relationships varied by age and the respective decision regarding the child. As other adjustment areas are examined in the total study it is hoped that a clearer understanding of the dyamics will be forthcoming.
 
Data for the presenting complaints, average age and sex distribution, average length of stay and the discharge diagnosis for 900 consecutive adolescents treated at the Adolescent Center of Houston International Hospital between 1974 and 1982 were reviewed. The number of cases remained fairly constant over the 9 years. As the males and females showed an increase in age, the increase in age for males (13.4 years to 15.2 years) was greater than that for females (14.4 years to 15.0 years). The average age for male admissions during 1974-1976 was significantly lower than 1980-1982 (p less than 0.03). The average length of stay for males during 1980-1982 was significantly greater than 1974-1976 (p less than 0.05). The most frequent presenting symptoms in decreasing order for 1974-1982 were depression, school problems, family problems, threatening behavior, runaway behavior, and suicidal ideation. Depression increased from 15.6% in 1974-1976 to 29.6% of presenting symptoms. Substance abuse increased from 4% (1974-1976) to 8.8% (1980-1982). Suicidal ideation increased three-fold over the same period (3.3% to 10.6%). A significantly greater number of males presented with 1) impulsivity, 2) aggressiveness, 3) withdrawal behavior, 4) stealing, and 5) disruptive behavior. A significantly greater number of females presented with 1) runaway behavior, and 2) suicidal ideation. The 10 most frequent discharge diagnoses are listed. Depression as a diagnosis increased almost four-fold between 1977-1979 and 1980-1982 (7.6% versus 27.5%).
 
Alcoholics who receive treatment in in-patient settings are routinely referred to Alcoholics Anonymous upon discharge, yet not all affiliate with A.A. The characteristics of A.A. affiliators have been explored in the past to further improve discharge planning, but to date no studies have described the characteristics of adolescents who affiliate with A.A. The sample used in this study was 70 adolescents who had completed in-patient treatment and were contacted as part of a follow-up survey. Half of the group had affiliated with A.A. A discriminant analysis was used to predict affiliation, and the study found that affiliators were more likely to have had prior treatment, had friends who did not use drugs, had less parental involvement while in treatment, and more feelings of hopelessness. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed as well as areas for further research.
 
Because adolescents are generally viewed as "risk-takers," an assessment of planning and decision-making skills during the teenage years may reveal why this developmental group tends to engage in dangerous behaviors. One area in which these abilities have significant consequences for future outcome is pregnancy, a condition that requires a decision to either give birth or abort. Previewing, a process by which caregivers introduce infants to the physical sensations of imminent developmental change and the implications of such change on their relationship, may affect the adolescent's ability to predict upcoming change. This paper explores previewing skills during the adolescent years and how this capacity affects the teenager's orientation toward future outcomes.
 
The Going for the Goal (GOAL) program is designed to teach adolescents life skills. There have been few efforts to assess whether the skills that GOAL is designed to teach are being learned by adolescents involved in the program. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of GOAL on the acquisition of skills in the areas of setting goals, solving problems, and seeking social support. Interviews were conducted with twenty adolescents. Those who participated in GOAL reported that they had learned how to set goals, to solve problems effectively, and to seek the appropriate type of social support.
 
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and Bulimic Investigatory Test-Edinburg (BITE). Psychological factors were measured with the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE) and the State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The mean eating attitudes first scores, bulimic investigatory test scores, and Rosenberg self-esteem scores were similar in both groups. Only the STAI score was significantly higher in dietetic students than non-dietetic students. Skipping breakfast was significantly higher in non-dietetic students. Unhealthy weightloss methods were used more by the non-dietetic students than dietetic students. There were no significant effects of nutrition education on BMI and eating attitudes of the students.
 
Fifty-six Hispanic adolescents who requested a pregnancy determination at a municipal outpatient adolescent clinic participated in a comparative study of negative testers, childbearers, and aborters. The study's purposes were to assess differences between negative and positive pregnancy testers and to evaluate the pregnancy resolution decision-making process of positive testers. Data were collected using a two-part structured interview administered prior to and following knowledge of pregnancy test results. Results indicated that negative and positive pregnancy testers were similar in all areas evaluated. However, positive testers were slightly older and had higher self-esteem than negative testers. Of the 36 positive testers, 29 chose to deliver and keep the baby. None of the adolescents chose adoption. Adolescents were consistent in their pregnancy resolution decision before and after knowledge of pregnancy test results. The pregnant adolescents considered themselves to be the most influential person in the decision-making process. There were no significant differences between the childbearers and the aborters, although the former demonstrated higher self-esteem and greater religiosity. Most of the teenagers were at risk for unintended pregnancy; therefore, subsequent family planning counseling efforts should be directed at this population.
 
The present study has explored the abortion attitudes of 200 students attending a midwestern liberal arts college affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. The main findings were as follows: 1. Catholics in general tend to be more conservative in this area than Protestants. 2. There were no statistically significant differences between urban and rural residents and between single and engaged subjects. On the other hand, females, social science majors, and those having no plans for graduate studies were significantly more conservative than males, natural science majors, and those planning to do graduate work, respectively. 3. Abortion scores were correlated negatively and significantly with religious services attended, amount of Catholic education, and, to a limited extent, father's occupation, but nonsignificantly with age, number of siblings, birth order, college rank, parental education, and mother's occupation.
 
Sexual attitudes and behavior of adolescent females have been the topic of much interest over the past decade. Feelings about contraception, conception, and abortion have been described in relation to the adolescents' beliefs about the possibility of becoming pregnant, who will or will not "protect" them, and the influence of significant others on their decision making. This study explores differences in 35 women who had abortions during their teenage years with 36 women whose abortions occurred after the age of twenty. A demographic questionnaire, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory were completed by women who were members of a patient-led support group. Premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and distressing symptoms postabortion are reported. Specific differences in perceptions of coercion, preabortion suicidal ideation, and nightmares post-abortion were found in the adolescent group. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders as well as drug abuse and psychotic delusions were found to be significantly higher in the group who aborted as teenagers. Hypotheses regarding the influences of adolescent development on mother/child relationships, power struggles, and the use of fantasy as a coping device are explored.
 
Top-cited authors
Tanner Field
  • University of Toronto
Daniel Shek
  • The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Barbara M Newman
  • University of Rhode Island
Lina Ricciardelli
  • Deakin University
Donna Howard
  • University of Maryland, College Park