Adansonia

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Dichapetalum petaloideum from SW Gabon is described and illustrated. The new species is aberrant in having very unusual entire, thick, hairy petals, which are closed in bud.
 
The disputed position of Anthonotha gabunensis (Pellegr.) J.Leonard, whether it fits in Anthonotha or should be placed in Leonardendron, a genus of its own, is reviewed. Its actinomorphic flowers are aberrant, since the genus Anthonotha has zygomorphic flowers. Therefore it is transferred to Englerodendron that has similar actinomorphic flowers and up until now has been known by its single species E usambarense Harms from Tanzania. On the same grounds Anthonotha conchyliophora (Pellegr.) J. Leonard is also transferred to this genus. Leonardendron is synonymized under Englerodendron. A key to distinguish Englerodendron from related genera is provided as well as a key to the three species of the genus. Important characters of these species are depicted and the distributions of the two species from Lower Guinea are mapped.
 
Dichapetalum neglectum is described and illustrated. The new species, initially overlooked, is, as D. rabiense Breteler, characterized by 4-5-locular ovaries and inarticulate pedicels. From D. rabiense it may be distinguished by its larger, distinctly pedicelled flowers. An adapted key to the Central African species, which accommodates the 10 new species for the area published since the completion of the revision for Africa in 1986, is provided. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.
 
Hypselodelphys triangularis Jongkind and Hypselodelphys velutina Jongkind, two new species from the forests of West Africa, are described and illustrated. Hypselodelphys triangularis is characterized by its acute triangular fruits and c. 5 mm long inflorescence internodes. Hypselodelphys violacea (Ridl.) Milne-Redh., the only other Hypselodelphys species with acute triangular fruits in the area where H, triangularis is found, has inflorescence internodes about twice as long. The second new species, H. velutina, is characterized by its completely velutinous inflorescence internodes and rounded lobed fruits. Hypselodelphys poggeana (K.Schum.) Milne-Redh., the only species with comparable fruits in the same area, has an inflorescence with a distinctly different indumentum.
 
Four new species of Annonaceae from Tanzania are described and illustrated: Monodora carolinae, from coastal Tanzania and northern Mozambique, with refl exed outer petals and inner petals connivent by their tips; M. globifl ora, endemic to the montane forests of the Udzungwa Mountains, with inner pet- als fully connivent as a globe over the receptacle; M. hastipetala, endemic to the Kiwengoma Forest (Matumbi Hills), with hastate inner petals acuminate at apices; and Isolona linearis, endemic to Iringa region, with linear corolla lobes. Keys are provided to all species of both genera for East Africa. Pollen
 
Revision of the genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae). Th e African genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) of Lower Guinea is revised. Two species, E. tessmannii and E. unijugum, are recognized. Th ey are illustrated and their distributions are mapped. Eurypetalum batesii is placed in the synonymy of E. tessmannii. Th e distinction between the two species of Eurypetalum is easy: leaves with two pairs of leafl ets in E. tessmannii, with one pair in E. unijugum. Th e distinctive characters between Eurypetalum and the sister-genus Eperua Aubl. of South America are not very obvious. Th ey are seen partly in the wood anatomy, partly in the presence or absence of nectaries in the hypanthium. Th e distinction between the two genera is confi rmed by molecular evidence (DNA). Th eir place in the system of Cowan & Polhill (1981) is discussed
 
The present study shows that modern distribution data of Caesalpinioidous taxa can be used in the study on forest refuges. Preliminary results indicate that previously proposed locations of forest refuges in central Africa are not correctly situated and that a distinction should be made between lowland and montane forest refuges. The geographic position of postulated forest refuges in Gabon needs to be reviewed with regard to new distribution data. Further, more detailed research on the biogeographic history of these areas during the last glacial is necessary. -from Authors
 
A floristic and structural study of a slope forest on schist was carried out on 12 transects of 2500 m2 at the Col d'Amieu. This forest is situated between 440 and 500 m altitude in the central mountain region of New Caledonia. The results are compared with a slope forest on ultramafics of the S Massif and with various forests in Malesia and Melanesia. Stem density per hectare (1256 stems of dbh ≥ 10 cm) is relatively high and superior to that of most forests in Melanesia and Malesia. The basal area of the forest at Col d'Amieu (55.1 m2/ha) is greater than in other forests studied in New Caledonia. Specific diversity expressed by the Shannon-Weiner index is relatively high (H′ > 5) except for plots dominated by Pancheria brunhesi. The richest families with more than 10 species each include Sapindaceae, Rubiaceae, Myrtaceae and Noraceae. Sapindaceae, Moraceae, Myrsinaceae and Proteaceae are more numerous on schists than on ultramafics. The opposite is true for Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Cunoniaceae and Euphorbiaceae. The greatest contribution to stem density is made by Sapindaceae followed by Meliaceae, then Guttiferae for stems ≥ 2 cm dbh, and by Guttiferae and Cunoniaceae for stems ≥ 10 cm dbh. -from Authors
 
Révision du genre #Beclardia$ A. Rich. (#Orchidaceae$) endémique de Madagascar et des Mascareignes. #Beclardia grandiflora$, une nouvelle espèce de Madagascar est décrite. L'identité de #Satyrium rosellatum$ Thouars est clarifiée ; une nouvelle combinaison, #Cynorkis rosellata$ (Thouars) Bosser est établie et plusieurs synonymies nouvelles sont reconnues. (Résumé d'auteur)
 
ABSTRACT Joo da Silva Feij (1760-1824), Portuguese naturalist taking part in the Philosophical Journeys under the patronage of the Portuguese Crown, led the first scientific expedition devoted exclusively to the study of the Natural History of the Cabo Verde Islands between 1783 and 1796. On behalf of the Royal Museum of Natural History and Botanical Garden of Ajuda in Lisbon, Feij made the first extensive plant collections (1783-1789) on all of the islands that together with his manuscripts offer a glimpse of the flora of Cabo Verde, as it existed at the end of 18th century. This study provides unique data on the legacy of Feij's collections, with details of his expedition through the Cabo Verde Islands. His plant collections, nameless for a long time and scattered in different Herbaria, were reunited specifically for this study. Moreover, the manuscripts related to the plant collections are discussed, and the link between the Feij's determinations and the current scientific names were established. A numbering for this herbarium is proposed here, based on the Linnaean sexual system in order to facilitate future studies of this historical collection. Each specimen has been labelled with some precious information from archives (collector, date) to pay tribute to Feij and to break the two century-long silence of his collection. Finally, the Feij herbarium, and its various tribulations over the years are described and explained.
 
Native Rubus were brought from North America to European botanical gardens in the 18th and early 19th centuries, and some were described as new species. Limited knowledge of Rubus in that era, typically combined with brief descriptions, led to many incorrect interpretations, causing much confusion (especially in North America). We established a project to clarify the identity of these confusing species by reviewing types and descriptions along with comparative work involving modern collections. We identified seven putative North American Rubus species named from early European garden collections: R. villosus Aiton, R. vulpinus Poir., R. pensilvanicus Poir., R. flagellaris Willd., R. inermis Willd., R. heterophyllus Willd., and R. argutus Link, and four other names in the early European botanical literature of possible North American origin: R. decumbens Thunb., R. inermis Thunb., R. enslenii Tratt., and R. floridus Tratt. We affirmed the current applications of R. flagellaris, R. argutus, and R. enslenii. Rubus villosus is identical with R. leviculus L.H. Bailey, while the taxon to which R. villosus was generally applied in the 19th century, R. allegheniensis Porter, appears to be identical with R. vulpinus. Rubus heterophyllus Willd. was identified as an earlier name for R. plicatifolius Blanch. Rubus inermis Willd. is identical with R. ulmifolius Schott and must have originated in the Old World. Thunberg's other American Rubus, R. decumbens, can be identified as R. arundelanus Blanch. Rubus floridus remains a puzzle. If its type represents a sample of a determinate flowering branch from a large, mounding dewberry, it is closest to R. grimesii L.H. Bailey, but it could also have been taken from a side-branch from an unknown upright blackberry. Another name for which identity could not be definitively established is R. pensilvanicus. It is allied with R. allegheniensis, but its type is insufficient to determine if it is an extreme form of that species, a related taxon, or a hybrid of it with a species of section Arguti (Rydb.) L.H. Bailey. We propose the name, R. revealii sp. nov. for the corymbose to weakly racemose Arguti previously considered as R. pensilvanicus sensu L.H. Bailey. Herein, we lectotypify R. abactus L.H. Bailey, R. arundelanus, R. decumbens, R. grimesii, R. inermis Thunb., R. invisus (L.H. Bailey) Britton, and R. vulpinus, and designate neotypes for R. argutus and R. heterophyllus.
 
RÉSUMÉ 1802 : le tout jeune Muséum devient éditeur scientifique et publie les premières Annales. 2018 : presque 220 ans plus tard, les périodiques du Muséum sont publiés en flux continu, disponibles en accès libre diamant et au format XML. Cette modernisation technologique opérée par l'équipe des Publications scientifiques s'est étalée sur 20 ans. En 1997, les Bulletins du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle changent de forme et prennent les noms des périodiques que nous connaissons aujourd'hui. La Section A, Zoologie, biologie et écologie animales devient Zoosystema ; la Section B, Adansonia : Botanique, Phytochimie devient plus simplement Adansonia ; enfin, la Section C, Sciences de la Terre, paléontologie, géologie, minéralogie devient Geodiversitas. La revue Anthropozoologica, quant à elle, rejoint les rangs des journaux scientifiques du Muséum en 2004, pour ses vingt années d'existence. Elle est suivie par l'European Journal of Taxonomy (EJT), lancée en 2011, qui jouera un rôle d'incubateur pour la mise en place de nouvelles technologies pour les revues du Muséum. Dès 1997, celles-ci entrent de plain-pied dans l'ère des revues scientifiques internationales. Car au-delà d'un simple changement de format, c'est leur mode de fonctionnement dans son intégralité qui vit une véritable révolution : alors que les Bulletins étaient gérés par l'assemblée des professeurs du Muséum, le processus d'acceptation des nouveaux périodiques s'appuie désormais sur une évaluation par les pairs, et chaque revue, gérée par un rédacteur en chef, est cautionnée par un comité scientifique composé d'experts internationaux reconnus. Alors que les Bulletins héritaient d'une longue tradition académique, les nouveaux journaux se dotent de titres courts, favorisant la citabilité des articles d'une part, le bon référencement de la revue sur internet et par le Journal Citation Report d'autre part, ainsi que d'une maquette commune. La parution régulière des articles — les derniers vendredis de chaque trimestre — sur papier et sur internet à partir de 2000, et l'ouverture des revues aux articles en langue anglaise finissent de les professionnaliser aux yeux de la communauté scientifique internationale. L'indexation par le Journal Citation Report et l'obtention d'un facteur d'impact pour Geodiversitas, Adansonia et Zoosystema d'abord, puis pour Anthropozoologica et, enfin pour le tout jeune EJT, consacreront ces efforts. L'élargissement régulier de la distribution des revues du Muséum ces vingt dernières années, via les échanges de la Bibliothèque centrale au départ, puis via le site des Publications scientifiques (en 1999, 2004 et 2015 pour la version actuelle) et le portail BioOne (en 2009), s'est aussi révélé une stratégie gagnante. Les articles publiés dans les revues du Muséum sont désormais distribués dans plus de 2 500 universités, et accessibles en ligne, gratuitement et librement, sur le site internet des Publications scientifiques. Les revues scientifiques du Muséum doivent accroître encore leur rayonnement et maintenir leur haute qualité technique et scientifique. Le passage à un flux de publication continu répond à une demande accrue de réactivité de la part des chercheurs. La conversion des articles au format XML permet, à la fois, l'archivage pérenne des articles et le renseignement des grandes bases de données de la recherche. La distribution des articles, d'un côté via le site des Publications scientifiques et de l'autre, via BioOne, ainsi que l'intégration des anciens numéros dans la Biodiversity Heritage Library permettront aux résultats scientifiques originaux confiés aux revues du Muséum de perdurer encore pendant des décennies.
 
The importance of the French botanist Louis PIERRE for Gabon, best known from his Flore forestière de la Cochinchine, is introduced. New species published by him by means of the distribution of drawings by E. DELPY are considered effective and valid, but mostly not treated as such. Nomenclatural consequences, ranging from change of author to change of generic name, are demonstrated from a few examples in the Euphorbiaceae, the Irvingiaceae, and the Scytopetalaceae. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.
 
The Ebenaceae of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam have yet to be treated in the ongoing Flora projects. The first step towards an updated account is the resolution of the nomenclatural status of the taxa known to occur in the region. Here we designate lectotypes for 50 taxa described by Lecomte between 1925-1930. We also provide currently accepted names for these species.
 
While preparing a publication concerning some new Cola Schott & Endl. species for the Gabonese flora, it was discovered that the lectotype of Cola cauliflora Mast. does not fit the treatment of this species for the Flore du Gabon. As a consequence a new Cola species, C. elegans Pierre ex Breteler, sp. nov. is described which replaces Cola cauliflora occurring in Cameroon, neither in Gabon nor in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Mann collection from Ambas Bay, Cameroon, to which the name Cola cauliflora was erroneously adhered at Kew, proves to represent Cola micrantha K.Schum.Novitates Gabonenses 81. L'identité et la répartition de Cola cauliflora Mast. (Malvaceae, autrefois Sterculiaceae) et son vivariant pour le Gabon et la République du Congo.Durant la préparation d’une publication sur quelques espèces nouvelles de Cola Schott & Endl. pour la Flore du Gabon, il a été découvert que le lectotype de Cola cauliflora Mast. n’était pas conspécifique avec l’espèce traitée sous ce nom dans la Flore du Gabon. En conséquence une nouvelle espèce est décrite, C. elegans Pierre ex Breteler, sp. nov., remplaçant Cola cauliflora qui, en effet, est une espèce signalée au Cameroun, mais ni au Gabon, ni dans la République du Congo. La collection de Mann de Ambas Bay au Cameroun à laquelle le nom Cola cauliflora fut attribué par l’Herbier de Kew, correspond en fait à Cola micrantha K. Schum.
 
The new species Combretum longistipitatum Jongkind, sp.nov. (Combretaceae) from Gabon is described and illustrated. This liana differs from other Combretum subgen. Combretum species by the exceptionally long stipe of the fruit compared to the size of the wings. The only location where the new species is known from is now part of Moukalaba-Doudou National Park. © Publications scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. © Publications scientifques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
 
ABSTRACT Additions to the genus Vepris Comm. ex A.Juss. (Rutaceae-Toddalieae) in Cameroon. Vepris mbamensis Onana, sp. nov. with its swollen (pulvinate) petiolules is recognized as distinct from all other known species of Vepris in Africa, after study of the African material of the genus. The new species is described and typified. The key to the cameroonian species of the genus Vepris Comm. ex A.Juss. is updated to accommodate the new species. The specimen on which the invalid name Diphasia mildbraedii Engl. of the Central African Republic (C.A.R.) was based is reproduced as an image and shown to be identical to Vepris adamaouae Onana, sharing for example the unusual ramiflorous character state. Therefore the first name is made a synonym of the second and the range of V. adamaouae is extended to C.A.R., The identification of material collected in Nigeria extends the range of V. adamaouae to the West. A key to distinguish Cameroonian species with furrowed fruit is presented. Vepris mbamensis Onana, sp. nov. and V. adamaouae are illustrated, and a distribution map of both species is presented.
 
The genus Vepris Comm. ex A.Juss. (Rutaceae) includes around 85 species occurring mostly in Africa and Madagascar, among which three West and Central African species, differing from others in the area by their simple or unifoliolate leaves, are the object of the present paper. Glycosmis? africana Hook.f., described from the island of São Tomé, is transferred to the genus Vepris, as V. africana (Hook.f.) O.Lachenaud & Onana, comb. nov. This species, which also occurs in Gabon, Angola and the Republic of Congo, was previously known under the illegitimate name V. gossweileri (I.Verd.) Mziray [non V. gossweileri I.Verd.]. It is here illustrated for the first time, and a complete description is presented; it is notable for having androdioecious flowers, rather than dioecious as usual in the genus. Another new combination, Vepris laurifolia (Hutch. & Dalziel) O.Lachenaud, comb. nov. – based on Garcinia laurifolia Hutch. & Dalziel – is published for a West African species, so far known under the younger synonym V. felicis Breteler. This species is newly recorded from Sierra Leone, and an updated description is presented. These two species are compared to the similar V. welwitschii (Hiern) Exell, which is endemic to Angola and still relatively little-known. The conservation status of all three species is assessed, respectively as Near-threatened (V. africana, comb. nov.), Vulnerable (V. laurifolia (Hutch. & Dalziel) O.Lachenaud, comb. nov.) and Endangered (V. welwitschii).
 
RÉSUMÉ La taxonomie des Rutaceae-Toddalieae du Cameroun revisitée sur la base de l'analyse des caractères morphologiques du matériel fertile a permis de reconnaître quatre espèces nouvelles dont Vepris adamaouae Onana, sp. nov. par le limbe des folioles décurrent sur le pétiolule, des inflorescences longues à axes filiformes et des étamines environ deux fois plus longues que les pétales ; V. araliopsioides Onana, sp. nov., par les feuilles 5-foliolées et des fruits à exocarpe fovéolé ; V. letouzeyi Onana, sp. nov. par des pétioles ailés, des fruits à exocarpe sillonné et finement fovéolé ; et V. montisbambutensis Onana, sp. nov. par la plus petite taille des feuilles et des fruits par rapport aux autres espèces du genre. Par ailleurs le matériel qui se distingue par les pétiolules réduits à un renflement représente certainement une espèce nouvelle qui n'a pas été validée à cause de l'absence de fleurs et fruits matures. Toddaliopsis ebolowensis (Engl.) Onana, comb. nov. est lectotypifié, ce qui permet la validation de la combinaison nouvelle V. ebolowensis (Engl.) Onana, comb. nov. L'identité véritable de Teclea campestris et V. tabouensis est proposée : les deux espèces sont conspécifiques respectivement de V. heterophylla (Engl.) Letouzey et de V. soyauxii (Engl.) Mziray. Une clé pour distinguer les espèces est proposée. Les nouveaux taxons et ceux dont l'identification était confuse ou de position taxonomique incertaine, sont illustrés et leur distribution géographique est présentée.
 
-Lepidagathis decumbens N. Dhatchan. & S. Soosairaj, sp. nov. (drawing by P. Raja): A, flowering branch; B, inflorescence; C, bract; D, bracteole; E, flower; F, posterior sepal; G, lateral sepal; H, anterior sepals; I, corolla split open; J, stamen; K, pistil; L, capsule; M, seed. Scale bars: A, B, 1 cm; C, D, F-H, 5 mm; E, I, K, L, 2 mm; J, 1 mm; M, 3 mm.
-A-D, Lepidagathis diffusa C.B.Clarke; E-H, L. decumbens N. Dhatchan. & S. Soosairaj, sp. nov.: A, E, habit; B, F, inflorescence; C, G, flower; D, H, seed.
Lepidagathis decumbens N. Dhatchan. & S. Soosairaj, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here from Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, Southern India. This new species is closely allied to L. diffusa C.B. Clarke but differs by erect and decumbent habit, short internodes, long unilateral spikes, glandular sericeous floral parts, and ovoid seeds. Photographs of habit, spikes and flowers, pollen grains, seed SEM are provided, in addition leaf and stem anatomy are compared between the new and allied species and key of Lepidagathis Willd. in Tamil Nadu for easy identification is also provided. Lepidagathis decumbens N. Dhatchan. & S. Soosairaj, sp. nov. (Acanthaceae), une espce nouvelle du Tamil Nadu, Inde. Lepidagathis decumbens N.Datchan.& S.Soosairaj, sp. nov., croissant dans les Ghts orientaux du Tamil Nadu (Inde du Sud), est dcrit et illustr ici. Cette nouvelle espce est trs proche de L. diffusa C.B. Clarke, mais en diffre par son port dress et dcombant, des entrenuds courts, de longs pis unilatraux, des pices florales glanduleuses et soyeuses, ainsi que des graines ovodes. Des photographies illustrant le port, les pis et les fleurs, les grains de pollen et les graines (MEB) sont fournies. En outre, l'anatomie des feuilles et des tiges est compare pour les deux espces allies et une cl d'identification facile des Lepidagathis Willd. du Tamil Nadu est propose.
 
Hitherto characters derived mostly from macromorphology were used to distinguish among the members of Acanthopsis Harv., a taxonomically difficult group of plants endemic to arid parts of southern Africa. The taxonomic significance of leaf and bract indumentum in Acanthopsis was investigated using light, and scanning electron microscopy. Five non-glandular and three glandular trichome types were distinguished on the leaves and floral bracts. None of these trichome types are unique to the genus. Although the indumentum is variable in Acanthopsis, the density/dominance of specific trichome types was useful to distinguish among certain taxa, particularly on the abaxial surfaces of leaves and bracts. Each species of Acanthopsis has a characteristic trichome complement as far as dominant trichome types on both leaves and bracts are concerned. However, no obvious association between the type of trichomes and habitat (degree of aridity) or geographical distribution was evident.
 
Anarrhinum fruticosum Desf. (Antirrhineae, Plantaginaceae) is a very variable species. Three subspecies are currently recognized: A. fruticosum subsp. fruticosum, A. fruticosum subsp. brevifolium (Cosson & Kralik) D.A. Sutton (synonym of A. brevifolium Cosson & Kralik), and A. fruticosum subsp. demnatense (Cosson) Maire (synonym of A. demnatense Cosson). Anarrhinum brevifolium was recently typified by Domina & El Mokni (2019), while these other two names are discussed and lectotypified in the present paper. Lectotypes are designated from an illustration published by Desfontaines (A. fruticosum), and a specimen from P-Cosson herbarium (A. demnatense).
 
Top-cited authors
JEAN.-MARIE VEILLON. Veillon
  • ORSTOM / IRD Nouméa
Tanguy Jaffré
  • Institute of Research for Development
Philippe Morat
  • Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle
Porter P. Lowry II
  • Missouri Botanical Garden
Jérôme Munzinger
  • Institute of Research for Development