Weight gain curves in infancy and childhood show valleys and hills which cannot be simplistically ascribed to random variations, so that they are referred to as pulsatile or pulse growth. Classical mathematical models of human growth, upon which the statistical percentiles are based, do not account for these oscillations. Moreover, statistical curves can hide individual patterns of growth. In the present paper a system dynamics approach to modelling the first year weight gain is suggested which simultaneously accounts for the oscillations of weight gain, for its decreasing trend, and for a more or less marked initial spurt observed approximately in the second month of life. It is suggested that the overall weight growth in the first year is the output of complex hidden non-linear dynamics.
The finding that 10% povidone-iodine skin disinfectant may compromise thyroid function in premature infants prompted its replacement with 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate solution in 70% isopropanol. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rates of true infection and contamination associated with the use of these two disinfectants in the neonatal intensive care unit.
The study population comprised two cohorts of infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit: 1) in 1992-1993 when only 10% povidone-iodine was used as a skin disinfectant, and 2) in 1995-1996 when only 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate solution in 70% isopropanol was used. A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine whether all documented positive blood, CSF and suprapubic aspirate cultures indicated true infection or contamination. True infection was defined as clinical symptoms and/or laboratory abnormalities suggestive of sepsis, with positive blood, CSF or suprapubic aspirate cultures.
1146 infants were admitted during the study periods, 507 during the first period and 639 during the second. In the early group, 17.6% of infants had major malformations, 72.0% were premature and 25.2% had weights of < 1500 g. Corresponding percentages for the latter group were 16.0%, 80.6% and 32.9%, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the two research periods in rate of infants with positive blood cultures, true infections, or contamination.
The use of 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate solution in 70% isopropanol as a skin disinfectant is justified in neonatal intensive care units because it is not associated with an increased incidence of infections as opposed to 10% povidone-iodine and is devoid of detrimental effects.
To gather normative data on parent-reported child sleep and investigate what influences it.
Subjective sleep report data on night wakings, sleep quality, bedtime and risetime were gathered from parents of around 10,000 children from birth to age 5 in a cohort questionnaire study. The data were analysed for trends, and sleep measures were compared with background factors such as child temperament, foreign origin, family situation, parents' age and education and night feedings.
The population trends were towards improved sleep with increasing age. Individual sleep patterns show some stability. Reports of frequent night wakings and low sleep quality (LSQ) were strongly associated with each other within and between the age groups (odds ratio [OR] 2.8-60.2, p < 0.001). Perception of poor child sleep was influenced by child temperament at ages 1 and 3 (OR 2.2-4.4, p < 0.001), foreign origin at age 1 (OR 2.1-2.3, p < 0.001), and to some extent, parents' age and education at ages 1-3 (OR 1.4-2.1, p < 0.05 or stronger), but not by single parent status or infant night feedings. Reporting multiple or unspecific causes of night wakings was associated with reporting LSQ (OR 1.8-4.7, p < 0.05 or stronger).
With increasing age, fewer wakings, improved sleep quality and a more uniform sleep schedule seem normal. However, frequent wakings and low quality sleep at early ages seem surprisingly stable. A difficult temperament and foreign origin were associated with lower quality sleep and more frequent wakings in early ages, whereas being a single parent was not. Finally, night feeding does not seem to condition children to frequent wakings.
The Italian Piedmont region sponsored in 2005 a population-based registry to assess the epidemiology of childhood chronic organ failure involving kidneys, liver, heart or lungs.
Patients in chronic organ failure who were younger than 18 years were selected, and entered the registry when accomplishing the standard failure criteria for each organ. The cases were reported by the general paediatricians of the region and integrated with the data gathered by the Children University Hospital, a tertiary care centre.
In Piedmont (647,727 inhabitants < 18 years), a total of 146 children (217 cases per million of paediatric population) were found to be affected by chronic organ failure (mean age 10 years; range 0-17). The organ failure involved kidneys in 68 subjects (48%), liver in 24 (17%), heart in 21 (15%) and lungs in 28 (20%), and was severe in 32 subjects (6 on transplantation waiting list). The most represented disease leading to chronic renal failure was renal hypodysplasia (79%). Chronic liver failure was mostly caused by biliary atresia (30%), autoimmune hepatitis (25%) and Wilson's disease (21%). Dilated cardiomyopathy (62%) and surgically treated congenital cardiopathy were the two leading causes of chronic heart failure. The most represented disease leading to chronic lung failure was cystic fibrosis (89%).
This is the first report of the literature focusing on the epidemiology of chronic organ failure in children encompassing a region of 4,000,000 inhabitants. This clinical condition is rare, but medically and socially very demanding not only in childhood but the life along, as most of these patients will need solid organ transplantation decades later.
An outbreak of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) 0127:H6 diarrhea occurred at two nurseries for the newborn in Chongqing in May 1987. Sixty-nine neonates had diarrhea; two deaths resulted. The epidemic strains, carrying 1.5 and 60 Md plasmid DNA, had an identical restriction digest profile and the same outer membrane protein pattern and could produce localized adherence to HeLa, HEp-2 and FL cells. The rates of contamination with EPEC 0127:H6 on medical staff's hands in these two nurseries were 11.8% and 8.7%, respectively, whereas 85 samples from milk, air and other sources were all negative for EPEC. The source of infection was the index case's mother who had had watery stools. Transmission of EPEC 0127:H6 from infant to infant took place by way of the fecal-oral route, most likely via the hands of medical staff attending their care. We present the first case, confirmed by plasmid and restriction analyses and outer membrane protein determination, of a neonate who acquired EPEC during delivery through ingestion of organisms residing in the maternal birth canal.
Epidemics of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae 01 occur regularly in India. Until recently, Vibrio cholerae non-01 have been the the causative agents of sporadic cases of gastroenteritis and septicaemia, especially in immunocompromised children. We describe a large outbreak of cholera-like illness from North India caused by Vibrio cholerae non-01, later serotyped as Vibrio cholerae 0139. Forty-one of a total of 391 patients with acute diarrhoea during a 2-month period (May-July 1993) were identified as having Vibrio cholerae in faecal samples. All patients were aged 1.5-12 years. Vibrio cholerae 0139 was isolated in 30 patients (73%-group I) and Vibrio cholerae 01 biotype eltor in 11 patients (27%-group II). The clinical presentation and severity of the cholera-like illness were similar to typical cholera. This strain is toxigenic with an epidemic potential and should be monitored carefully.
The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) in Czech children with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), and to determine the contribution of HLA-DQA1 and DQB1 to CD susceptibility among diabetic children. We screened 345 children with IDDM (186 boys and 159 girls, aged 0 to 18 y) for coeliac disease using the IgA endomysial antibodies (EMA) test. In all EMA-positive children, small bowel biopsy was performed to confirm CD. To determine the role of the HLA-DQA1*05-DQB1*0201 (DQ2) and the DQA1*03-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) molecules in CD susceptibility among diabetic children, the HLA-DQA1-DQB1 was genotyped in all EMA-positive, and in 186 of EMA-negative diabetic patients. EMA positivity was found in 15/345 (4.3%) diabetic children. The diagnosis of CD was established in 14/345 (4.1%) children based on a bioptic finding of villous atrophy, while the remaining EMA-positive patient had a normal bioptic finding, being diagnosed as a potential CD. The HLA DQA1*05-DQB1*0201 (DQ2) molecule conferred a significant risk of CD among diabetic children (odds ratio = 4.1, CI 95% 1.1-15), being found more frequently in diabetic children with CD (80%) than in diabetic children without CD (49%).
The high prevalence of CD (4.1%) found in Czech children with IDDM emphasizes the need for their regular screening. We suggest that this CD screening protocol may be individualized according to the DQA1*05-DQB1*0201 positivity.
We wanted to determine the prevalence and subcategories of mental retardation (MR) defined as IQ < or = 70 in Akershus county, which rated by average yearly income, had the second highest socioeconomic status (SES) in Norway.
The study population consisted of 30 037 children born between 1980 and 1985. Cases were ascertained from multiple sources and psychometrically assessed, predominantly with the Wechsler tests, which were standardized in Norway in 1978. The cases were divided into four groups: profound (IQ < 20), severe (IQ 20-34), moderate (IQ 35-49), and mild (IQ 50-70) MR, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). The median age was 10.8 y. The frequency and degree of parental consanguinity were registered, and the average inbreeding coefficient was calculated.
Altogether, 185 had IQ < or = 70, giving a prevalence of MR of 6.2/1000. Prevalences for profound, severe, moderate, and mild MR were 0.8, 0.4, 1.5 and 3.5/1000, respectively. In two, possibly three, cases the parents were second cousins, giving an average inbreeding coefficient of 20-30 x 10(-5).
The low prevalence of MR, particularly mild MR, could partly be explained by high SES, old standardization of IQ-test, and low inbreeding coefficient. The proportion of profound MR was considerably higher than estimated by DSM-IV.
Serum levels of the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and of osteocalcin, C-terminal parathyroid hormone and other biochemical indices related to bone metabolism, were determined in two groups of patients with beta-thalassaemia aged 5-10 years (summer 7.8 +/- 0.4 years, mean +/- SEM, and winter 7.7 +/- 0.4 years, group A, n = 15) and 11-23 years (16.6 +/- 0.9 and 15.7 +/- 0.9 years in summer and winter, respectively, group B, n = 22). Emphasis was given to populations of school and adolescent ages and to the seasons of summer and winter when vitamin D status demonstrates the widest extremes. The mean serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in patients aged 5-10 years did not differ from those of controls during both seasons studied. In contrast, in the age group 11-23 years these levels were found to be lower in patients than in controls both in winter (10.6 +/- 0.9 ng/ml vs 15.0 +/- 2.0 ng/ml, p < 0.05) and summer (20.2 +/- 2.1 ng/ml vs 27.1 +/- 2.0 ng/ml, p < 0.05). The serum concentrations of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were lower in the thalassaemic patients than in controls in both age groups and both seasons. In the patients under 10 years of age the mean values of this metabolite in winter were 1.06 +/- 0.17 ng/ml vs 1.68 +/- 0.20 ng/ml in the respective controls (p < 0.05), and in summer 1.44 +/- 0.11 ng/ml vs 2.35 +/- 0.36 ng/ml in controls (p < 0.05). In the group of patients aged 11-23 years, the mean levels of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were in winter 0.65 +/- 0.12 ng/ml vs 1.12 +/- 0.19 ng/ml (p < 0.05) in controls and in summer 1.34 +/- 0.12 ng/ml vs 1.84 +/- 0.20 ng/ml (p < 0.05). The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in both thalassaemic patient groups were significantly no different from those in the respective control groups. Serum osteocalcin, C-terminal parathyroid hormone, calcium, inorganic phosphate and alkaline phosphatase levels in the patients studied were not significantly different from those in controls, except for calcium and phosphate in the older group. In the older group of thalassaemic patients, serum calcium was lower than in the controls (2.26 +/- 0.03 vs 2.37 +/- 0.03 mmol/l, p < 0.05) in summer and serum phosphate higher than in the controls in winter (1.47 +/- 0.05 mmol/l vs 1.27 +/- 0.06 mmol/l, p < 0.05).
We report the case of a 4-year-old boy who sustained an oesophageal burn grade II-III due to ingestion of an alkaline substance from a leaking cylindric 3.3 cm diameter battery, by putting the battery to his mouth and sucking the caustic solution. Lye ingestion by sucking a big cylindrical alkaline battery has not yet been reported in the medical literature. We recommend the production of safer alkaline battery cover tubes in order to eliminate any possibility of leakage. Accidents like this might occur more often, since battery collecting and recycling is becoming more common.
To compare risk-adjusted outcomes at 18- to 22-month-corrected age for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants who never received phototherapy (NoPTx) to those who received any phototherapy (PTx) in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network randomized trial of Aggressive vs. Conservative Phototherapy.
Outcomes at 18 to 22-month-corrected age included death, neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) and Bayley Scales Mental Developmental Index (MDI). Regression models evaluated the independent association of PTx with adverse outcomes controlling for centre and other potentially confounding variables.
Of 1972 infants, 216 were NoPTx and 1756 were PTx. For the entire 501- to 1000-g-BW cohort, PTx was not independently associated with death or NDI (OR 0.85, 95% CI: 0.60-1.20), death or adverse neurodevelopmental endpoints. However, among infants 501-750 g BW, the rate of significant developmental impairment with MDI < 50 was significantly higher for NoPTx (29%) than PTx (12%) (p = 0.004).
Phototherapy did not appear to be independently associated with death or NDI for the overall ELBW group. Whether PTx increases mortality could not be excluded because of bias from deaths before reaching conservative treatment threshold. The higher rate of MDI < 50 in the 501- to 750-g-BW NoPTx group is concerning and consistent with NRN Trial results.
To evaluate whether preterm neonates weighing 1000-1499 g at birth receiving rapid enteral feeding advancement at 30 mL/kg/day attain full feedings (180 mL/kg/day) earlier than those receiving slow enteral feeding advancement at 20 mL/kg/day without increase in the incidence of feeding intolerance or necrotizing enterocolitis.
A total of 100 stable intramural neonates weighing between 1000 and 1499 g and gestational age less than 34 weeks were randomly allocated to enteral feeding (expressed human milk or formula) advancement of 20 mL/kg/day (n = 50) or 30 mL/kg/day (n = 50). RESULTs: Neonates in the rapid feeding advancement group achieved full volume feedings before the slow advancement group (median 7 days vs. 9 days) (p < 0.001), had significantly fewer days of intravenous fluids (median 2 days vs. 3.4 days) (p < 0.001), shorter length of stay in hospital (median 9.5 days vs. 11 days) (p = 0.003) and regained birth weight earlier (median 16 days vs. 22 days) (p < 0.001). There were no statistical differences in the proportion of infants with apnea, feed interruption or feed intolerance.
Rapid enteral feeding advancements of 30 mL/kg/day are well tolerated by stable preterm neonates weighing 1000-1499 g.
To assess the intelligence quotient (IQ) and academic achievement in early adulthood of a cohort of extremely-low-birthweight (ELBW 1000 g) subjects.
All 82 ELBW survivors consecutively born in or referred to a single tertiary center in 1976-1981 were traced at a mean age of 18 y. Three disabled children had died. Fifty-nine subjects (75%) had their IQ tested and 69 (87%) responded to a questionnaire. They were compared to 44 term, normal birthweight (NBW) matched controls. Outcome measures were: IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) and educational outcome. The main outcome variables were compared between groups and analyzed for neonatal and demographic data and in the ELBW group for childhood data.
There was a strong relationship (r2=0.55, p<0.0001) between childhood and adult IQ for the 41 ELBW subjects tested at both ages (6.1+/-1.3 and 18.4+/-1.9 y). Differences were significant between ELBW and NBW groups: in mean full-scale IQ (94+/-12 vs 108+/-14), verbal IQ (93+/-12 vs 106+/-14) and performance IQ (97+/-14 vs 109+/-16) (p<0.0001). Differences between ELBW and NBW groups in prevalence of IQ<85 (19 vs 2%, p=0.012), of schooling in a regular curriculum for age (36 vs 68%, p=0.0011), of requirement for special classes or schools (33 vs 9%, p=0.0032), and of obtainment of secondary school diploma for those 18 y or older (56 vs 85%, p=0.018) were largely due to fathers' socio-economic score.
ELBW subjects had a mean adult IQ in the normal range; however, it was one standard deviation below that of NBW subjects and they had more school failures. Despite this, more than half of ELBW subjects aged 18 y or more had obtained their secondary school diploma.
To assess self-perceived health status and mental health outcomes of former extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants at young adulthood compared with community norms and to analyse predictors of poor outcome.
Fifty-five ELBW adults, 18 men (33%), with median (range) gestational age of 28.7 (25.0-34.0) weeks and birth weight of 930 (680-990) grams, born in Switzerland, were included. They self-rated their health status and mental health at a mean (range) age of 23.3 (21.8-25.9) years. Health status was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 questionnaire and mental health by the Brief Symptom Inventory.
The mean scores for both outcome measures were in the normal range. However, the study group self-rated significantly higher physical health status and lower mental health status compared with the community norms, and scores for self-perceived mental health tended to be worse in the former. ELBW adults reported more problems in socio-emotional role functioning compared with the community norms. Female sex was associated with poorer and bronchopulmonary dysplasia with better mental health status.
Health status and mental health of former ELBW adults were overall satisfying. However, the comparison with the community norms revealed differences, which may be important for parental and patient counselling and developing support strategies.
To examine the correlation of S-100B to cranial computerized tomography (CCT) scan results in children after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI).
One hundred and nine paediatric patients (0-18 years) with MTBI were included in this prospective single-centre study. Serum was collected within 6 h of trauma for determination of serum S-100B. The upper reference of S-100B was set to 0.16 mug/L. A CCT scan was performed in all patients and the results were correlated to the S-100B values.
Computerized tomography was abnormal in 36 patients showing intracerebral haemorrhages and/or skull fractures. Serum S-100B level was significantly higher in patients with a pathological condition as shown in CT scan results (p = 0.003). There were no false negative, but 42 false positive test results for S-100B. This resulted in a sensitivity of 1.00, specificity of 0.42, positive predictive value of 0.46 and negative predictive value of 1.00. An area under the receiver operating curve of 0.68 was calculated.
S-100B is a valuable tool to rule out patients with pathological CCT findings in a collective of paediatric patients with MTBI. Elevations of S-100B do not necessarily lead to a pathological finding in the CT scan, but values below the cut-off safely rule out the evidence of intracranial lesions.
To examine socio-economic factors, smoking, coffee consumption and exclusive breastfeeding duration.
This study was part of a prospective cohort study of children born between 1 October 1997 and 1 October 1999 (the All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) study). Eleven socio-economic characteristics (parental employment, civil status, whether parents were born in Sweden, parental education, residence at birth and during child's first year, crowded living), maternal smoking, coffee consumption, infant sex, siblings, parental age, and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy were analysed using logistic regression and Cox's proportional hazards method. All data were obtained through questionnaires distributed at infant birth and at 1 y of age. Exclusive breastfeeding duration<4 mo and actual breastfeeding duration were our main outcome measures.
Out of 10205 infants, 2206 (21.6%) were exclusively breastfed for less than 4 mo ("short exclusive breastfeeding"; SEBF). Backward stepwise regression analysis identified the following risk factors for SEBF: maternal smoking (95% confidence interval for adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI AOR 2.00-2.82), low maternal education (95% CI AOR 1.45-2.19), maternal employment less than 3 mo during pregnancy (95% CI AOR 1.17-1.54), paternal age<or=29 y (95% CI AOR 1.14-1.47), maternal age<or=29 y (95% CI AOR 1.08-1.39) and low paternal education (95% CI AOR 1.08-1.48). The odds ratio for SEBF increased with the number of cigarettes smoked. Coffee consumption was not associated with duration of exclusive breastfeeding.
This study indicates that socio-economic factors and smoking may be of importance to the risk of breastfeeding exclusively for less than 4 mo, while coffee consumption is not.
Between January 1982 and December 1989 1025 patients aged between one month and 18 years with increased blood pressure were referred for evaluation. Borderline hypertension was found in 389 children; 636 had sustained significant hypertension. In 351 patients, hypertension was secondary to a known disease. Renal parenchymal diseases were present in 68% of patients while renovascular and endocrine disorders were found in 10% and 11%, respectively. Of the 258 children aged less than 15 years, all but six children had known causes of hypertension, while 75% of adolescents had essential hypertension. In the 389 children with borderline hypertension, 65% developed fixed hypertension over a period of 2-3 years.
Aim: To investigate the trueness and uncertainty of two transcutaneous bilirubinometers BiliCheck and Minolta JM-103 in preterm infants; establish cut-off values for the transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) level, indicating the need for total serum bilirubin (TsB) measurement; and estimate how many blood samples could be saved.
Methods: In 133 neonates with gestational ages 28+0–34+6 weeks, 239 measurements of TcB by BiliCheck (TcB(B)) and JM-103 (TcB(M)) and of TsB were performed.
Results: Median TsB of the first samples was 160 (range, 53–293) μmol/L, whereas median TcB(B) was 12 μmol/L (8%) lower and TcB(M) 67 μmol/L (40%) lower. TcB(B) underestimated TsB for TsB ≥180μmol/L. All TcB(M) values, except one, underestimated TsB. The underestimation increased with increasing TsB. Multiple regression analysis showed that post-natal age and ethnicity were confounding factors for TcB(M); none were found for TcB(B). The uncertainty was the same for the two instruments. By using cut-off values of 70% of the phototherapy limit for TcB(B) and 35% for TcB(M), the sensitivity of the screening would be 95% and 97%, and 36% and 24% of the blood samples could be saved, respectively.
Conclusion: TcB determined with JM-103 gave values much lower than those obtained with BiliCheck. The underestimation of TsB increased with increasing concentrations. By using transcutaneous bilirubinometers in preterm neonates, 24–36% of the blood samples could be saved.
We describe the presentations and clinical outcomes of pediatric patients diagnosed with PFAPA (Periodic Fever, Aphthous lesions, Pharyngitis, and cervical Adenitis).
The medical records of children with recurrent fever and referred between 1998 and 2007 to a tertiary pediatric care hospital were reviewed. Children who met clinical criteria for PFAPA were then asked to participate in a follow-up study.
One hundred and five children met study criteria for PFAPA which included at least six episodes of periodic fever. Most (62%) were males, the mean age at onset of PFAPA was 39.6 months (80% were <5 years at onset), the mean duration of individual fever episodes was 4.1 days, and the mean interval between episodes was 29.8 days. Accompanying signs and symptoms included aphthous stomatitis (38%), pharyngitis (85%), cervical adenitis (62%), headache (44%), vomiting with fever spikes (27%) and mild abdominal pain (41%). A prodrome (usually fatigue) preceded the fever in 62% of patients. Parents noted that when their child with PFAPA had fever, other family members remained well. Laboratory tests in patients with PFAPA were nonspecific. Individual episodes of fever usually resolved with a single oral dose ( approximately 1 mg/kg) of prednisilone. The interval between fever episodes shortened in 50% of patients who used prednisilone. PFAPA resolved spontaneously (mean length 33.2 months) in 211105 (20%) patients. PFAF'A episodes continued (mean length 23 months) at the end of this study in 661105 (63%) patients. Cimetidine therapy was associated with the resolution of the fevers in 7/26 (27%) patients; tonsillectomy was associated with the resolution of the fevers in 11/11 (100%) patients.
PFAPA can usually be defined by its clinical characteristics. Individual febrile episodes usually resolve dramatically with oral prednisilone. The cause of PFAPA is unknown and research is needed to define its etiology. The overall prognosis for children with PFAPA is excellent.
Near-patient blood glucose monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care but the analysers currently used are unreliable and inaccurate. The aim of this study was to compare a new glucose electrode-based analyser (EML 105) and a non-wipe reflectance photometry method (Advantage) as opposed to a recognized laboratory reference method (Hexokinase). We also investigated the effect of sample route and haematocrit on the accuracy of the glucose readings obtained by each method of analysis.
Whole blood glucose concentrations ranging from 0 to 3.5 mmol/l were carefully prepared in a laboratory setting and blood samples from each respective solution were then measured by EML 105 and Advantage analysers. The results obtained were then compared with the corresponding plasma glucose reading obtained by the Hexokinase method, using linear regression analysis. An in vivo study was subsequently performed on 103 neonates, over a 1-y period, using capillary and venous whole blood samples. Whole blood glucose concentration was estimated from each sample using both analysers and compared with the corresponding plasma glucose concentration estimated by the Hexokinase method. Venous blood was centrifuged and haematocrit was estimated using standardized curves. The effect of haematocrit on the agreement between whole blood and plasma glucose was investigated, estimating the degree of correlation on a scatterplot of the results and linear regression analysis.
Both the EML 105 and Hexokinase methods were highly accurate, in vitro, with small proportional biases of 2% and 5%, respectively. However, in vivo, both study analysers overestimated neonatal plasma glucose, ranging from at best 0.45 mmol/l (EML 105 venous) to 0.69 mmol/l (EML capillary). There was no significant difference in the agreement of capillary (GD = 0.12, 95% CI, [-0.32,0.08], p = 0.2) or venous samples (GD = 0.05, 95% CI. [0.09, 0.19], p = 0.49) with plasma glucose when analysed by either study method (GD = glucose difference between study analyser and reference method) However, the venous samples analysed by EML 105 estimated plasma glucose significantly better than capillary samples using the same method of analysis (GD = 0.24, 95% CI. [0.09,0.38], p < 0.01). The relationship between haematocrit and the resultant glucose differences was non-linear with correlation coefficients of r = -0.057 (EML 105 capillary), r = 0.145 (EML 105 venous), r = -0.127 (Advantage capillary) and r = -0.275 (Advantage venous). There was no significant difference in the effect of haematocrit on the performance of EML 105 versus Advantage, regardless of the sample route.
Both EML 105 and Advantage overestimated plasma glucose, with no significant difference in the performance of either analyser, regardless of the route of analysis. Agreement with plasma glucose was better for venous samples but this was only statistically significant when EML 105 capillary and venous results were compared. Haematocrit is not a significant confounding factor towards the performance of either EML 105 or Advantage in neonates, regardless of the route of sampling. The margin of overestimation of blood glucose prohibits the recommendation of both EML 105 and Advantage for routine neonatal glucose screening. The consequences include failure accurately to diagnose hypoglycaemia and delays in the instigation of therapeutic measures, both of which may potentially result in an adverse, long-term, neurodevelopmental outcome.
We evaluated tobacco use, physical activity, dietary intake and cardiovascular risk indicators (s-lipids, s-insulin, s-ferritin, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, physical fitness) in healthy 14- and 17-year-old Swedish adolescents in relation to socio-economic status (SES) of their parents. Girls reported more smoking than boys (14-year-olds 10 and 3%, 17-year-olds 27 and 18%, girls and boys, respectively). Daily smoking was associated to low SES of the family, but was most strongly associated to smoking in peers (OR = 58.7). Tobacco use was considerably higher among adolescents attending vocational programs at secondary high school as compared with theoretical programs. Daily smokers had a more unfavourable serum lipid profile compared with non-smokers. Adolescents from families with a low educational level of the mother had a higher relative dietary fat intake. Boys and girls from families of low SES had higher body mass index (BMI), and girls, but not boys, also had lower physical fitness. Clustering of high BMI, low physical fitness and daily smoking was more pronounced in girls from families of low SES. In conclusion, our study shows that in both boys and girls low SES and educational level of the parents are related to an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile in Swedish adolescents. Furthermore, smoking in adolescents is more related to smoking in peers than to smoking in parents, implying that preventive efforts should focus on peer groups.
Neonatal haemochromatosis is a rare disease characterized by the early onset of liver failure, a rapidly deteriorating clinical course and high mortality. An unusual case is presented of subacute hepatic failure in which autopsy findings at the age of 11 mo showed a haemochromatotic pattern of siderosis. Despite the similarity in the pattern of iron distribution to neonatal haemochromatosis, the clinical course was highly atypical in that the infant had later and milder presentation at 1 mo of age and slow progression into liver failure. This case illustrates the heterogeneous nature of the haemochromatotic phenotype in newborns and infants.
The entity "neonatal haemochromatosis" may reflect a spectrum of diseases with diverse aetiologies. Fulminant liver disease in the newborn period can also result in similar pattern of iron distribution.
To examine the association of body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TST) and percentage body fat (%BF) from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with blood lipids, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in children.
Cross-sectional study was conducted on 1280 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from the Cuenca province (Spain). Data collection was conducted under standardized conditions, taking several measurements of each variable to enhance accuracy. Analyses were performed using age-adjusted correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression adjusted for age, BMI, TST and %BF.
Correlations between %BF and apolipoprotein (apo) B, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio and DBP were higher than those for BMI and TST. In contrast, the correlations between BMI, and apo A-I and SBP were higher than those for %BF and TST. The results were similar across the sexes. The correlations between each of the three measures of body fatness, and blood lipids and blood pressure were highest in children with greatest BMI and %BF. When analyses were adjusted for the three body fatness measures, %BF showed stronger associations than did BMI or TST with blood lipids and blood pressure, with the exception of apo A-I and SBP, which were more closely associated with BMI.
%BF from BIA is more strongly associated than either BMI or TST with most of the blood lipid fractions in schoolchildren aged 8-11 years.
There has been limited epidemiological research about nocturnal enuresis in Turkey. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and the epidemiological factors associated with this in Turkish children aged 7-11 y, living in Manisa. Included in the study were 2000 children from various primary schools in Manisa. Parents were asked to fill out our specially designed questionnaire. In all, questionnaires for 1703 children were completed and returned to the department (871F, 51.1%; 832M, 48.9%). The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis for females was 10.6%, for males it was 16.9% and the overall prevalence was 13.7%. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis decreased with age. Enuresis nocturna was found to be more common in children with a family history of bedwetting (76.5%). Deep sleeping, poor toilet habits and low educational level of the family were associated with enuresis. Consanguineous marriage did not influence the incidence of enuresis nocturna. There was no difference between enuretics and nonenuretics with reference to breastfeeding, being firstborn or being right- or left-handed. In our opinion, enuresis is an important problem for both families and children in Turkey for which specific guidelines should be developed. Various methods have been tried in the treatment of enuresis because of its multi-factorial aetiology. Child, family and physician co-operating together achieve the best help to both child and family.
We investigated a national cohort of children born extremely immature (<26 weeks gestation, EI) regarding the nature, frequency and severity of the behavioural problems related to the executive functions (EF) and concerning learning skills, from the perspectives of parents and teachers.
At 11 years of age 86 of 89 survivors of this cohort were studied and compared with an equal number of controls. Behaviours related to EF, and learning skills were assessed by a validated instrument, namely the Five to Fifteen questionnaire sent by mail to parents and teachers.
Compared with controls, parents of EI children reported significantly more problems in behaviours related to EF in all areas assessed (Attention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Hypoactivity, Planning/Organizing, and Working Memory). Teachers' ratings showed a similar pattern. EI children also displayed deficient skills in the 4 standard measures of learning skills. Multivariate analysis revealed that prematurity, gender and behavioural composite score was associated with learning skills. Only a relatively small proportion of EI children (10-30%) exhibited clinically significant impairments.
Despite a favourable outcome in many school-age children born at the threshold of viability, these are at increased risk of developing behavioural problems related to EF.
The optimal timing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in encephalopathic infants treated with hypothermia is unknown and this study examined whether early scans differed from later scans.
We assessed paired MRI scans carried out on 41 cooled encephalopathic infants at a median of four and 11 days using two scoring systems: the Rutherford injury scores for the basal ganglia and thalami (BGT), white matter and the posterior limb of the internal capsule and the Bonifacio injury scores for the BGT and watershed area.
Both systems produced consistent injury severity scores in 37/41 infants on both days, with Rutherford scores predicting poor outcome in six early scans and seven later scans (Kappa 0.91) and Bonifacio doing the same in seven and nine scans (Kappa 0.85). A white matter/watershed score of two or a BGT score of one indicated severe changes by day 11 in three infants but lower scores did not.
MRI scans indicated that the Rutherford and Bonifacio systems produced similar scores in 37/41 cooled encephalopathic infants at a median of four and 11 days. Infants with an early white matter/watershed scores of two or a BGT score of one may worsen and should be rescanned. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The influences on bone growth of familial factors, nutrition and physical activity are described in a cohort of 108 children (56M, 52F). Distal forearm bone width, mineral content and volumetric density, anthropometry, pubertal status, nutritional intake and physical activity were measured at ages 11, 13, 15 and 17 y. Parental forearm bone status was also determined. Both mothers' and fathers' bone variables were significant predictors of the respective children's bone variables, but heritability estimates were greater between mothers and their children than between fathers and their children. By age 17 y boys had attained 101%, 85% and 89% of their fathers' height, bone mineral content and volumetric density, respectively; girls had attained 103%, 95% and 98% of their mothers' height, bone mineral content and volumetric density, respectively. There were no consistent associations among nutrient variables and bone status or rate of change in bone status. However, there was a significantly greater increase in bone mineral content and density from 11-17 y in those girls with consistently high calcium intake. There were no significant correlations between physical activity and bone values or rate of change of bone values. Age, gender, pubertal status, height, weight and parental bone values accounted for 80%, 71% and 49% of the variance of bone mineral content, bone width and volumetric density, respectively and 52%, 55% and 58% respectively of the variance of change in these variables. After age, gender, sexual maturity and body size, heritability accounts for the greatest variance in bone values through adolescence.
We report on an 11-year-old girl with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) complaining of severe pain in her right upper extremity. Oral administration of narcotics or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs gave no relief in pain. Thoracoscopic electrocauterization of the thoracic sympathetic ganglion at the level of T3 was performed 3 months after the start of symptoms, and brought complete resolution of pain.
To determine, using strict exclusion criteria, whether transient periventricular echodensities (TPE) in very-low-birthweight infants lead to minor neurological dysfunction and problems in cognitive and somatic development in children without major neurological impairments.
23 children with TPE were matched to 23 children without TPE. Exclusion criteria were small for gestational age, microcephaly at birth, diplegia, asphyxia, psychomotor retardation, intraventricular haemorrhage grade III/IV, major surgical interventions and malformations. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Draw-a-Man Test and neuropaediatric examination were used for evaluation.
There were no differences in demographic data, growth and socio-economic status. Significant differences with lower results in the TPE group were found in fine motor skills and in the Draw-a-Man Test. In the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, all subscales were below average in the TPE group, except the sequential processing scale. In the control group, all subscales were within the average range.
By using strict exclusion criteria to eliminate other risk factors for minimal neurological dysfunction and poor cognitive development, we were able to focus on the effect of TPE. TPE seem to affect cognitive development and cause minor neurological dysfunction.
To determine the effect of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination on tuberculin skin test responses in 7-11-year-old children, and also to clarify whether the number of vaccinations and the time interval between vaccination and tuberculin skin test have an effect on the test responses.
1200 primary school children were evaluated for the presence and number of BCG scars. They were then given 5 TU PPD-S intra-dermally. Seventy-two hours after the application of tests, PPD indurations were measured.
Mean indurations were 3.7 +/- 3.9, 6.5 +/- 5.4 and 9.2 +/- 7.1 mm in children with no scar, one scar and two scars, respectively. No statistical difference was found between mean induration of children with one scar and those with two scars.
The effect of the number of BCG vaccinations and the time interval between vaccination and tuberculin skin test application on tuberculin skin test responses was statistically insignificant.
A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency in European infants at 12 mo of age, and to study the influence of socio-economic status, dietary factors, growth and morbidity on iron status. The cohort consisted of 488 normal term infants from primary healthcare centres in 11 European areas. Assessed were socio-economic variables, dietary intake, anthropometry and morbidity at regular intervals from birth to 12 mo, and haemoglobin, serum ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation and serum transferrin receptor concentrations at age 12 mo. The prevalence of anaemia was 9.4%, of iron deficiency 7.2%, and of iron deficiency anaemia 2.3%. More than 40% of anaemia was associated with normal iron status and associated with an increased frequency of recent infections. Iron deficiency anaemia was significantly more frequent with low (5.1%) than high socio-economic status (0%). Dietary factors accounted for most of this variation in multiple regression analysis. Early introduction of cows' milk was the strongest negative determinant of iron status. Feeding of iron-fortified formula was the main factor positively influencing iron status. Other dietary factors, including breastfeeding, did not play a significant role as determinants of iron status at age 12 mo. Conclusion. Iron deficiency anaemia is present in 2.3% of 12-mo-old European infants. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia varies strongly with socio-economic status. Avoidance of cows' milk feeding during the first year of life is the key measure in the prevention of iron deficiency.
Edlund B, Hallqvist G, Sjödén P-O. Attitudes to food, eating and dieting behaviour in 11 and 14-year-old Swedish children. Acta Pædiatr 1994;83:572–7. Stockholm. ISSN 0803–5253
All students in grades 5 and 8 of three randomly chosen schools in Uppsala (n= 236) were eligible, and 197 participated. The survey included a Swedish version of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) and a demographic and dieting questionnaire. In total, 47% of the children (girls 70%, boys 25%) wanted to be thinner and 25% had tried to lose weight. In the 5th grade, 49% of the girls reported that they wanted to be thinner and in the 8th grade 83%. Fifty-three percent of the girls in the 8th grade reported that they had tried to lose weight; 36% admitted that they felt too fat but only 5% reported that other people found them too fat. The methods used were caloric restriction and exercise. Compared with US data, the Swedish students dieted less often and showed lower ChEAT scores. Compared with earlier data, our results show that weight concerns begin at an earlier age among Swedish children today.
Determine the prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and relate this to cumulative exposure to hypoxia, hypocapnia and hypotension. Describe chronic health problems among 5- to 11-year-old children treated for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN).
The index group consisted of 85 children and a reference group was matched for age, sex and municipality of current residence. Questionnaires were sent to the families. The families in the index group were asked to participate in an examination of their child's hearing.
Seven children (11%) had SNHL. SNHL was not associated with hypoxia, hypocapnia or hypotension during treatment for PPHN. In the index group chronic health problems were reported in 42% compared with 17% in the reference group (chi-square test, p = 0.001). Twenty-one percent in the index group were treated with bronchodilator therapy compared with 8% in the reference group (chi-square test, p = 0.028). In the index group five children had cerebral palsy and two had developmental delay. Nineteen percent in the index group and 5% in the reference group had remedial education (chi-square test, p = 0.008).
Children treated for PPHN are at high risk for SNHL. Exposure to hypoxia, hypocapnia or hypotension did not predict SNHL. The incidence of chronic health problems and use of remedial education was high.
Two male infants with partial trisomy 22 resulting from a rearrangement between chromosomes 11/22 and 16/22 were admitted to the Children's Hospital of the University of Leipzig within the space of two months. The characteristic phenotype of the infants is described and compared with the data on liveborn infants with trisomy 22, as reported in the literature. One of the infants reported here showed a prenatally detected hygroma colli. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of a hygroma colli in this chromosomal disorder.
Conclusion: Infants with trisomy 22 can present with variable phenotypes. It is important to bear the phenotype of chromosome 22 infants in mind.
To examine linear growth and its association with cognitive ability at age 11 years among full-term singletons with varying degree of stunting or without stunting at age 6 months.
A total of 1516 Filipino term-born singletons were followed bimonthly from age 6 to 24 months and took cognitive and academic achievement tests at 11 years. The tests were factor-analysed to give a summary cognitive ability score. Linear regression was used to examine associations and adjust for covariates.
Mean height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) was -1.0 at age 6 months and -2.4 at 24 months. HAZ at 6 months, change in HAZ from 6 to 24 months and change in HAZ from 24 months to 11 years were positively associated with cognitive ability at 11 years (each p < 0.001). The association was seen in all categories of HAZ at 6 months.
In this setting where linear growth retardation was common, association between linear growth after age 6 months and cognitive ability in adolescence was not dependent on initial HAZ. Prevention of growth stunting may benefit all children regardless of their initial HAZ.
The tempo and change in bone growth during puberty in relation to physical growth is described in a cohort of 56 boys and 52 girls. Distal forearm bone width, mineral content and volumetric density, anthropometry and pubertal status were measured at ages 11, 13, 15 and 17 y, and bone age at 17 y. Bone width and mineral content increased independently with age for each pubertal stage. Volumetric density fell during early puberty and then increased rapidly. Maximal increase of all bone variables occurred earlier in girls than in boys and earliest for bone width, then mineral content, then density. In girls most change occurred in the 12 mo before and after menarche. The degree of tracking was similar to that for height. Bone growth followed physical growth but at a slower tempo. By age 17 y boys had attained 86% of the reference adult bone mineral content and volumetric density; girls had attained 93% of the reference adult bone mineral content and 94% of volumetric density. Those skeletally mature at 17 y had greater mineral content and volumetric density. To maximize peak bone mass, modifiable environmental factors should be optimized before the onset of puberty and be maintained throughout this period of rapid growth and beyond attainment of sexual maturity.
To describe and compare physical growth, current health status, functional limitations and neurodevelopmental impairments (defined as low IQ, school problems or psychiatric disorder) at 11 y of age in a population of non-handicapped low-birthweight (LBW) children with that of normal-birthweight (NBW) children.
A population-based sample of 130 LBW children (weighing less than 2000 g at birth) without major handicaps, and a random sample of 131 NBW children born at term. Somatic and mental health and cognitive abilities were assessed through questionnaires to parents, a physical examination, standardized tests of cognitive function (WISC-R) and a semi-structured interview (Children Assessment Schedule).
General somatic health status was similar for the LBW and NBW children. The LBW children were shorter (mean difference -2.5 cm; 95% CI -0.9 to -4.2) and had a smaller head circumference (mean difference -0.8 cm; 95% CI -0.4 to -1.1) but similar weights and body mass indices. Differences and similarities in anthropometric measures were the same at 5 and 11 y of age. The LBW children had higher systolic (mean difference 3.2 mmHg; 95% CI -0.6 to -0.3) but similar diastolic blood pressure. A higher proportion of LBW children had decreased visual acuity and hearing impairment. Forty per cent of LBW children had neurodevelopmental impairments, compared to 20% of NBW children (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.5 to 4.5).
At 11 y of age, survivors of moderately low birthweight without major handicaps may have generally good health, but are at risk of neurodevelopmental impairments.
In adults and obese children, serum leptin concentrations are closely related to body fat.
To investigate whether such a relationship between leptin concentrations and body fat is also evident in children with a relatively normal body composition.
The study was a cross-sectional population study in 170 Caucasian children (91 boys and 79 girls), with a mean age of 9.9+/-0.6 y (range 8.5-10.9 y) and a mean BMI of 17.4+/-2.6 (range 12.8-28.1). Serum leptin was measured and compared to total body fat as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
In the whole population, serum leptin concentrations were highly correlated with total body fat (r=0.83, p<0.001). A stepwise forward multi-regression analysis revealed that the inclusion of other anthropometrical data did not add any significance to the model. Leptin concentrations were significantly higher in girls (5.2 ng/ml) than in boys (3.2 mg/ml; p=0.003). Gender differences still prevailed (p=0.007) after adjusting for number of kilograms of fat tissue.
This study shows that, already at the young age of 9-11 y, an adult-like pattern of regulation of leptin exists. This indicates similar risk factor dependency of leptin across all age groups.
Atopic infants hospitalized for wheezing not caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) carry the highest risk for later asthma. In the present paper, early risk factors for later lung function abnormalities and for bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) were evaluated in 81 children, hospitalized for bronchiolitis in infancy, at the median age of 12.3 years.
The basic data, including data on atopy in children and viral aetiology of bronchiolitis, had been collected on entry to the study at less than 2 years of age. Lung function was studied by flow-volume spirometry (FVS), and BHR by methacholine and exercise challenge tests 11.4 years after hospitalization during infancy.
RSV aetiology of bronchiolitis was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (FVC; 93.65% of predicted +/- 11.05 vs. 99.57%+/- 12.59, p = 0.009). Early sensitization to inhalant allergens (OR 12.59, 95% CI 2.30-68.77) and maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR 4.58, 95% CI 1.28-16.39) were associated with BHR to exercise, and early atopic dermatitis (OR 3.48, 95% CI 1.09-11.10) was associated with BHR to methacholine.
RSV bronchiolitis was associated with a restrictive pattern of lung function. Early atopy and maternal smoking during pregnancy may play a role in the development and persistence of BHR.
Graves' disease, multinodular toxic goiter or toxic adenoma are the usual causes of hyperthyroidism in children as well as in adults. We report a case of hyperthyroidism due to TSH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma in an 11-year-old girl. The patient was admitted to the Endocrine Department for pituitary function evaluation, five months after transfrontal adenomectomy and pituitary irradiation for a macroadenoma. On admission the patient was clinically hyperthyroid and the work-up established a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to TSH-secreting adenoma (high levels of TSH in the face of hyperthyroidism, no TSH response to TRH stimulation, diffuse thyroid goiter without eye signs or pretibial myxedema). Of interest in this case was the fact that: (a) she is the youngest patient reported with hyperthyroidism due to a TSH-secreting macroadenoma and (b) hyperthyroidism was diagnosed after adenomectomy.
To objectively evaluate physical activity and energy expenditure in overweight and normal-weight 11-year-old children.
The final sample consisted of 91 children (32 overweight and 59 normal-weight children), mean age (SD) = 11.3 (0.2) years. Energy expenditure and physical activity were assessed during two weekdays and two weekend days using a multiple-sensor body monitor (SenseWear Armband; BodyMedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA).
Time spent in physical activity was higher in normal-weight compared with overweight children (p = 0.002). The highest level of physical activity was noted in normal-weight boys [mean (SD) = 258 (114) min/day] and the lowest in overweight girls [mean (SD) = 136 (59) min/day] (p = 0.002). In contrast, energy expended during physical activity did not differ between normal-weight and overweight children (2.6 and 2.7 MJ/day, respectively, p = 0.89). The average decrease in physical activity at weekends was 39 min in overweight children (from 166 to 127 min/day) and 27 min in their normal-weight counterparts (from 230 to 203 min/day).
Overweight children engaged in less physical activity of both moderate and vigorous intensity compared with their normal-weight peers. Both overweight and normal-weight children were less active at weekends than on weekdays. Initiatives aiming to increase physical activity of overweight children at weekends are warranted.
This study comprised part of a larger cross-sectional survey performed in Hungary in the period 2005-2006, which was designed first to reveal the representative age-, gender- and height-specific percentile values for the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Hungarian children aged 11-16 years. The second aim was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity.
Analyses were performed on 14,290 Hungarian children aged 11-16 years. All blood pressure (BP) measurements were made with a validated, automated, digital device. The criteria recommended by international guidelines were used.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Hungarian children was found to be 23.4% (3347 adolescents; International Obesity Task Force criteria). Previous studies have reported that the strongest correlation is observed between the BP values and weight, and our results are in accordance with this.
Regional differences in morphometry (different prevalences of overweight and obesity) and the genetic background, disparate eating habits and other cultural factors may account for the differences in BP levels during childhood. As the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide, it is important that countries carefully monitor the weight and BP status of their children and adolescents.
To present normative data for the Swedish version of the Conners' 10-item scale, to validate the scale by comparing children with and without attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), to explore the factor structure of this scale and to investigate behavioural characteristics and gender differences among 10- to 11-year-old children, as rated by parents and teachers respectively.
Parents and teachers rated 509 10- to 11-year-old children (261 boys and 248 girls) from a population-based cohort in a Swedish municipality.
The Conners' 10-item scale discriminated very well between children with and without ADHD. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed a two-dimensional structure of the scale with items measuring restless/impulsive behaviour in one factor and items measuring emotional lability in another. An ANOVA revealed that parents and teachers reported different behavioural characteristics in boys as compared to girls.
The Conners' 10-item scale is a valid screening instrument for identification of ADHD. The two subscales can be used separately, in addition to the total score, to get a more detailed picture of the child's behaviour. Parents and teachers pay attention to different aspects of problem behaviour in boys and girls. The less disruptive behaviour of girls needs to be highlighted.
The influence of age, sex, maturity, body mass and body fatness on the physical activity (PA) of 11-13-y-olds was examined longitudinally. Body mass, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness and pubic hair were recorded and 3-d continuous heart rate (HR) monitoring was used to estimate PA on each annual measurement occasion. At the onset, subjects were 11.0 (0.4)-y-old and data were available on 202, 143 and 160 subjects in years 1 to 3, respectively with an almost equal sex distribution. Multilevel regression modelling examined age-, sex- and maturity-related changes in time spent with HR above 139 (moderate activity) and 159 (vigorous activity) bpm. Sustained (10 or 20 min) periods of moderate or vigorous activity were not characteristic of PA patterns. Both PA measures declined with age, with a consistent sex difference reflecting the lower PA levels of girls. Body mass and fatness were not significant explanatory variables, but an additional decrement in activity was evident in late maturity.
Few children experience extended bouts of PA, and from 11-13 y, PA decreases, with more girls than boys becoming inactive. The data emphasize the importance of promoting active lifestyles during youth.
It has been suggested that distribution of body fat has a stronger bearing on health risk than total body fat. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to examine the distribution of fat and correlated with body fat assessed by the usual clinical methods-weight, weight-for-height, body mass index (BMI), triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness in 11-y-old Chinese children. Lipid profiles were used as indicators for coronary risk. Eighty-eight subjects had body fat distribution estimated by MRI, while 49 had serum lipids measured. Anthropometric parameters correlated significantly with total fat at the umbilical level measured by MRI (weight: r = 0.90 in boys, 0.75 in girls; BMI: r = 0.94 in boys, 0.87 in girls; percent median weight-for-height: r = 0.90 in boys, 0.79 in girls, triceps skinfold thickness: r = 0.89 in boys, 0.90 in girls; subscapular skinfold thickness: r = 0.93 in boys, 0.88 in girls). Obese subjects had proportionally less visceral fat than subcutaneous fat at umbilical level. Using stepwise multiple regression, predictive factors for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were BMI in boys and breast-staging in girls. For triglycerides, it was genital staging in boys and for total cholesterol, it was breast-staging in girls. Visceral fat was not a significant determinant of serum lipids.
We report a case of transient erythroblastopenia in a three-year-old girl presenting with echovirus 11 infection. Viral infection was demonstrated by isolation of echovirus 11 in stool cultures and the presence of echovirus 11-specific IgM antibody in serum. We suggest that echovirus may have played a role in the pathogenesis of transient erythroblastopenia of childhood in this patient.