The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adding microbial phytase and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol Š1,25-(OH)2D3¹ to diets containing 1:1 or 1:2 proportions of Ca:total(t) P, on the levels of minerals in tibia and faeces. A total of 144 day-old male broiler chicks (ISA 220) were divided into six groups of eight chicks each. A 42-day experiment was repeated three times. The basal diet was supplemented with calcium, phosphorus, microbial phytase (0 and 600 PU/kg) and 1,25- (OH)2D3 (0 and 5 µg/kg). On the 3rd and 6th weeks of the experiment, the left tibia and faeces of the chicks were collected. In feed, tibia and faeces, the level of calcium was determined by colorimetry, phosphorus by spectrophotometry; manganese, copper and zinc using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The differences between the mineral levels of the groups were found to be statistically, significant (p<0.05). Thus, three weeks after adding phytase and 1,25-(OH)2D3 the levels of phosphorus, manganese and zinc where affected. Adding phytase and 1,25-(OH)2D3 increased the amount of phosphorus retained in the organism.
On three dairy farms with similar dietary treatments the effect of intramuscular (i/m) administration of Duphafral® Vit. D3 1000 and oral administration of KatAn® anionic salts for the prevention of milk fever (MF) was studied in 30 Black and White cows. The first group of cows (n=10; dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD)=+95.99 mEq/kg DMI) 10 ml of Vitamin D3 was administered one week before the expected calving. KatAn® group (n=10; DCDA=-99.00 mEq/kg DMI) was orally administered 300 g of anionic salts per day two weeks before parturition. The third group of cows (n=10, DCDA=+95.99 mEq/kg DMI) was the control group. During the experiment we controlled the clinical status of cows and blood samples were taken (2 and 1 week before parturition, and 1, 2 and 7 days postpartum) for the determination of plasma Ca, iP and Mg concentrations. It was established that the best results were achieved by i/m administration of 10 million IU cholecalciferol (vit. D3) one week before calving. Only one cow in this group was affected by MF the second day after calving. In KatAn® group one cow showed typical MF symptoms the first day after calving and another cow had retained foetal membranes (RFM). In the control group the MF incidence was markedly higher. One cow developed MF, one RFM and one cow showed left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Because the cows refused to eat silage mixed with KatAn salts, each cow was given the solution (300 ml) daily via a manual drencher. On the basis of the analyses, clinical-laboratory data and time-consuming application of anionic salts, we are of the opinion that the best prophylactic measure for the prevention of MF on small and medium large dairy farms in Slovenia is i/m administration of Duphafral®Vit. D3 1000. .
The aim of this study was to elucidate the regulation of rat adult βbminy-globin gene transcription. We used DNasel foot printing, gel mobility shift and super shift assays to characterize transcription factors involved in this regulation. In this study we analyzed GATA motif at-120 bp in the distal promoter of βbminy-globin gene. Footprint analysis revealed the binding of nuclear factors from MEL cells to the GATA motif. By using gel mobility shift assay two protein complexes were detected. The faster migrating complex was erythroid-specific and more abundant in differentiating MEL cells. Competition experiments with GATA-1 oligonucleotides and GATA-1 protein antibodies confirmed binding of GATA-1 transcription factor to GATA motif at - 120 bp regulation of rat adult βbminy-globin gene.
The presented experiments were aimed to cultivate and multiplicate HVT FC-126 in the PLA (Adult pig kidney) and GL-4 (Gerbil kidney) cell lines. Two different HVT FC-126 vaccine strains were used: Marikal SPF (Veterina d.o.o., Croatia) and Lyomarex (Merial, USA). They were adapted to the PLA and GL-4 cell lines. After adaptation, they were titrated on PLA (TCID50 24.23) and GL-4 (TCID50 24.96). On both cell lines they show similar CPE (cytophatic effect). The difference between them was detected using Real Time PCR, which was also positive by agarose gel analysis for the virus contained in Lyomarex, but not in the Marikal SPF. It can be concluded that both cell lines are sensitive to HVT FC-126 and the virus can be multiplied in high titers though much lower than in the calf intestinal epithelial cell line (CIEB) cells (TCID50 27.93).
The immediate and prolonged effects of neonatal SRIH-14 treatment on pituitary somatotrophs (GH) were investigated. Female rats were injected s.c. twice a day with 20 _g of SRIH-14/100g b.w., for five consecutive days (from 3rd to 7th day of life). Animals were sacrificed at different life periods: at neonatal (8th day), juvenile (16th day), peripubertal (38th day) and adult (80th day) period of life. GH cells were studied using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemical procedure. Morphometry and stereology were used to evaluate changes in the number of GH-immunoreactive cells per unit area, their volume and volume density. After SRIH-14 treatment, the most prominent decrease of all measured parameters was observed in the neonatal period. SRIH-14 induced a significant decrease of GH cell volumes and volume densities in the juvenile, peripubertal and adult periods of life. The number of GH-positive cells was significantly decreased when examined immediately after treatment, but significantly increased in adult females. Body weight, absolute or relative pituitary weights were not affected in any of the examined age groups. These findings suggest that neonatal SRIH-14 treatment exerts a significant immediate and prolonged inhibitory effect on GH cells, but does not affect the growth rate in female rats.
The authors studied the changes of some haematological parameters during two different workloads in Standardbred horses. Ten horses, clinically healthy, were divided into two groups of five subjects each. The two groups of Standardbred (Group A and Group B) had been separately and specifically trained to take part in the official 1600 and 2000 meters trot races, respectively. On each subject of Group A and Group B, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), platelets (PLT), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were recorded. Blood samples were collected from each horse at rest, after warm up, before racing, immediately after racing, 30 and 60 min after the end of the race. Twoway repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine significant differences. The statistical analysis, the ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni's test, showed that during the experimental period, modifications observed for some haematological parameters are not related to the intensity and the type of exercise; only platelet reactivity is altered by different workload. Our results further confirm the data demonstrated previously.
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced mainly by activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, while its specific receptor is ubiquitously distributed. The inflammatory capacity of IL-17 is based on its ability to stimulate a wide range of stromal cells to produce and release a number of proinflammatory mediators, some with a known impact on hematopoiesis particularly granulopoiesis. Recent data indicate a role for IL-17 in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, transplant rejection and tumor growth. The purpose of this study was to determine functional responses including the respiratory burst, nitric oxide (NO) production, adhesiveness and metabolical activity/viability of human peripheral blood leukocytes (total white blood cells, mononuclear cells and granulocytes) from healthy donors in the presence of recombinant human (rh)IL-17. The obtained results showed that rhIL-17 did not induce significant changes in the respiratory burst, NO production, and metabolical activity of each peripheral blood cell fraction the tested, while a slight increase in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulated adhesiveness of granulocytes and mononuclear cells was noted. The absence of significant changes in tested functional activities of various peripheral blood cells suggests that IL-17 does not express its proinflammatory ability in steady-state, since the requirement for its action really does not exist.
Helminth parasites of sand goby (Gobius fluviatilis Pallas, 1811) from Lake Uluabat were investigated on a monthly or bimonthly basis between April 1998 and November 1999. Four species of helminth parasites were recorded in 98 out of 134 fish: Gyrodactylus gobii Shul'man, 1953; Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934; Ligula pavlovskii Dubinina, 1959 Eustrongylides excisus Jagerskiold, 1909. They were evaluated with respect to seasons and host size. While G. gobii appeared to infect the gills and the skin of host fish, B. acheilognathi established itself in the intestines, and E. excisus and L pavlovskii in the body cavity. A total of 789 specimens of G. gobii were detected especially on smaller host fish during the spring period (prevalence 25.3%, mean intensity 23.21 ±9.17 specimens/fish). Although 184 B. acheilognathi appeared on host fish of various sizes and in all seasons, the mean intensity of infection was relatively low (prevalence 34.3%, mean intensity 3.98 ± 3.15 specimens/fish). Concerning L. pavlovskii, the second cestode species, only 9 parasites were found in medium-sized host fish during the summer, autumn and winter (prevalence 3.7%, mean intensity 1.60 ± 0.89 specimens/fish). A total of 108 parasite specimens of E. excisus was found on 40 host fish in the summer and autumn (prevalence 29.8%, mean intensity 2.70 ± 2.29 specimens/fish). The present study gives the occurrence, density, seasonal changes, and parasite-host size relationship for a new locality - Lake Uluabat - as a contribution to the geographical distribution of G. gobii and E. excisus in sand goby.
The occurrence of helminth parasites of barbel in the Doganci Dam Lake was investigated monthly from December 1998 to November 1999. During this study a total of 47 barbell were caught and examined for helminth parasites. A total of 5 species of helminth parasites was found as follows. Dactylogyrus carpathicus (Monogenea) was observed on gills of the fish and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Cestoda) Allocreadium isoporum (Digenea) and Contracaecum sp (Nematoda) were present in the intestines and the abdominal cavity of fishes. D. carpathicus was the dominant parasite species found in barbel. A total of 117 parasites were recorded on 27 of the 47 fish examined. The overall prevalence of D. carpathicus was 57%. A. isoporum was the second most dominant parasite in this study. A total of 35 parasites were found in 9 of 47 fish examined and the total prevalence of A. isoporum was 19.1%. However B. acheliognathi were present only in very small numbers. Only seven B. acheliognathi were found in 4 of the 47 fish examined. Four fish were infected by C. laticeps and a total of 13 parasites was found. A single species of Nematoda, Contracaecum sp was observed in 5 of the 47 fish examined. A total of 25 parasites was recorded. The overall prevalence of Contracaecum sp was 27.2%. D. carpathicus and.A. isoporum were new records for the helminth fauna of Turkey.
The strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGSM1-19, isolated from traditionally homemade white cheese, produces two bacteriocins: lactococcin B-like bacteriocin named bacteriocin BacSMa and bacteriocin BacSMb which have shown similarity with lacticin RM. Plasmid curing resulted in a low yield (0.33%) of BacSMa- BacSMas and BacSMa- BacSMas, BacSMb-, BacSMbs derivatives. The bacteriocin biosynthesis was observed in the logarithmic phase of growth and the production plateau was reached after 8 h of incubation at 30oC, when the culture entered the early stationary phase. Biochemical characterization showed that strain BGSM1-19 retained antimicrobial activity within the pH range of 1 to 12 or after treatment at 100oC for 15 min. However, bacteriocin activity was completely lost after treatment with different proteolytic enzymes. The strain BGSM1-19 contains five plasmids. Plasmid curing indicated that genes coding for bacteriocins synthesis and immunity seem to be located on plasmids. BGSM1-19 exhibited antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella paratyphi, Micrococcus flavus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.
Parasitoses caused by helminths of the family Capillaridae (Neuve-Lemaire 1936) take an important place within the parasitic fauna of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L). The investigations were carried out on a pheasant farm in Romania during the period 1999-2001. The necroscopic examination revealed the presence of Capillaria sp. in 38.09% (48/84) of the adult pheasants and 43.85% (79/114) of the young pheasants. During our examination we identified 7 species of the family Capillaridae: Capillaria annulata C.bursata, C.columbae, C.contorta, C.gallinae, C.phasianina and Thominx cyanopicae. This was the first recorded occurrence of Thominx cyanopicae (Lopez-Neyra,1947) infection in pheasants.
An acute contagious viral disease caused by Rhabdovirus carpio, spring viraemia of carp, was described for the first time by Fijan in 1972. Carp is the most important susceptible species in all age categories, although other species of cyprinid fish also contract the disease. As the name suggest, the disease typically appears in spring, when the water temperature increases. The disease is often complicated by the secondary appearance of bacterial and parasitic infections. The clinical symptoms include and presume gathering of infected fish near the sides of the pond, uncoordinated swimming, darkening of body color, pale gills, petechial bleeding (of the skin, eyes, gills, and fin bases), exophthalmus, and the appearance of pseudofecal expulsions from the infected anus. Pathoanatomical examination sometimes reveals only oedematous organ enlargement and intestinal inflammation. A varying degree of haemorrhaging is present in the bladder, internal organs, and fluid-containing cavities. Diagnosis is based on isolation and identification of the virus and ELISA in the laboratory. More than 1664 samples were analyzed in the course of the 10-year investigation (from 1992-2002) from different carp hatchery localities in the Republic of Serbia. Rhabdovirus carpio was isolated and identified at more than a third of the tested fish hatcheries (31,57%) infected with the spring viraemia virus. Although the disease was known earlier, it now represents an urgent problem in many European countries, and has been causing great damage in intensive and semi-intensive carp production in our country during the last few years. Therefore, special attention has been paid to it.
An attempt was made to evaluate whether in chicken the activity of plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase changes after 32P administration, and whether it helps in the diagnosis of morphological or functional liver damage caused by ionizing radiation before the appearance of clinical simptoms of radiation sickness. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy Jata provenience of both sexes were treated by 32P administred i.m. as disodium hydrogen phosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32P. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were determined spectrophotometrically using optimized kits produced by Boehringer Mannheim GmbH. The obtained results have shown that aspartate aminotransferase activity increased on the 3rd and 5th day and it decreased on the 7th and 10th day of the experiment. A statistically significant difference was recorded on the 3rd day of the experiment. Alanine aminotransferase activity increased during the first five days of the experiment, and on the 7th day it decreased. On the 10th day of the experimet the activity of alanine aminotransferase in the blood plasma of 32P treated birds was not detectable; a statistically significant difference was recorded on the 5th day only. The obtained results indicate that the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase may serve as an indicator of functional and/or morphological liver damage in chickens caused by ionizing radiation before the appearance of clinical symptoms of radiation sickness.
Mechanical behavior of biological structures is a common subject of scientific research. The results of such investigations offer the precise insight into the biomechanical properties of biological structures and are usefull for predicting their behavior when subjected to loading. Although, such biomechanical investigations were conducted on experimental animals nowadays are very popular investigations concerning mathematical experimental models. The most common is the finite element method analysis. A digital model of a structure of interest has to be created for an investigation with the finite element method. Once the digital model is created with the use of computer technology numerous changes of elements and structures are possible, with different applications of the simulated load. The aim of this paper was to to present the development of our own three-dimensional tooth model created for finite element analyses of intact tooth behavior under functional loading. Also, the idea was to evaluate the possibility for using finite element analysis in veterinary biomechanical research. Our own 3D model was created using computer software according to available literature data, and facts gained from freshly extracted intact teeth and plaster models. It is necessary to emphasize that FEM is an effective tool that has been adapted from the engineering arena to biomechanic research and has the potential to contribute to the growing scientific basis of knowledge in veterinary dentistry.
In order to detect and establish the expression of the CD57 lymphocyte population in the caecum and caecal tonsils in broilers, immunohistochemical studies of tissue samples of broilers experimentally infected with E. tenella at 21 days of age were carried out. Immunohistochemical investigations were performed with the aid of the avidin-biotin technique (LSAB), by using mouse monoclonal anti- CD57 antibodies. Increased immunoreactivity of the lamina epithelialis, mucosal lamina propria and caecal submucosa was detected as early as two days after infection, increasing at its highest at the end of the fourth day after infection. On the fifth, sixth and seventh day after infection the degree of expression of CD57 lymphocytes in the caecal mucosa of experimental birds decreases. The immunoreactivity of the tissue of the stroma of the mucosal and submucosal lamina propria of the caecal tonsils was most intensive the fourth, sixth and seventh day after infection. A discrete immunoreactivity decrease was present during the fifth day after infection. The so established CD57 lymphocyte population activity in the caecum and caecal tonsils substantiates the existence of NK cytotoxic activity of intraepithelial lymphocytes, as well as the role of these cells in the intestinal mucosa defense mechanisms against intracellular microorganisms.
Phenotypic changes of thymic epithelial cells (TEC) were studied in male Wistarrats subjected to radioprotector WR-638 (358 mg/kg b.w. ip) and/or whole body X-ray irradiation (3.5 Gy) 15 days after its application. Phenotypic changes were identified in situ on cryostat thymic sections using immunohistochemical staining by a panel of monoclonal anti-cytokeratin antibodies. It was shown that WR-638 significantly reduced changes in the structure of the thymus caused by X-ray irradiation. In the primary involution phase some phenotypic characteristic changes of TEC can be explained mostly by lymphoid destruction, although factors directly connected to the protector can not be excluded. However, in the primary regenerative phase WR-638 caused prominent changes of antigen expression on subcapsular and medullary TEC in irradiated rats. Therefore, WR-638 not only protects thymocytes, but also causes alterations of phenotypic characteristics of TEC which may contribute to its beneficial radioprotective effect on the irradiated rat thymus.
The objective of this study was to evaluate hemato-biochemical parameters in cows with left- and right- sided displacement of the abomasum. Comparison of a group of cows with displacement of the abomasum (n = 73) and a control group of cows (n=43) of the same breed, age, physiological period and management showed statistically significant (p<0.05) deviations of the following hematological and biochemical parameters: increased hematocrit (Ht), white blood cell count (WBCC), neutrophils, total bilirubin (Bil-T) glucose, b-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), serum enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), g-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), together with decreased calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K) and chloride (Cl) concentration. Blood analyses in cows with displacement of the abomasum clearly indicated association of the disease with postpartum disease syndromes such as hypocalcaemia, hepatic lipidosis and endotoxemia. Thus hemoconcentration, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, hypocalcaemia, lipemia ketonemia, hyperglycemia, slight hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia and increased activity of liver enzymes (AST, GGT, GLDH) in blood serum were observed in these cows in comparison to the control group. All established irregularities cause complicated pathophysiological metabolic reactions which are often clinically manifested as displacement of the abomasum during the periparturient period.
The aim of this study was to examine the secretory capacity of endocrine pancreas beta cells in healthy cows and cows suffering from left displaced abomasum (LDA) by determination of glucose and insulin concentrations in the peripheral circulation during glucose tolerance test (GTT). A total of twenty healthy cows (Control group) and twenty cows suffering from left abomasal displacement (Experimental group) were chosen for this study. Cows in the control group were exposed to GTT once, while cows in the experimental group were exposed on the day, day 3 and day 6 after the diagnosis of LDA, as well as 3 days after surgical treatment and reposition of the abomasum. Initial blood glucose concentrations in healthy cows were significantly lower than in the cows suffering from LDA only on day 3 (P<0.05) and day 6 (P<0.01) after the disease was diagnosed. All the glucose values determined both in healthy and diseased cows at 30. minutes after the start of glucose infusion were much higher than physiological values. Regardless to the decline of glucose levels from 60 to 180 minutes after start of glucose infusion, hyperglicemia maintained in both healthy cows and cows suffering from LDA. Compared to healthy cows the rate of decline was slower in cows suffering from LDA at the day of diagnosis, as well as 3 and 6 days after the diagnosis. At the end of the experiment, 240 minutes after the start of the infusion, glucose concentrations were significantly higher in diseased cows on the day of diagnosis and day 3 and 6 after diagnosis than in the control group (P<0.001, respectively) and in diseased cows 3 days after surgery (P<0.001, respectively). Mean initial concentrations of serum insulin were significantly higher in healthy cows than in cows suffering from LDA only on day 6 after diagnosis. From 30 to 240 minutes after the start of glucose infusion, insulinemic responses to intravenous glucose administation were statistically higher in healthy cows than in experimental cows on the day of diagnosis, day 3 and day 6 after diagnosis, as well as 3 days after surgery. On the day of diagnosis and three days after, insulinemia decreased to initial levels 180 minutes after the start of the infusion. Six days after diagnosis, insulinemia decreased to initial values at 120 minutes after the start of the glucose infusion. Three days after surgery, insulinemia decrased to values similar to initial at 240 minutes after the start of the infusion. Glucose tolerance test results showed that the best validation of pancreas endocrine function was between 60 and 120 minutes, as well as 180 and 240 minutes after the glucose infusion started. Our results also confirmed that cows suffering from LDA are in the stage of pancreatic endocrine disfunction and that the rate of this disfunction was higher when the disease lasted longer. The highest rate of pancreatic endocrine disfunction was observed 6 days after diagnosis. On day 3 after surgical treatment and reposition of the abomasum, glucose tolerance test results showed that the pancreatic endocrine function recovered.
L. monocytogenes is a food borne pathogen capable of causing serious invasive diseases in humans and animals, including abortion, septicemia, meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Isolation of the agent is the most accurate diagnostic method in all situations of suspected L. monocytogenes infection. Direct isolation of L. monocytogenes is relatively simple in cases when the number of organisms is very large, such as septicaemic disease forms. Isolation is quite difficult if the agent is present in very small quantities, such as in encephalitis, or if the sample is highly contaminated. In this paper we presented the isolation of L. monocytogenes from clinical samples by using selective media for enrichment and isolation, combined with the cold enrichment technique. In our investigation we isolated L. monocytogenes from 18 of the total of 46 investigated tissue samples originating from animals with clinical diagnosis of listeriosis. We also presented the basic differential-diagnostic procedure in relation to the mimicking bacterial species.
Sixty Holstein newborn calves, which were immediately after parturition separated from their dams and placed in individual pens, were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (15 calves per group). All calves were bottle-fed twice a day during the first 48 hours after partus, with their mothers' colostrum in 12 hour intervals, starting two hours after partus, according to the following model: i) group 1 (G1) received 0.75 L of colostrum (C) per meal, with 20 mL of 25% zeolite (clinoptilolite) suspension in distilled water; ii) group 2 (G2) received 1.5L of C per meal, with 20 mL of 25% zeolite suspension in distilled water; iii) group 3 (G3) received 0.75 L of C per meal, and iv) group 4 (G4) received 1.5 L of C per meal. Blood serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations at 0h (before C ingestion) 6h, 24h and 48h after partus and colostrum IgG concentrations were determined using commercial sRID plates (INEP, Zemun, Serbia). Apparent efficiency of absorption (AEA%) was calculated for individual calves at 6h after partus. Calf blood serum IgG concentrations at all investigated time intervals in G1 were increased compared to G3, with a significant increase at 6h after partus (15±4:10±5 g/L, p<0.05). The same relationship was evident between G2 and G4, with significant mean IgG blood serum differences evident at 6, 24. and 48. hour after partus. Calf blood serum IgG concentration was significantly higher in G2 compared to all experimental groups at 6, 24 and 48h after partus. Apparent efficiency of absorption (AEA%) at 6h after partus was significantly higher in G1, compared to all other experimental groups.
A survey of ticks was undertaken in some regions of central Serbia (1998-2000). Out of 10 species of the family Ixodidae occurring in Serbia seven species were found in the investigated regions, namely: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor reticulatus syn. pictus Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Haemaphysalis punctata and Boophilus annulatus. The faunistic composition, relative abundance population dynamics and the sex ratio of the detected species were investigated. The temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were monitored in terms of their respective effects on the dynamics of tick populations.
In this study, the changes with respect to time in the serum, brain, liver, kidney and small intestine acetylcholinesterase activities were investigated in both male and female rats administered dichlorvos intraperitoneally (i.p.). For this purpose, 4 mg kg-1 doses of dichlorvos were injected i.p. in the rats. The control groups, on the other hand, were administered physiological saline via the same route. Rats were killed by decapitation at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 72 hours after administration of dichlorvos and tissues were harvested. Enzyme activities were determined following the necessary treatments. While a significant decrease in enzyme activities in the kidney and small intestine tissues with respect to time were not observed in either sex, a significant decrease in enzyme activities in the serum, as well as in the brain and liver tissues were observed. As a result of our study, acetylcholinesterase activity was found to be decreased compared to controls in both male and female rats from 2 and 4 hours. Enzyme inhibition continued for up to 72 hours.
The study is focused on the observation of alkaline and acidic phosphatase activity in the glandular cells of uterine endometrium in puerperal ewes after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Ewes of Slovak merino breed (n = 25) divided into 2 groups were included in the experiment The animals in the experimental group (n = 14) and control group (n = 11) were euthanised on day 17, 25 and 34 postpartum. The ewes in the experimental group were given per os capsules of the chemical preparation Delor 105 of domestic proveniance containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) for a period of 30 days. This preparation is equivalent to the foreign preparation Aroclor 1254. A dose of 100 mu g/kg of Delor 105 was given to the animals of the experimental group. These animals were euthanised on day 17 postpartum (n=4) i. e. 5 days from the end of a 30-day period of application; on day 25 postpartum (n=5) i.e. 17 days from the last applicationofPCB; on day 34 postpartum (n=5), which was equivalent to day 28 from the last application. The ewes from the control group were euthanised on day 17 (n = 3), day 25 (n = 4) and on day 34 (h = 4) postpartum. When evaluating alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the glandular cells of the endometrium in the control group, a statistically significant increase (P < 0. 0 1) was observed on day 25 and on day 34 (P < 0.001) compared to day 17 postpartum. No statistically significant differences in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were observed (P > 0.05) in the experimental group. The mean values of its activity in the observed period were below the level of values of day 17 in the control group. Acidic phosphatase activity in the glandular cells of the ewes' endometrium showed a statistically conclusive increase between day 17 and day 25 as well as day 34 postpartum (P < 0.001). Acidic phosphatase density in the experimental group of ewes showed no statistically marked change (P > 0.05) at the observed intervals postpartum.
The effect of water acidification on performance and some biochemical parameters was studied in 100 one day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) divided into control and treatment groups (n = 50) supplied with drinking water supplemented with acidifier (blend of acids) in a concentration of 0.2 % during the whole experimental period. Final body weight, hot carcass yield, abdominal fat pad and metabolic variables in the blood serum except for aspartate aminotranspherase (AST) level which was significantly lower on 35th day (p<0.01), were not affected by the acidifier. Higher weight gain in the treated group due to better feed efficiency was observed in the first phase. Higher feed intake in the third phase of the trial caused higher final feed conversion ratio (p<0.01). Use of the acidifier positively affected bird health status (zero mortality) which was reflected in higher EEI values observed in the treated group on the 35th, as well as 42nd day of the trial.
Oral zeolite treatement effects on the blood serum free amino acid pattern in newborn calves was investigated. The total number of 30 newborn Holstein calves of both sexes, weighting 35±3 kg (mean±SD), were immediately after parturition separated from their dams and placed in individual pens. Calves were divided in two experimental groups, 15 calves each. All calves were bottle-fed twice/ day (1.5 L/meal) during the first 48 hours after delivery, in 12 hour intervals, with their mother's first (during 24 hours postpartum) or second colostrum (at 24-48 hours postpartum), starting two hours after delivery. Zeolite suspension (20 mL, 25% suspension in distilled water) was added to every meal for treated calves. Colostrum samples were collected from six cows at 0-12h and 24h after delivery. Total and colostral whey protein concentrations were determined using the colorimetric method. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of calves at 6, 16, 30 and 40 hours after birth. After spontaneous coagulation at room temperature blood serum was separated and stored at -20°C until analyzed. Total protein concentration was determined by the colorimetric method. Blood serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations were determined using single radial immunodiffusion (sRID) plates. Pooled blood serum free amino acids (aspartic acid - Asp, glutamic acid - Glu, serine - Ser, histidine - His, glycine - Gly, threonine - Thr, alanine - Ala, proline - Pro, tyrosine - Tyr, arginine - Arg, valine - Val, methionine - Met, Leucine - Leu, Isoleucine - Ile, phenylalanine - Phe) were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, GBC Australia). Total and colostral whey protein concentrations were significantly higher in the first colostrum and decreased between 50-75% at 24-48 hours later on. Mean blood serum IgG concentration was significantly increased at 6 and 16 hours in the treated calves (26±7:20±5 and 55±15:42±13 g/L, p<0.05). Blood serum free amino acids (AA) first were separated at nonessential and essential AA (NEAA and EAA, respectively), both being increased at all time intervals after birth in treated calves. However, when the pooled blood serum free AA were clustered according to polarity and electrical charge and presented as relative values (% of the control group values) at the 6h there was a massive increase of polar positive (Arg, His), polar neutral (Ser, Thr, Tyr) and nonpolar neutral free AA (except Met). The minimal effect of oral zeolite treatment was on the negative polar blood serum free AA concentration (Asp and Glu).
Megacolon refers to an abnormal dilatation of the colon. This condition occurs in both humans and animals. Although it seems to be more common in cats, megacolon may also occur in dogs. However, data regarding the etiopathogenesis, clinical course and outcome of canine megacolon are scarce. The aim of this study is to present the experience of our team in diagnosis and therapy of canine acquired megacolon, with particular reference to etiopathogenetic aspects. The prospective study included 28 dogs affected with megacolon, aged 5-9 years. The 26 animals underwent a surgical procedure (colonotomy followed by manual extraction of faeces), and were followed up for a period of 28 days. On the basis of anamnestic data, clinical and radiographic findings, 7 dogs (25%) were presented with idiophatic acquired megacolon, while 75% of cases had secundary acquired megacolon of different etiology (including pelvic canal stenosis, lumbar and sacral spinal injuries or back leg fractures, in 46% od cases; keeping the animals in the backyard and irresponsibility of their owners, in 11%; non-adequate nutrition, in 11%; and decreased physical activity and keeping animals in small flats, in 7%). During early postoperative period, the medical treatment and dietary regimen enabled defecation in 65% of cases. The remaining 35% of cases were treated with Cisapride in order to establish spontaneous defecation. All dogs recovered completely during the 28- days follow-up period. According to the results of interviews with dog owners, all animals were in good condition six months after the surgical procedure.
It is well established that megacolon in carnivores, including both cats and dogs, is a common finding. Megacolon occurs more often in the cat that the dog. Based on current data idiopathic megacolon is a common cause of constipation in cats (62% of constipated cats are affected by diopathic megacolon). There is no evidence of idiopathic megacolon in dogs and publications about this disease in this species is very scarce. We investigated the enteric nervous system in the dilated portion (DP) of the colon in dogs with idiopathic aquired (n=7) or secondary aquired megacolon (n=21) and compared the results with a normal colon in control dogs (n=3). Colonic sections of surgical specimens were investigated by conventional and immunohistochemical methods, including pan-neuronal markers (NSE, synaptophisin, and neurofilament) and VIP, as well as S-100 protein for detection of ganglionic glial cells. Compared to controls, the two megacolon groups showed no changes of density of enteric neurons in both submucosal and myenteric nervous plexuses in DP of the colon and of enteric glial cells. However, compared to controls and dogs with secondary megacolon, there was a significant decrease in the density of NFP-ir nerve fibers in the longitudinal muscle layer in dogs with idiopathic acquired megacolon. In addition, dogs with idiopathic megacolon display decreased VIP-ir in the myenteric plexus and lamina propria mucosae, and absence of VIP-ir neurons in the submucosal plexus of DP of the colon. Similar alterations, although of lesser severity, may be found in dogs with secondary aquired megacolon. We consider that both idiopathic and secondary aquired megacolon might occur on the basis of a dysplastic changes of VIP-ir enteric neurons.
Polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) is an artificial resin that has a wide application in a number of medical disciplines, surgery included. The use of acrylate is limited due to its modest mechanical features. Hence in this study, as an 'in vivo' experiment on dogs, the usefulness of 'reinforced acrylate' in the form of armored acrylate plates in the surgery of fractured ribs in flail chest has been valued. In earlier studies we have shown that polymethylmetacrylate, when reinforced with non-alkaline glass fibers, has improved mechanical characteristics (bending, stretching and crash resistance) compared with not reinforced, or in any other way strengthened acrylate. In this study the value of armored acrylate plates (AAP) in the sanation of flail chest in dogs has been verified, as well as its good biological tolerability as a new implant material in dogs. An original approach to surgical reposition and osteosynthesis of fractured ribs in dogs has been determined. An innovative approach to rib osteosynthesis with acrylate plates can be an adequate model for its application in human patients with unstable flail chest, which is often the result of injury or tumor excision.
The effects of valproate sodium (VPA) on metaphit (1-[1-(3- isothiocyanatophenyl)-cyclohexyl]-piperidine)-induced epilepsy were studied. For this purpose, adult Wistar rat males were used and their behavioral, electrocortical activity and power spectra were examined. Severity of metaphit (10 mg/kg; i.p.) seizures was increasing during the time needit to reach the peak 7-12 h after injection. VPA (100 mg/kg) was i.p. injected to animals with fully developed metaphit seizures after the 8th audiogenic testing. The rats divided in four groups received (i.p.): 1. saline; 2. metaphit alone; 3. metaphit + VPA and 4. VPA alone. They were exposed to sound stimulation 60 min after metaphit administration and further on at hourly intervals. Metaphit produced generalized convulsions and electrocortical abnormalites (high voltage spikes and spike-wave complexes) and power spectrum analysis revealed an increase in total voltage output during the seizure. Valproate, a classical antiepileptic drug prolonged the duration of latency period, decreased the incidence and mean seizure grade but expressed no effect on metaphit-induced electrocortical abnormalites. The results suggest that VPA (100 mg/kg) acted as an anticonvulsant rather than antiepileptic in the metaphit model of epilepsy.
Ethane dimethanesulphonate (EDS), an alkylating agent, caused marked atrophy of the adrenal cortex of adult male rats, in addition to its toxic effect on testicular Leydig cells. The aim of this work was to examine whether a 9-day treatment with ACTH (40 IU/kg/d), isoproterenol (120 mg/kg/d) or dexamethasone (0.25 mg/kg/d), which started 4 days prior to intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of EDS (75 mg/kg), affected the morphological changes in the adrenal cortex evoked by EDS alone. The animals were killed 15 days after EDS injection. Stereological analysis revealed that both ACTH and isoproterenol almost completely prevented cortical atrophy induced by EDS. They also considerably stimulated corticosterone secretion in EDS-injected animals. By contrast, in dexamethasone-suppressed rats, the deleterious effect of EDS on adrenocortical cells was augmented. The volume and cellularity of all cortical zones were reduced, but the remaining cells of the zona reticularis displayed considerable hypertrophy which was probably responsible for the maintenance of corticosterone secretion. These results clearly demonstrate that both ACTH and b adrenoceptor stimulation have protective action against the toxic effects of EDS on rat adrenal cortex, whereas dexamethasone exerts an opposite influence.
The presence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae has been established in all suspected cases of pleuropneumonia at several farms that have been included in the research. Equal incidence of pleuropneumonia has been found both among piglets for breeding and for fattening. The health monitoring of herds is extremely important, firstly because of the need for the adequate strategy to be chosen for controlling the Actinobacillus-caused pleuropneumonia and, at the same time, in order to prevent enormous economic losses that this disease may cause. The morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of isolated strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were completely identical to those of referent strains. It has been found that Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae grows most abundantly on chocolate agar when PolyVitex (bioMerieux) is used as the substrate. Out of 237 samples of altered parts of swine lungs, 13 bacterial species have been found in 193 (81%), and the incidence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae within this percentage was 33%. Of all bacterial species isolated in pure culture from all investigated specimen the most dominant species were Pasteurella multocida with the incidence of 32.64% and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with 29.01%. Their common incidence in all positive findings was 61.65%. If one adds to this their participation in mixed infections (2.59%), this percentage is higher (64.24%). The high percentage of these two bacterial species shows that they are at the same time the most common bacterial pathogens causing pneumonia in pigs. The incidence of other species of bacteria isolated from the lungs of diseased pigs ranged from 0.51 to 10.88%. The sensitivity of isolated strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to the selected range of antibiotics used in clinical veterinary medicine (penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalosporin (III gen.) gentamycin, streptomycin, neomycin, thylosine, enrofloxacin, linkomycin-spectinomycin, tetracycline, florphenycol, trimethoprimsulphomethoxazol and tulatromycin) was tested by the disc-diffusion method, with the implementation of antibiogram tabletes (Torlak) and antibiogram discs (Oxoid), on chocolate agar and on Chaemophilus test medium (HTM, Biomedics). All tested strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were sensitive to thulatromycin, while resistance of same strains was the highest to tetracycline (53%) and trimethoprim/sulphomethoxazole (56%).
Selective media were developed and evaluated for isolation of A. pleuropneumoniae from pig tonsils. Samples were obtained from four pig herds with a clinical history of pleuropneumonia. For isolation of A. pleuropneumoniae 93 pig tonsils were collected at slaughter. Each sample was streaked on to four different selective media (modified PPLO agar (mPPLO) Brain-Heart agar (BH), Columbia agar (CA), Miller-Hinton chocolate agar (MHCA)) containing different combinations of antibiotics, NAD and nystatin. The selectivity of nutritive media is conditioned by the content of antibiotics, as well as by the type of medium used. Mean isolation rate of A. pleuropneumoniae in the investigated herds, was 17.2%. The best results were obtained using PPLO2 agar, 20.4%. The other media supplemented with the mentioned antibiotics gave satisfactory results.
The aim of this research was to contribute to a more detailed insight in the action of peroxygen disinfectants based on peroxoacetic acid (PAA), on lipid components of sporogenic forms of microorganisms. Sporogenic forms are recognized to be significantly more resistant in comparison to vegetative forms. Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 and Bacillus subtilis NCTC 10480 where chosen as referent bacterial sporogenic strains used to investigate the acting mechanism of PAA. After treatment of the above mentioned bacterial strains with PAA, fatty acids have been isolated from untreated and treated spores and consequent changes in the lipid component were analyzed. The obtained methyl-esters of fatty acids (MEFA) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), using a standard of bacterial MEFA. Results confirmed that after treatment, in Bacillus cereus certain quantitative changes occurred, which included the decrease in quantity of fatty acids with 16 and 17 carbon atoms, i.e. 16:0, 16:1, /so 17:0 and anteiso 17:0. At the same time, in B. Subtilis the significant decrease in quantity of fatty acids with 15 and 17 carbon atoms occurred, i.e. anteiso 15:0 and anteiso 17:0.
On the terminal part of the guinea-pig ileum GABA produces contraction whereas on the preterminal it produces an initial short-lasting contraction followed by a prolonged relaxation. The increasing range of concentrations of GABA produces a concentration-dependent decrease in contractions and an increase in contractions of the preterminal ileum. Both contractions and relaxations can be blocked by atropine, indicating the cholinergic nature of the responses. These effects are due to the action on GABAA receptors. Depending on the duration of the incubation period (3 and 60 sec) GABA produced either potentiation or depression of the contractile effects of acetylcholine on the ileum. All the three neurotoxic insecticides (lindan malathion, permethrine) affect the contractile effects of acetylcholine on the ileum. Lindan and permetrine antagonized the contractile effects of acetylcholine, whereas malathion produced a potentiation. Malathion significantly depressed the contractile effects of the electrical field stimulation of the ileum. This effect is probably realized through the local release of GABA. Both lindan and permethrine were found to decrease the duration of the barbiturate sleeping time, whereas malathion significantly prolonged its duration. The action of lindan and permethrine is presumably realized by blocking or interfering with the function of GABAA receptors. Malathion is an anticholinesterase, thus producing an accumulation of acetylcholine at the critical sites, consequently producing a prolongation of the barbiturate sleeping time. In conclusion, neurotoxic insecticides (lindan, permethrine, malathion) affect both central and peripheral GABA-ergic systems. They can produce either depression or stimulation of these systems. They also highly significantly modulate the activity of the cholinergic system in the isolated guinea-pig ileum.
Macrophages derived from different tissues: bone marrow, spleen, peritoneal cavity and alveolus, were examined from the aspects of their morphology and functional characteristics expression of Fc receptors (FcR), phagocytic activity towards yeast particles and nonspecific esterase (NSE) content¹ before and after in vitro activation. Twenty four-hour-adherent cells were isolated with the aim of analyzing the characteristics of resident tissue macrophages. Following cultivation in vitro 8-day-adherent cells were used to investigate the influence of macrophage activation on their morphology and function. Morphological analysis of cell smears, performed in respect to cell size, showed significant enlargement, especially in the population of alveolar cells cultured for 8 days and activated with colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) and lymphokines. It was also demonstrated that 24-hour- and 8-dayadherent macrophages derived from different tissues exhibited similar properties. All these cells were more than 90% FcR-positive (FcR+) NSE-positive (NSE+) and had phagocytic properties. However, within the population of alveolar macrophages there were some NSE+ cells lacking FcR and phagocytic activity, even after in vitro activation. These results confirmed that the properties of alveolar macrophages differing from those of macrophages from other tissues were dependent on their microenvironment.
The effect of different salts of divalent ions as potential inhibitors and stimulators of ruminal alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activities in sheep was assessed using biochemical assays. Ruminal fluid was obtained from six cannulated ewes. Effects of ZnCl2, CuCl2, MgCl2, BaCl2 and CoCl2 on ruminal enzyme activities were tested after incubation of ruminal fluid in the presence of the salts at 37oC for 30 min. Two different concentrations of salts of divalent ions were tested (5 and 20 x10-3 mol/L). The higher concentration of Cu2+ and Zn2+ produced a higher inhibitory effect (from 50 to 70% of control ALT and AST activity) by Cu2+ and Zn2+. The lower assayed concentration of Cu2+ produced 57% inhibition of GDH activity. Salts of divalent ions such as Ba2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+ and Mg2+ resulted in the activation of GDH from 216 to 297% of total GDH activity, when assayed at a relative concentration of 20 x 10-3 mol/L. The lower concentration of Ca2+ and Zn2+ induced activation of ALT from 146 to 186%, while Cd2+, Zn2+ and Ca2+ resulted in the activation of AST ranging from 127 to 172%. The results of the study indicate that the effect of divalent ions on ruminal enzyme activities depend on their relative concentration and which enzyme is assayed.
The objective of our study was examination of the antigenic structure fusional and hemolytic activities of the surface glycoprotein HN and F antigens of purified parainfluenza (PI 3) viruses activated with 0.025 g/dl trypsin-versen (molecular weights of 112 kD, 81-82 kD and 30-31 kD), in vitro. The samples of activated PI3 virions with total protein concentrations of 0.55 and 0.27mg/ml and hemagglutinating titre of 256 and 128 HAU/0.1 ml, induced bovine turbinate(BT) cell fusion and hemolysis of guinea-pig erythrocytes. After treatment of the aforementioned samples with specific hyperimmune sera against PI 3 virus in which the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titre was 1:64, cell fusion was not registered. The results show that there are possibilities to use fusional and hemolytic tests for the fast detection of imunologically important glycoprotein antigens of PI 3 viruses and their identification with specific hyperimmune sera.
Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) exhibits a variety of effects including neurotoxic, radio-protective and sensitizing activity. It is a potent copper chelating agent used for the treatment of oxygen toxicity, as an imunomodulator in cancer therapy, as well as in HIV infected patients. In this study we examined the effect of DDC, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor, on the activities of copper-zinc containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Three hours after diethyldithiocar-bamate treatment (1 g/kg b.m, i.p) a significant decrease of SOD and increase of GR and GST activities were found in the blood of rats. A negative correlation between SOD and GR and a positive correlation between GR and GST activities were also obtained. DDC induced a concentration dependent increase of GR activity and NADPH consumption in an enzymatic assay in vitro. The obtained results may be interpreted to indicate that a decrease in SOD activity in the blood of rats, after DDC administration, may be compensated for by changes in the activity of some other compounds suggesting that regulation of antioxidative defence is very complex.
An attempt was made to determine the effect of eggs irradiation by low dose gamma radiation upon body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed consumption (FC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. Our aim was also to investigate the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the blood plasma of those chickens. The eggs of heavy breed chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups of chickens. BW of chickens was measured by a single weighting of chickens on the 1st and 42nd day of the fattening period. An average BWG was calculated from the obtained results during the whole fattening period (i.e. from the 1st until the 42nd day). FC was measured each day during the fattening time and total feed consumption was calculated. On the basis of FC and BW, FCR was calculated (FC/BWG). Blood samples were taken from the right jugular vein on the 1st and 3rd day, or from the wing vein on days 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of all enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using reagents according to recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. BW of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was statistically significant higher than in the controls during the fattening period; on day 42 of fattening, BW of the experimental chickens was 90 g (i.e. 4.8 %) higher than in the controls (P<0.05). FC during the fattening period did not essentially differ in the experimental and the control group. The AST activity was significantly increased in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3 and 10 (P<0.05), ALT activity was increased in the same chickens only on the 10th day (P<0.05). The activity of ACP in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42 (P<0.001) and the activity of ALP in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was decreased on day 42 (P<0.001). The obtained results indicate that low doses of gamma radiation have a stimulative effect upon metabolic processes in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation, which is proved by increase of BWG and BW, as well as by increase of AST, ALT and ACP activities in blood plasma.
It was previously shown that acute pretreatment with simvastatin (1 mg/kg) significantly protects rats from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R, 45 min + 4 h). The aim of our present study was to determine whether this beneficial effect of simvastatin was dose-related. A single dose of simvastatin of 1 or 3 mg/kg, i.v. bolus, dissolved in 10% DMSO (Sim1 and Sim3), was injected 30 min before ischemia, 30 min before reperfusion or 5 min before reperfusion (30I, 30R, and 5R, respectively). Simvastatin-treated rats were compared to the appropriate controls (I/R + DMSO and Sham + DMSO group). Sim1 and Sim3 groups were similar regarding serum concentrations of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamiltransferase (sUr, sCre, ALT, and γGT, respectively), as well as total histological score. Both doses of the drug (Sim1 and Sim3) were more effective in the reduction of total histological score in comparison with I/R + DMSO group. Also, the higher dose of drug 3 mg/kg (Sim3) was somewhat more effective than Sim1 in the reduction of tubular necrosis score and loss of brush border. In conclusion, the acute protective effect of simvastatin in the experimental model of renal I/R injury does not seem to be dose-related, and the dose of 1 mg/kg should be chosen for further investigation.
The acute inflammatory response of the liver associated with chronic food restriction was examined in adult female and male Wistar rats. The changes in the levels of serum markers of liver injury, AST and ALT and the appearance of a serum marker of inflammation, the acute phase protein (APP) haptoglobin (Hp) were assessed following turpentine treatment of well-nourished (WN) controls and undernourished (UN) rats. Undernutrition was induced by food restriction during a six week period by offering chow equivalent to 50% of the normal food intake. In the female rats undernutrition significantly potentiated liver injury and increased their sensitivity to the toxic effects of turpentine, which was opposite to the results obtained for males. Differences in the basal levels of AST, ALT and Hp between females and males imply that the effects of chronic food restriction on protein synthesis in the liver are gender related.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute and repeated immobilization stress on oxygen consumption of the isolated interstitial rats' testes cells (ISC). The ISC testes cells were isolated according to Anakwe et al. The oxygen consumption by ISC testes was measured polarographically in vitro with a Clark-type oxygen electrode (YSI-5331, Yellow Springs Instrument), which was done in two phases of respiration: in phase V4 (without ADP) and in phase V3 (with ADP). Repeated immobilization stress (2 hours daily for 10 consecutive days) induced a fall in oxygen consumption in both phases of ISC rat's testes respiration (-10% V4, -4% V3), but this inhibition of respiration was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Acute immobilization stress (2 h) induced decrease in oxygen consumption in both phases of ISC rats' testes respiration (-49% V4, -31% V3) which was statistically significant (p<0.01). Our data suggest that acute and repeated immobilization stress reduce oxygen consumption of ISC testes cells. However, the mechanisms by which immobilization stress induces mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as mechanisms which develop an adaptive response to repeated immobilization remain unclear, so that further investigations of this mechanisms are required.
The objective of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of the acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (HPT) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) as well as cortisol in sows with postparturient mastitis metritis agalactia (MMA) (Group one, n=21) and in healthy sows (Group two, n=20) and to determine whether changes in APPs are associated with litter performance. Serum samples were taken from each sow one day after parturition, and at days 5, 10, 15, and 20 of lactation. The total number of pigs born (Group one 12.4±1.3 vs. Group two: 12.5±1.2), number of liveborn pigs (Group one 11.9±1.1 vs. Group two: 11.8±1.3), number of stillborn pigs (Group one 0.5±0.03 vs. Group two: 0.7±0.02), and number of mummified pigs (Group one 0.4±0.03 vs. Group two: 0.2±0.01) did not differ significantly between the groups. Preweaning mortality showed significant (P<0.001) differences between the sows suffering from MMA (22.1±5.2%) and the healthy sows (12.6±2.1%). Weaning litter weights at four weeks differed significantly (P<0.01) between the group suffering from MMA and the healthy animals (68.2±2.1 kg vs. 77.3±3.2 kg). Mean serum AGP concentrations were higher (P<0.001) at day ten and twenty (P=0.02) after parturition in sows suffering from MMA. Mean serum HPT was higher in sows suffering from MMA at days 1, 5 (P<0.001) and 10 (P=0.04) of lactation. Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly (P<0.001) higher in sows suffering from MMA compared to the healthy ones throughout the study. AGP was negatively correlated with litter weight indicating that activation of the cellular immune response of the sow negatively affects growth rate of her litter. Correlations were found between the overall means for weight and acute phase proteins. The authors conclude that AGP negatively correlates with litter weight, indicating that an activation of cellular immune response of the sow may negatively affect growth rate of the suckling piglets and that HTP may be a valuable indicator of stress and disease in postparturient sows.
In the present study we employed 7-NI, reportedly a selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the non-specific potent NOS inhibitor I-NAME, to investigate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in quinolinic acid (QA)-induced striatal toxicity in the rat. QA was administered unilaterally into the striatum of adult Wistar rats in the single dose of 150 nmol/L. The second and third group were treated with 7-NI and QA and I-NAME and QA. The control group was treated with O.9% saline solution likewise. Nitrite levels were decreased in the ipsi- and contralateral striatum, forebrain cortex and hippocampus in the group treated with NOS inhibitors (7-NI, I-NAME) and QA compared to QA-treated animals. As 7-NI selectively inhibits the neuronal form of NOS, this study suggests that NO produced from a neuronal and not an epithelial source may contribute to neuronal damage in this model.
Inflammation at a local and systemic level is a complex process that involves the synthesis of acute phase proteins (APPs) with multiple functions in the regulation of the inflammatory process itself. The aim of this work was to define local and systemic APPs response induced by natural Staph. aureus subclinical infection of the mammary gland in dairy cows with a different number of quarters involved. Midlactation dairy cows (n=30) were devided into three groups. First group were cows with bacteriologically negative milk samples (BN group), second group were cows with one quarter infected with Staph. aureus (SaQ1) and third group were cows with two quarters infected (SaQ2). Milk samples were analyzed for inflammation indicators: serum amyloid A (SAA) and somatic cell count (SCC). Serum samples where analyzed for SAA, haptoglobin (Hp), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and albumin concentration. Also, complete blood count (CBC) was done. SCC and SAA increased in quarter milk samples, being lowest in the BN group and highest in the SaQ2 group. In serum samples, SAA, Hp, Cp and albumin concentrations were significantly higher only in the SaQ2 group comparing with BN group. The leukocyte number, as well as hemoglobin concentration were in the physiological range in all three groups of cows. These results confirm that the magnitude of tissue injury has an impact on APPs concentration. They also demonstrate that cows having Staph. aureus sublinical infections of two mammary quarters have a more pronounced systemic APP response than cows with only one quarter involved.
The main goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of endothelin (ET) receptor blockade in the course of experimental postischaemic acute renal failure (ARF). Experiments were performed on male adult Wistar rats. The right kidney was removed before renal ischaemia (by clamping the left renal artery for 45 minutes). The experimental groups received either bosentan (ETA/ETB-receptor antagonist; 10mg/kg/b.m) or vehicle (saline) in the femoral vein 20 minutes before, during and 20 minutes after ischaemia. All parameters were measured 24 hours after reperfusion. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that bosentan yields beneficial effect on ARF. Bosentan improves both renal haemodynamic and functional parameters after ARF, while lesions of tubular epithelial cells, the principal targets of injury in ARF are less serious in bosentan-treated rats than in the control ARF rats. This strongly suggests that endothelins have an important role in the development of ischaemia/'reperfusion injury and contributes to the promotion of bosentan in future clinical practice.
Lung trauma has been considered to be one of the vital injuries induced by explosion-generated blast overpressure. Conflicting evidence exists as to whether nitric oxide plays a crucial role in acute lung injury induced by blast. Data presented in this study demonstrate that local exposure of midthoracic region to moderate-level blast overpressure significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde and superoxide anion generation in rabbit's lungs 30 minutes after exposure, whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) activity showed parallel increase. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a non-specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), had no effects on the measured parameters suggesting that oxidative stress induced by blast exposure might be independent from NOS.