The electrical conductance of 0.025 mol NaCl solution was measured at 0.25–3.75 GPa and 20–370°C As shown by the results, the conductance increases with temperature, and there is a liner relation between the reciprocal of temperature and the logarithm of the conductance but their slopes are different at different pressures. The relations between the conductance and pressure is rather complex and there are some discontinuities: in the range of 2.25–3.75 GPa, the conductance increases with the pressure; in the range of 1.25–2.0 GPa, the conductance is not related to the pressure; and at a pressure of 0.75 GPa, the conductance is higher than that at the pressures nearby. This reflects that the NaCl solution has rather different properties of electronic chemistry at various pressures, and probably is an important cause for the existence of the layers with high electrical conductance and low velocity in the Earth's crust and mantle.
GRV 020175 is an Antarctic mesosiderite, containing about 43 vol% silicates and 57 vol% metal. Metal occurs in a variety of textures from irregular large masses, to veins penetrating silicates, and to matrix fine grains. The metallic portion contains kamacite, troilite and minor taenite. Terrestrial weathering is evident as partial replacement of the metal and troilite veins by Fe oxides. Silicate phases exhibit a porphyritic texture with pyroxene, plagioclase, minor silica and rare olivine phenocrysts embedded in a fine-grained groundmass. The matrix is ophitic and consists mainly of pyroxene and plagioclase grains. Some orthopyroxene phenocrysts occur as euhedral crystals with chemical zoning from a magnesian core to a ferroan overgrowth; others are characterized by many fine inclusions of plagioclase composition. Pigeonite has almost inverted to its orthopyroxene host with augite lamellae, enclosed by more magnesian rims. Olivine occurs as subhedral crystals, surrounded by a necklace of tiny chromite grains (about 2–3 μm). Plagioclase has a heterogeneous composition without zoning. Pyroxene geothermometry of GRV 020175 gives a peak metamorphic temperature (∼1000°C) and a closure temperature (∼875°C). Molar Fe/Mn ratios (19–32) of pyroxenes are consistent with mesosiderite pyroxenes (16–35) and most plagioclase compositions (An87.5–96.6) are within the range of mesosiderite plagioclase grains (An88–95). Olivine composition (Fo53.8) is only slightly lower than the range of olivine compositions in mesosiderites (Fo55–90). All petrographic characteristics and chemical compositions of GRV 020175 are consistent with those of mesosiderite and based on its matrix texture and relatively abundant plagioclase, it can be further classified as a type 3A mesosiderite. Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies of GRV 020175 imply a complex formation history starting as rapid crystallization from a magma in a lava flow on the surface or as a shallow intrusion. Following primary igneous crystallization, the silicate underwent varying degrees of reheating. It was reheated to 1000°C, followed by rapid cooling to 875°C. Subsequently, metal mixed with silicate, during or after which, reduction of silicates occurred; the reducing agent is likely to have been sulfur. After redox reaction, the sample underwent thermal metamorphism, which produced the corona on the olivine, rims on the inverted pigeonite phenocrysts and overgrowths on the orthopyroxene phenocrysts, and homogenized matrix pyroxenes. Nevertheless, metamorphism was not extensive enough to completely reequilibrate the GRV 020175 materials.
Numerous iron cosmic micro-spherules have been discovered from Mesoproterozoic strata including the Changzhougou Formation (1.8 Ga) and the Dahongyu Formation (1.6 Ga) of the Ming Tombs district, Beijing. There are 1 to 30 grains of cosmic spherules per 2 kg of a sandstone sample taken from the bottom of a coarse sandstone bed of the Changzhougou Formation and 56 grains per 3.69 kg of a rock sample from silicified carbonate rocks of the Dahongyu Formation. The surface textures of cosmic spherules analyzed by means of the secondary electron imagery are identical with those reported from references either domestic or abroad. So far the geo-ages of 1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga of cosmic spherules from the Changzhougou and Dahongyu formations might be older than those reported in the world. Table 1 gives the electron probe analysis data of cosmic spherules for 30 spherule grains and 44 testing points as follows (%): FeO, 80–95; Cr2O3; 0–9.56; NiO, 0-0.78; CoO, 0-0.46; indicating that the Cr2O3 content is higher and FeO content lower in the Changzhougou Formation than in the Dahongyu Formation. The helium isotopic data of cosmic spherules as well as their host rocks vary greatly between the Changzhougou and the Dahongyu formations as shown in Table 2. The data of cosmic spherules of the Changzhougou Formation vs the Dahongyu Formation are 57.5/1.23 in 3He/4He (10−8); and 55.54/809.60 in 4He (10−6cm3STP/g); those of coarse sandstone of the Changzhougou Formation vs silicified carbonate of the Dahongyu Formation are 3.39/2.59 in 3He/4He (10−8) and 4.56/2.34 in 3He (10−6cm3STP/g). The ratio of analytic data of helium isotopes are different for cosmic spherules and their host rocks; for example, the 3He/4He (10−8) values are 16.96 and 0.48, and the 4He (10−6 cm3STP/g) are 12.18 and 345.98 for the Changzhougou and Dahongyu formations respectively. It was reported that the world's oldest micrometeorites had been found in the Meso-Proterozoic Satakunta Formation, Finland. However, the cosmic spherules from the Meso-Proterozoic Changzhougou and Dahongyu formations are 200 to 400 Ma older than those from the Satakunta Formation. Besides, one carbonaceous chondrite grain was discovered for the first time as the earliest remain formed in the solar nebula from the Dahongyu Formation.
The microprobe EDXRF equipment was used for analysis of the major and trace elements in glaze layer-transitive layer-body layer of the celadon from the Altar Yao (Kiln) and Laohudong Yao in the Southern Song Dynasty (1127–1279 A.D.), Zhejiang, China. The K values of the discriminant factor for the celadon wares are larger than 8, which means the celadon of the Altar Yao and Laohudong Yao are different from that of the Longquan Yao. The former two belong to the Guan Yao system (the Chinese imperial kilns), but the latter to the Min Yao system (the Chinese popular kilns). The principle component analysis shows their relationship between the Altar and Laohudong wares with provenance postulation. The thickness of the transitive layer in the Altar and Laohudong wares is obviously different, which reveals the microstructure characteristics of the celadon even though both kinds of wares belong to the imperial kiln system.
This paper for the first time reveals high-resolution core records of Zabuye Salt Lake in the interior of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. According to 1346 samples taken continuously, relatively accurate 14C, U-series disequilibrium and ESR ages have been obtained, thus revealing that the lake core ages from 0 to 83.63 m of hole SZK02 are ∼800 to over 128 ka. In the paper, the lake core sedimentary characteristics (including the lithologies and mineral assemblages) are analyzed in detail and correlated with ostracod assemblages I to XX and sporopollen zones A to I, and on the basis of an integrated analysis of the δ 18O values of authigenic calcium-magnesium carbonate and environmental proxies of minerals, sporopollen and microfossils in the lake core, a correlation has been made of oxygen isotope change between this lake core and the Greenland GISP2 and GRIP and Guliya ice cores, and the climate of Zabuye Salt Lake since 128 ka BP is divided into the last interglacial stage (including substages e, d, c, b and a) of oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 5, early glacial stadial of the last glacial stage of OIS 4, interglacial stadial of the last glacial stage of OIS 3, late glacial stadial of the last glacial stage or Last Glacial Maximum of OIS 2 and postglacial state of OIS 1; in addition, 6 Heinrich (H6-H1) events, Younger Dryas event and 8.2 ka BP cold event have been recognized.
This paper introduced the first hand investigation results of the risk and treatment measures for the barrier lakes triggered by the earthquake of Wenchuan. Characteristics of 10 barrier lakes were investigated and analyzed; procedure and methods for barrier lake treatment were brought forward. The dams of the barrier lakes can be classified as two classes: block rock in the south and loose deposit in the north. All the barrier dams were stable at the time of investigation, but water drainage channel needed to be constructed and to be protected from blockage or collapse. After the rain season of 2008, some dams needed to be consolidated, and change the barrier lakes to reservoirs.
Abstract Core V36-06-3, approximately 12 m long, was raised from the lower part of the continental slope of the continental South China Sea from a water depth of 2,809 m. Analyses of planktonic foraminifera, CaCO3 content and oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in shells of Globigerinoides sacculifer show that the trend of the sea surface-temperature change at this site over the last 130,000 years is consistent with that in other oceans, while the expression of the dissolution cycles of calcium carbonates here is contrary to that in the Pacific Ocean but consistent with that in the Atlantic Ocean, which means that the dissolution was intense and the CaCO3 content was slightly low during the glacial ages, but the reverse was true for the interglacial ages. The reason for this is that during the glacial ages large quantity of terrigenous detrital materials were brought into the abyssal and bathyal zones, thus diluting the calcium carbonate deposits and intensifying their dissolution.
Abstract Geochronology of continental flood basalts sampled from the Emei large igneous province (LIP) on the western margin of the Yangtze platform was investigated by the laser microprobe 40Ar/39Ar dating technique. These basalts yield a fairly wide range of 40Ar/39Ar ages, varying from 259 to 135 Ma. One basalt sample, at least altered, recorded the oldest 40Ar/39Ar age of about 259 Ma, corresponding to a peak eruption age of the Emei LIP continental flood basalts. Most of the samples yield much younger ages from 135 to 177 Ma, which are consistent with the K-Ar ages for the same samples (122.8–172.1 Ma). The dating data suggest that these Permian basalts had been widely affected by the regional tectonothermal event at 177–135 Ma. The event was probably caused by the convergence and collision among the Laurasia, Yangtze and Qiangtang-Qamdo continental blocks on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau after the late Triassic. The age of the event reflects the timing of the peak collisional orogeny.
This paper discusses the relationship between the volume loss, fluid flow and component variations in the ductile shear zone of the southern Tan-Lu fault belt. The results show that there is a large amount of fluids flowing through the shear zone during mylonitization, accompanied with the loss of volume of rocks and variations of elements and oxygen isotopes. The calculated temperature for mylonitization in different mylonites ranges from 446 to 484°C, corresponding to that of 475 to 500°C for the wall rocks. The condition of differential stress during mylonization has been obtained between 99 and 210 MPa, whereas the differential stress in the wall rock gneiss is 70–78 MPa. The mylonites are enriched by factors of 1.32-1.87 in elements such as TiO2, P2O5, MnO, Y, Zr and V and depleted in SiO2, Na2O, K2O, Al2O3, Sr, Rb and light REEs compared to their protolith gneiss. The immobile element enrichments are attributed to enrichments in residual phases such as ilmentite, zircon, apatite and epidote in mylonites and are interpreted as due to volume losses from 15% to 60% in the ductile shear zone. The largest amount of SiO2 loss is 35.76 g/100 g in the ductile shear zone, which shows the fluid infiltration. Modeling calculated results of the fluid/rock ratio for the ductile shear zone range from 196 to 1192 by assuming different degrees of fluid saturation. Oxygen isotope changes of quartz and feldspar and the calculated fluid are corresponding to the variations of differential flow stress in the ductile shear zone. With increasing differential flow stress, the mylonites show a slight decrease of δ18O in quartz, K-feldspar and fluid.
The Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO) was a Paleoproterozic continent-continent collisional belt along which the Eastern and Western Blocks amalgamated to form a coherent North China Craton (NCC). Recent geological, structural, geochemical and isotopic data show that the orogen was a continental margin or Japan-type arc along the western margin of the Eastern Block, which was separated from the Western Block by an old ocean, with eastward-directed subduction of the oceanic lithosphere beneath the western margin of the Eastern Block. At 2550-2520 Ma, the deep subduction caused partial melting of the medium-lower crust, producing copious granitoid magma that was intruded into the upper levels of the crust to form granitoid plutons in the low- to medium-grade granite-greenstone terranes. At 2530-2520 Ma, subduction of the oceanic lithosphere caused partial melting of the mantle wedge, which led to underplating of mafic magma in the lower crust and widespread mafic and minor felsic volcanism in the arc, forming part of the greenstone assemblages. Extension driven by widespread mafic to felsic volcanism led to the development of back-arc and/or intra-arc basins in the orogen. At 2520-2475 Ma, the subduction caused further partial melting of the lower crust to form large amounts of tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) magmatism. At this time following further extension of back-arc basins, episodic granitoid magmatism occurred, resulting in the emplacement of 2360 Ma, ∼2250 Ma 2110–21760 Ma and ∼2050 Ma granites in the orogen. Contemporary volcano-sedimentary rocks developed in the back-arc or intra-arc basins. At 2150-1920 Ma, the orogen underwent several extensional events, possibly due to subduction of an oceanic ridge, leading to emplacement of mafic dykes that were subsequently metamorphosed to amphibolites and medium- to high-pressure mafic granulites. At 1880-1820 Ma, the ocean between the Eastern and Western Blocks was completely consumed by subduction, and the closing of the ocean led to the continent-arc-continent collision, which caused large-scale thrusting and isoclinal folds and transported some of the rocks into the lower crustal levels or upper mantle to form granulites or eclogites. Peak metamorphism was followed by exhumation/uplift, resulting in widespread development of asymmetric folds and symplectic textures in the rocks.
By using the D-InSAR technique, we have acquired the temporal-spatial evolution images of preseismic-cosesimci-postseismic interferometric deformation fields associated with the M 7.9 earthquake of Mani, Tibet on 8 November 1997. The analysis of these images reveals the relationships between the temporal-spatial evolution features of the interferometric deformation fields and locking, rupturing, and elastic restoring of the source rupture plane, which represent the processes of strain accumulation, strain release, and postseismic restoration. The result shows that 10 months prior to the Mani event, a left-lateral shear trend appeared in the seismic area, which was in accordance with the earthquake fault in nature. The quantity of local deformation on the north wall was slightly larger than that on the south wall, and the deformation distribution area of the north wall was relatively large. With the event impending, the deformation of the south wall varied increasingly, and the deformation center shifted eastward. Two and half monthd before the event, the west side of the fault was still locked while the east side began to slide, implying that the whole fault would rupture at any moment. These features can be regarded as short-term precursors to this earthquake. Within the period from 16 April 1996 to two and half months before the earthquake, the most remarkable deformation zones appeared in the north and south walls, which were parallel to and about 40 km apart from the fault, with accumulated local displacements of 344 mm and 251 mm on the north and south walls, respectively. The south wall was the active one with larger displacements. Five months after the earthquake, the distribution feature of interferometric fringes was just opposite to that prior to the event, expressing evident right-lateral shear. The recovered displacements are ∼179 mm on the north wall and ∼79 mm on the south wall, close to the east side of the fault. However, in the area of the south wall far from the fault there still existed a trend of sinistral motion. The deformation of the north wall was small but recovered fast in a larger area, while the active south wall began to recover from the east section of the fault toward the WSW.
A comparison of the new specimen with the holotype of Eosipterus from western Liaoning Province indicates that Eosipterus is a valid genus, which belongs to the family Ctenochasmatidae. The revised diagnosis of Eosipterus includes the wing span is less than 1.25 meters, the length of the ulna is nearly equal to these of wing phalanx 2 and the tibia, humerus is longer than tibia, and the ratio of metatarsal to tibia is approximately 0.40.
This paper presents the results of palaeomagnetic studies of Cenozoic volcanic rocks and Quaternary strata in China, which have confirmed the occurence of some short-period polarity events. After a correlation with the worldwide palaeomagnetic data, a geomagnetic polarity time scale for the time since 2.48 M*** has been compiled.
Abstract On November 14, 2001, an earthquake measuring a magnitude of 8.1 occurred to the west of the Kunlun Mountain Pass which is near the border between Xinjiang and Qinghai of China. Since its epicenter is located in an area at an elevation of 4900 m where the environment is extremely adverse, field investigation to this event seems very difficult. We have performed interpretation and analysis of the satellite images of ETM, SPOT, Ikonos, and ERS-1/2SAR to reveal the spatial distribution and deformation features of surface ruptures caused by this large earthquake. Our results show that the rupture zone on the ground is 426 km long, and strikes N90–110°E with evident left-lateral thrusting. In spatial extension, it has two distinct sections. One extends from the Bukadaban peak to the Kunlun Mountain Pass, with a total length of 350 km, and trending N95–110°E. Its fracture plane is almost vertical, with clear linear rupture traces and a single structure, and the maximum left-lateral offset is 7.8 m. This section is the main rupture zone caused by the earthquake, which is a re-fracturing along an old fault. The other is the section from Kushuihuan to the Taiyang Lake. It is 26 km long, trending N90–105°E, with the maximum strike-slip displacement being 3 m, and is a newly-generated seismic rupture. In a 50 km-long section between the Taiyang Lake and the Bukadaban peak, no rupture is found on the ground. The eastern and western rupture zones may have resulted from two earthquakes. The macroscopic epicenter is situated at 65 km east of the Hoh Sai Lake. The largest coseismic horizontal offset in the macroscopic epicenter ranges from 7 m to 8 m. Based on the dislocation partition of the whole rupture zone, it is suggested that this rupture zone has experienced a process of many times of intensification and fluctuation, exhibiting a remarkable feature of segmentation.
On May 12th, 2008, the Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured the Beichuan, Pengguan and Xiaoyudong faults simultaneously along the middle segment of the Longmenshan thrust belt at the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. Field investigations constrain the surface rupture pattern, length and offsets related to the Wenchuan earthquake. The Beichuan fault has a NE-trending right-lateral reverse rupture with a total length of 240 km. Reassessment yields a maximum vertical offset of 6.5 ± 0.5 m and a maximum right-lateral offset of 4.9 ± 0.5 m for its northern segment, which are the largest offsets found; the maximum vertical offset is 6.2 ± 0.5 m for its southern segment. The Pengguan fault has a NE-trending pure reverse rupture about 72 km long with a maximum vertical offset of about 3.5 m. The Xiaoyudong fault has a NW-striking left-lateral reverse rupture about 7 km long between the Beichuan and Pengguan faults, with a maximum vertical offset of 3.4 m and left-lateral offset of 3.5 m. This pattern of multiple co-seismic surface ruptures is among the most complicated of recent great earthquakes and presents a much larger danger than if they ruptured individually. The rupture length is the longest for reverse faulting events ever reported.
Abstract The Huangtuling hypersthene-garnet-biotite gneiss at Luotian County, Hubei Province, is a typical granulite-facies rock of the Dabie Group Complex in the Dabie orogenic belt. Investigations on the morphology and occurrence of zircons and their internal structures shown in the thin sections lead to the recognition of three types of zircons, which are in good agreement with the types identified on the basis of morphology, colour and external features from the related zircon concentrates. The observation of zircons in the rock reveals that part of type 1 zircons show signs of a double-layered structure. The interval part existed in the protolith prior to the granulite-facies metamorphism. Type 2, the prismatic zircons which mainly occur in garnet and hypersthene are metamorphic minerals of the granulite-facies metamorphism. Type 3, the round multifaceted zircons in felsic minerals and biotite, are probably attributed to a later geological event related to migmatization. The 207Pb/206Pb zircon dating by direct evaporation on (thermal evaporation ion mass spectrometer) yields ages ranging from 2814 Ma to 1992 Ma. The age discrepancy among these different zircon types is conspicuous. The yellow-brown (type 1) zircons give ages of 2814±29 Ma to 2527±6 Ma, the prismatic euhedral zircons (type 2), 2456±7 Ma to 2254±4 Ma, and the round multifaceted zircons (type 3), 1992±10 Ma. The results are geologically interpreted in consideration of the complicated behaviours of zircons during Precambrian geological evolution of the Dabie area. (1) If the protolith of the gneiss is a sedimentary rock, then type 1 zircons are clastic ones and the ages 2814±29 Ma and 2811±27 Ma may reflect the minimum age of the rocks of its source region, also the first geological event in the area. Sedimentation of the protolith occurred between 2814 Ma and 2527 Ma, probably close to 2814 Ma. If the protolith is a volcanic rock, then the formation age of the supracrustal rocks of the Dabie Group Complex is around 2814 Ma. The age 2456±7 Ma reflects the time when the granulite-facies metamorphism took place. The later migmatization event is dated at about 1992±10 Ma, and is probably the latest early Precambrian event in the area.
The present work provides geochronological evidence for the existence of the Dabie Archaean craton, which had probably experienced 3 or 4 geological events during its early Precambrian evolution.
Abstract Based on analyses of the share of documents of structural geology and tectonics in the GeoRef system over 100 years in the last century, and the historical change of international (31 years) and domestic (16 years) document counts of various topics in structural geology and tectonics, the position of structural geology and tectonics in the geosciences is evaluated and the major advaces in fields of plate tectonics, continental dynamics and global dynamics are reviewed. Our attention mainly focuses on the advances in studies of structural analysis, deformation mechanisms and rheology of rocks, contractional tectonics and late- and post-orogenic extensional collapse in orogens, large-scale strike-slip faults and indentation-extrusion tectonics, active tectonics and natural hazards. The relationships of structural geology and tectonics with petrology and geochronology are also discussed in terms of intersection of scientific disciplines. Finally, some suggestions are proposed for the further development of structural geology and tectonics in China.
Carbonate minerals and water (or geofluids) reactions are important for modeling of geochemical processes and have received considerable attention over the past decades. The calcite dissolution rates from 50°C to 250°C at 10 MPa in deionized water with a flow rate varying from 0.2 to 5 mL/min were experimentally measured in a continuous flow column pressure vessel reactor. The dissolution began near the equilibrium with c/ceq > 0.3 and finally reached the equilibrium at 100°C-250°C, so the corresponding solubility was also determined as 1.87, 2.02, 2.02 and 1.88times10−4 · mol/L at 100°C, 150°C, 200°C and 250°C respectively, which was first increasing and then switching to decreasing with temperature and the maximum value might occur between 150°C and 200°C. The experimental dissolution rate not only increased with temperature, but also had a rapid increase between 150°C and 200°C at a constant flow rate of 4 mL/min. The measured dissolution rates can be described using rate equations of R = k(1-c/ceq)R or R = kc−n. In these equations the reaction order n changed with temperature, which indicates that n was a variable rather than a constant, and the activation energy was 13.4 kj/mol calculated with R = k(1-c/ceq)R or 18.0 kJ/mol with R = kc−R, which is a little lower than the surface controlled values. The varied reaction order and lower activation energy indicates that calcite dissolution in this study is a complex interplay of diffusion controlled and surface controlled processes.
Abstract A suite of continental flood basalts sampled over a vast exposure and stratigraphic thickness in the Emeishan large igneous province (LIP), SW China was investigated for laser microprobe 40Ar/39Ar dating. There are two 40Ar/39Ar age groups for these basalts, corresponding to 259–246 Ma and 177–137 Ma, respectively. A well-defined isochron gives an eruption age of huge quantities of mafic magmas at 258.9±3.4 Ma, which is identical to previous dating and paleontological data. Much younger 40Ar/39Ar ages for some basalts with low-greenschist metamorphic facies probably recorded a late thermo-tectonic event caused by collision between the Yangtze and Qiangtang continental blocks during the Mesozoic, which resulted in the reset of argon isotope system. The 40Ar/39Ar age data, we present here, combined with previous dating and paleontological data, suggest relatively short duration (about 3 Ma) of mafic volcanism, which have important implication on mantle plume genesis of the Emeishan continental flood basalts in the LIP.
The Qinghai-Tibet plateau is one of major saline lake regions in China, where saline lakes are widespread and constitute an important object of researches on the palaeoclimatic change in the region. On the basis of comprehensive investigations of the evolution of the lake's surface and sediments on the plateau, the authors have further demonstrated the existence of a pan-lake stage (river and lake flooding stage) on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau during the period of about 40+-28 ka B.P. and analyzed the palaeoclimatic characteristics of the pan-lake period and relationships between the ancient monsoons and the uplift of the plateau since the beginning of the Quaternary.
Abstract This paper deals with reflection spectra and polarized reflection spectra of 20 sorts of rock in 2π space, and then creates a model of reflection spectra of rock surface in 2π space. We measured the change of reflection and polarized reflection spectra as altering the incidence angle, vertex angle, azimuth angle, band and polarization. The results show that influence of the incidence angle on spectral curves is very strong. And when the vertex angle is constant, the horizontal azimuth polarizes rock spectra, and distorts the circular spectrum to become elliptic. The polarization influences the reflection intensity of rock spectra, but has no evident influence on the characteristics of wave forms of rock in 2π space. Therefore, we can describe the whole reflection spectral characteristics, including polarization, of rock surface in 2π space by measuring and calculating the e and p values in several key directions.
Abstract Using the reported new U-Pb age with the Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP II), zircon U-Pb ages were obtained from two samples of K-feldspar felsic paragneiss and K-feldspar gneissoid trondhjemite on the southern margin of the Taihang Mountains in the North China Craton. The protolith of the K-feldspar felsic paragneiss is argillaceous-sandy clastic sedimentary rock, probably deposited in the Neoarchean. Most of the detritus zircons show heavy loss of Pb. Five spots of zircons near the upper point, yield a weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 3399±8 Ma, representing an age of the sedimentary source. Two groups of zircons from the K-feldspar gneissoid trondhjemite give weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2511±13 Ma and 2735±16 Ma respectively. The former represents the emplacement time of the pluton, while the latter is interpreted as the age of the inherited zircons. The new data support that the Archean geological body in the central zone has an affinity with those from the eastern block of the North China Craton.
Abstract The dike swarm of lamprophyres at Pishan on the SW margin of the Tarim terrane is composed of ultra-potassic lamprophyres that have intruded into the Proterozoic hornblende schists. 40Ar/39 Ar dating data suggest that the isochron ages for phlogopite and whole rock separates of the lamprophyres are 231.7±0.3 Ma and 228.5±0.3 Ma, respectively. Geochemical data indicate that the dikes were derived from a subduction-related or metasomatized mantle. During the Middle-Late Triassic the western Kunlun area entered the post-orogeny period, and thus the occurrence of the dike swarm in the study area may have been controlled by underplating.
The Xianghualing Sn-polymetallic orefield in Hunan Province, southern China, is a large-size tin orefield. Although numerous studies have been undertaken on this orefield, its genesis, mineralization age, and tectonic setting are still controversial, mainly because of the lack of reliable geochronological data on tin mineralization. The 40Ar/39 Ar stepwise heating dating method was first employed on muscovite from different deposits in this orefield. The muscovite sample from the Xianghualing Sn-polymetallic deposit defines a plateau age of 154.4±1.1 Ma and an isochron age of 151.9±3.0 Ma; muscovite from the Xianghuapu W-polymetallic deposit yields a plateau age of 161.3±1.1 Ma and an isochron age of 160.0±3.2 Ma; muscovite from the Jianfengling greisen-type Sn-polymetallic deposit gives a plateau age of 158.7±1.2 Ma and an isochron age of 160.3±3.2 Ma. The tungsten-tin mineralization ages in the Xianghualing area are therefore restricted within 150–160 Ma. The tungsten -tin mineralization in Xianghualing occurred at the same time as the regional tin-tungsten mineralization including the Furong tin orefield, Shizhuyuan tungsten-tin polymetallic deposit and Yaogangxian tungsten-polymetallic deposit. Thus, the large-scale tungsten-tin metallogenesis in South China occurring at 160-150 Ma, probably is closely related to asthenospheric upwelling and crust-mantle interaction under a geodynamic setting of crustal extension and lithosphere thinning during the transformation of tectonic regimes during the Mid-Late Jurassic.
Abstract The 40Ar-39Ar age method is employed in this work to analyze fluid inclusions of quartz in the ore bodies from the Kuo'erzhenkuola and Bu'erkesidai gold deposits in the Sawur gold belt, northern Xinjiang. The results show that the main mineralization occurred in 332.05±2.02–332.59±0.51 Ma and 335.53±0.32 Ma-336.78±0.50 Ma for the Kuo'erzhenkuola and Bu'erkesidai gold deposits respectively, indicating that the two deposits are formed almost at the same time, and the metallogenic time of the two deposits are close to those of the hosting rocks formed by volcanic activity of the Sawur gold belt. This geochronological study supplies new evidence for determining the timing of gold mineralization, the geneses of gold deposits, and identifies that in the Hercynian period, the Altay area developed a tectonic-magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization of the Early Carboniferous period, except the two known mineralization periods including the tectonic-magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization of the Devonian period and Late Carboniferous-Permian period.
The occurrences of excess 40Ar within a hydrothermal tourmaline is discussed in term of the analysis data of syngenetic muscovite and tourmaline from the Lushui hydrothermal tin-tungsten deposit in western Yunnan, China, using the 40Ar-39 Ar stepwise heating technique. About 80% excess 40Ar was released in the last step when the tourmaline was fused, corresponding to a release of only ∼-3% 39Ar (K), which indicates that most excess 40Ar was held in the mineral lattice rather than in the channels parallel to the Z-axis. This suggests that the excess 40Ar was incorporated during crystallization and not diffused into the tourmaline during the post-crystallization history.
Four samples of plagioclase and biotite from the Shaxi porphyry in the lower part of the Yangtze metallogenic belt were analyzed for age determination with the 40Ar/39 Ar method. The results yield reproducible ages of 126 Ma to 135 Ma with a high level of confidence according to the agreement between isochron and plateau ages. The four Ar-Ar ages are relatively consistent within the analytical error. These ages are also consistent with, but more precise than, previous K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages and thus provide better constraints on the time of porphyry formation and associated Cu-Au mineralization along the middle to lower part of the Yangtze metallogenic belt. The ages of 126 to 135 Ma are interpreted to represent the intrusive time of the Shaxi porphyry, so that the Cu-Au mineralization should have occurred later due to the post-magmatic hydrothermal event.
Abstract Furong, Hunan, is a large tin orefield discovered in China in recent years, which is mainly of the skarn-greisen-chlorite type. On the basis of the geological characteristics of the orefield, 40Ar-39Ar dating was performed on muscovite from greisen-type tin ore and biotite from related amphibole-biotite granite, which yielded three sets of age data, i.e., a plateau age of 157.5±0.3 Ma and an isochron age of 156.9±3 Ma for amphibole-biotite granite; a plateau age of 156.1±0.4 Ma and an isochron age of 155.7±1.7 Ma for the Sanmen greisen-type tin ore; and a plateau age of 160.1±0.9 Ma and an isochron age of 157.5±1.5 Ma for the Taoxiwo greisen-type tin ore. The three sets of age data coincide well with each other. They not only accurately reflect the timing of rock and ore formation but also indicate close relations between granite and tin deposits. In addition, the plateau ages of all three sets suggest that no subsequent thermal perturbation event occurred after the formation of granite and tin deposits. The Furong tin orefield is a component part of the southern Hunan large tungsten-tin polymetallic deposit concentration area and also a representative deposit formed in the time interval of 160–135 Ma in four peaks of Mesozoic tungsten-tin mineralization in the South China region. They might still correspond to the middle and late stages of the major geodynamic transition from a N-S- to an E-W-direction in eastern China.
Abstract By using the 40Ar-39Ar chronological method to date K-feldspar from K-feldspar granite in the Qiaohuote copper district, the authors obtained a plateau age of 274.78±0.44 Ma and an isochron age of 272.7±3.0 Ma. Because there is no tectonic deformation overprinted or hydrothermal alteration in the K-feldspar granite intrusion after its emplacement, the 40Ar-39Ar age represents the crystallization age of K-feldspar in K-feldspar granite, i.e. the late crystallization age of the K-feldspar granite intrusion, which indicates that the K-feldspar granite formed in the intraplate extensional stage during the Early Permian. Moreover, based on the spatial relationship between the K-feldspar granite intrusion and copper orebodies, variations of copper ore grade, REE characteristics of K-feldspar granite and copper ores, and H and O isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions in copper ores, the metallogenesis of the Qiaohuote copper deposit is directly related to intrusive activities of the K-feldspar granite, and thus the crystallization age of K-feldspar in the granite approximately approaches the metallogenic epoch of the Qiaohuote copper deposit.
Abstract Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous geological bodies in the Mianxian-Lüeyang (Mian-Lüe) collisional belt (MLB) and its neighbouring areas, southern Qinling Mountains, China, show similar characteristics of having undergone deformation of two stages. The earlier one, which is inferred to be related to collisional orogeny between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean palaeocontinents based on previous geological data, is responsible for large-scale, north-verging recumbent folds and overthrusts, and associated with low greenschist facies metamorphism. 40Ar/39Ar dating of three muscovite samples taken from different localities yields plateau ages of 226.9±0.9 and 219.5±1.4 Ma and an apparent age of 194.5±3.0 Ma. Thus, the late Triassic collision between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean palaeocontinents has been constrained.
Abstract 40Ar-39Ar dating of albite from the Meishan and Taocun iron deposits yields plateau ages of 122.90±0.16 Ma and 124.89±0.30 Ma, and isochron ages of 122.60±0.16 Ma and 124.90±0.29 Ma, respectively. Phlogopite from the Zhongshan-Gushan ore field has a plateau age of 126.7±0.17 Ma and an isochron age of 127.21±1.63 Ma. Analysis of regional geodynamic evolution of the middle-lower Yangtze River region suggests that the porphyry iron deposits were formed as a result of large-scale lithosphere delamination and strong sinistral strike-slip movement of the Tancheng-Lujiang fault zone. The copper, molybdenum and gold deposit system in the middle-lower Yangtze River region was formed during the stress transition period of the eastern China continent.
Abstract A lot of new gold deposits have been found on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during the past two decades. Among them, three main types of gold deposits have been recognized, including quartz-vein-type, shearzone-type and porphyry-type. The former two types of gold deposits are mainly hosted within metamorphic rocks, while the latter is related to Cenozoic magmatism. Although all of these gold deposits are believed to have been formed during the uplift process of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the Cenozoic era (Wang et al., 2002b), precise isotopic age constraints have still been lacking until quite recently. This paper presents new 40Ar/39Ar data of some gold deposits on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which indicate that gold mineralization in the region occurred in response to the episodic stages of the orogenies.
Recently obtained 40Ar/39Ar data on quartz and feldspars from several gold deposits, such as the Sandiao deposit, the Baijintaizi deposit, the Pusagang deposits, provide new constraints on gold mineralization on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Geochronological studies of gold deposits along the Daduhe River indicate that there are three stages of gold mineralization. The early two stages occurred as early as 65.1 Ma in the Shuibaiyang deposit and 58.95 Ma in the Ruoji deposit, while the latter stage occurred as late as 25.35 Ma in Baijintaizi and 24.70 Ma in Sandiao. Isotopic dating of three plagioclases from the Beiya deposit, Zhifanggou deposit and Luobodi deposit and a K-feldspar from the Jinchangqing deposit in Yunnan Province indicates that these deposits were formed at two stages. The Zhifanggou and Jinchangqing deposits have early stage records as old as 58.82 Ma in Zhifanggou and 55.49 Ma in Jinchangqing, but all of the above four deposits in Yunnan have late stage records of 23.18 Ma in Jinchangqing, 24.54 Ma in Zhifanggou, 24.60 Ma in Luobodi and 24.56 Ma in Hongnitang. The above results suggest that the gold deposits on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were formed concentratedly at two main episodes, i.e. the end of the Paleocene (about 58 Ma) and the boundary between the Paleogene and the Neogene (about 25 Ma). The later episode appears to be looks like more important and was coupled with the Sichuan movement, which was extensively activated at that period. The beginning of the Cenozoic Era (about 65 Ma) might be another episode of gold mineralization, but only one deposit (Shuibaiyang) in this study has been proved to have been be formed at this stage and might be earlier than the initial collision between the Indian Plate and the Eurasia Plate.
In view of geology, the above three episodes of gold mineralization are associated with three events of tectonic-magmatism and/or fluid events. Even though the gold deposits (for example, the Shuibaiyang deposit, Ruoji deposit and Pusagang deposit) were formed at different episodes, all of them are genetically related to tectonic movements in large-scale shear zones. It looks like theat tectonic events (including large-scale strike-slip) between Paleogene and Neogene had a wide influence upon gold mineralization, with new deposits formed and old deposits enriched or superimposed to be a higher grade by new stage of mineralization. The above data suggest that gold deposits were not only concentrated in some areas, but also formed mainly at different boundaries of geological times, indicating that there existed some peak stages of gold mineralization (metallogenic episodes), and that the gold deposits were formed mainly by episodic mineralization.
Abstract Recent investigations reveal that the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) rocks in the Donghai region of East China underwent ductile and transitional ductile-brittle structural events during their exhumation. The earlier ductile deformation took place under the condition of amphibolite facies and the later transitional ductile-brittle deformation under the condition of greenschist facies. The hanging walls moved southeastward during both of these two events. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovites from muscovite-plagioclase schists in the Haizhou phosphorous mine, which are structurally overlain by UHPM rocks, yields a plateau age of 218.0±2.9 Ma and isochron age of 219.8Ma, indicating that the earlier event of the ampibolite-facies deformation probably took place about 220 Ma ago. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of oriented amphiboles parallel to the movement direction of the hanging wall on a decollement plane yields a plateau age of 213.1 ± 0.3 Ma and isochron age of 213.4±4.1 Ma, probably representing the age of the later event. The dating of pegmatitic biotites and K-feldspars near the decollement plane from the eastern Fangshan area yield plateau ages of 203.4±0.3 Ma, 203.6±0.4 Ma and 204.8±2.2 Ma, and isochron ages of 204.0±2.0 Ma, 200.6±3.1 Ma and 204.0±5.0 Ma, respectively, implying that the rocks in the studied area had not been cooled down to closing temperature of the dated biotites and K-feldspars until the beginning of the Jurassic (about 204 Ma). The integration of these data with previous chronological ages on the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism lead to a new inference on the exhumation of the UHPM rocks. The UHPM rocks in the area were exhumed at the rate of 3–4 km/Ma from the mantle (about 80–100 km below the earth's surface at about 240 Ma) to the lower crust (at the depth of about 20-30km at 220 Ma), and at the rate of 1–2 km/Ma to the middle crust (at the depth of about 15 km at 213 Ma), and then at the rate of less than 1 km/Ma to the upper crust about 10 km deep at about 204 Ma.
This paper presents the 3D density structure of crust in the Longmenshan range and adjacent areas, with constraints from seismic and density data. The density structure of crust shows that the immense boundary plane of density distribution in relation to the Longmeshan fault belt is extended downward to ∼80 km deep. This density boundary plane dips towards the northwest and crosses the Moho. With the proximity to the Longmenshan fault belt, it has a larger magnitude of undulation in the upper and middle crust levels. Density changes abruptly across Longmeshan fault belt. Seismic data show that most of the earthquakes in the Longmenshan area after the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake occurred within the upper to middle crust. These earthquakes are clearly distributed in the uplifted region of the basement. A few of them occurs in the transitional zone between the uplifted and subsided areas. But most of the earthquakes distributes in transitional zone from subsided to uplifted areas in the upper and middle crust where relatively large density changes occurr The 3D density structure of crust in the Longmenshan and adjacent areas can thus help us to understand the pattern of overthrusting from the standpoint of deep crust and where the earthquakes occurred.
The Taihang Mountains area is an area in North China where serious mudflow hazards take place frequently. The hazards often obstrust traffic and make it difficult to carry out conventional ground investigations of the mudflow hazards. This paper introduces the feasibility study of mudflow hazards by using Landsat-5TM data. The study has achieved a great success through adopting both the faint spectral enhancement technique for mudflow fans (or other depositional areas) and comprehensive study of the environmental background of pregnant mudflows. Thus, remote sensing as a fast, convenient, low-cost and effective technical method can be used to recognise the situation of mudflow hazards so that effective rescue can be provided.
The rapid identification based on InSAR technology was proved to be effective in our emergency investigation of surface ruptures and geohazards induced by the Yushu earthquake. The earthquake-generating fault of the Yushu earthquake is the Yushu section of the Garzê-Yushu faults zone. It strikes NWW-NW, 23 km long near the Yushu County seat, dominated by left-lateral strike slip, and appearing as a surface rupture zone. The macroscopic epicenter is positioned at Guo-yang-yan-song-duo of Gyegu Town (33°03′11″N, 96°51′26″E), where the co-seismic horizontal offset measured is 1.75 m. Geohazards induced by the Yushu earthquake are mainly rockfalls, landslides, debris flows, and unstable slopes. They are controlled by the earthquake-generating fault and are mostly distributed along it. There are several geohazard chains having been established, such as earthquake, canal damage, soil liquefying, landslide-debris flow, earthquake, soil liquefying, roadbed deformation, etc. In order to prevent seismic hazards, generally, where there is a visible surface rupture induced by the Yushu earthquake, reconstruction should be at least beyond 20 m, on each side, from it. Sufficient attention should also be given to potential geohazards or geohazard chains induced by the earthquake.
The paper introduces the anomalies observed by digital tiltmeter, cross-fault deformation meter, 4-component borehole strainmeter and geothermometer before May 12, 2008, Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan. The digital tiltmeter installed in the epicentral region in Shifang County recorded the tilt anomalies 15 days before the earthquake with variation amplitude of 3.7 times larger than the annual deviation of 2007. The cross-fault deformation meter installed at Zimakua station on the Xianshuihe-Anninghe fault zone detected displacement anomaly occurring since 2006 with the variation amplitude exceeding the cumulative value of the last ten years. Five borehole strainmeter stations in the Chongqing section of Three Gorges Reservoir area observed unconventional strain changes occurring in the period from May 1 through 12, 2008. Among them, the strainmeter at Wanzhou station recorded the great compression strain rate on the EW component at 14:00 o'clock of May 10, and the anomaly amplitude was so large that the instrument output exceeded its dynamic range, corresponding to a level of ∼104 nanostrains. The geothermometers installed in Xi'an, Chongqing and Xichang recorded the sudden temperature changes from November 2007 to January 2008 with the variation amplitudes several times larger than the ordinary deviation. The above phenomena and the criteria for distinguishing the anomalies from background fluctuations are discussed in this paper.
Abstract Many yellow silt layers have been identified in the Holocene sediments in the last lake of Lop Nur (playa), Xinjiang, northwestern China. Statistics of drill-hole cores have revealed more than one hundred layers, which exhibit regularity in time sequence. Study has further verified that these yellow silt layers were deposited through eolian processes. The time-frequency distribution diagram shows an obvious peak occurring at about 8200 a B.P., which is consistent with the dry, windy and cold climate event occurring at 8200 a in other places around the world. Therefore, this event is regarded as a response to the global climate change.
Abstract Based on a comparison between the oxygen isotope records of benthic and planktonic foraminifers from core 8KL of the South China Sea and sea-level change records derived from the Huon Peninsula, New Guinea, it is found that both records are very similar from 72 Ka B.P. to the present, especially for the benthic oxygen isotope record. The linear regression shows that δ<sup>18</sup>O changes (0.9995‰ for benthic foraminifers and 1.022‰ for planktonic foraminifers) are equal to 100 m in sea-level fluctuation. After making temperature correction in the δ<sup>18</sup>O record of benthic foraminifers from 72 to 120 Ka B.P., the curve of sea-level oscillation of the South China Sea since 186 Ka B.P. has been reconstructed. The lowermost sea-level that occurred in the last glacial maximum and oxygen isotope stage 6 is approximately - 130 m.
Abstract Dielectric data for volcanic scoria and basalt on the earth at microwave frequency are extremely sparse, and also crucial for volcanic terrains imaging, and development. In consideration of their similarity to lunar regolith (soils and rocks) in chemical and mineral composition, the dielectric data is significative for passive and active microwave remote sensing on the Moon. This study provides the data about the dielectric properties of three kinds of scoria and two kinds of basalt in China. The method put forward in this paper is also applicable for measuring the dielectric properties of dry rocks and other granular ground materials with low complex dielectric constants. Firstly, the authors measured the s and tanδ values of strip specimens prepared from the mixture of scoria or basalt powder and polythene with the resonant cavity perturbation method at 9370 MHz. Secondly, from the s and tanδg values of the mixture, the s and tanδs values of solid scoria and basalt were calculated using Lichtenecker's mixture formulae. Finally, the effective complex dielectric constants, s and tanδse, of scoria at different bulk densities were calculated. The results have shown that the s and tanδs values of all solid basaltic materials measured (both solid basaltic scoria or basalt) are approximately 7 and 0.05, respectively. With increasing bulk density of scoria, the s and tanδe values of scoria increase significantly.
Abstract A new exsolved copper-iron-sulfur phase in sphalerite has been found in the Dajing cassiterite-sulfide copper-silver-tin deposit, Inner Mongolia, China. After investigating the optical properties, chemical composition, crystal structure and exsolved characters of the exsolved phase, the authors present important evidence for its being a new exsolved copper-iron-sulfur phase mineral. Its formation mechenism is discussed in considering heating experiments, phase equilibrium data and the geology of the deposit.
Abstract Oxidation of AsIII by three types of manganese oxide minerals affected by goethite was investigated by chemical analysis, equilibrium redox, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three synthesized Mn oxide minerals of different types, birnessite, todorokite, and hausmannite, could actively oxidize AsIII to AsV, and greatly varied in their oxidation ability. Layer structured birnessite exhibited the highest capacity of AsIII oxidation, followed by the tunnel structured todorokite. Lower oxide hausmannite possessed much low capacity of AsIII oxidation, and released more Mn2+ than birnessite and todorokite during the oxidation. The maximum amount of AsV produced during the oxidation of AsIII by Mn oxide minerals was in the order: birnessite (480.4 mmol/kg) > todorokite (279.6 mmol/kg) > hausmannite (117.9 mmol/kg). The oxidation capacity of the Mn oxide minerals was found to be relative to the composition, crystallinity, and surface properties. In the presence of goethite oxidation of AsIII by Mn oxide minerals increased, with maximum amounts of AsV being 651.0 mmol/kg for birnessite, 332.3 mmol/kg for todorokite and 159.4 mmol/kg for hausmannite. Goethite promoted AsIII oxidation on the surface of Mn oxide minerals through adsorption of the AsV produced, incurring the decrease of AsV concentration in solutions. Thus, the combined effects of the oxidation (by Mn oxide minerals)—adsorption (by goethite) lead to rapid oxidation and immobilization of As in soils and sediments and alleviation of the AsIII toxicity in the environments.
Abstract The absorption reactions of arsenite on Fe (hydro-)oxides are studied. The three absorbent types are Fe(OH)3 gel and two Fe (hydro-)oxides, in which the Fe(OH)3 gel was dried in a microwave oven under vacuum at 80°C. It is found that pH changes from 9.71 to 10.36 in 6 minutes after the Fe (OH)3 gel was mixed with NaAsO2 solution, as the arsenite replaces the OH− in goethite and Fe(OH)3. At the 40th minute after the start of the reaction, pH decreases, which is most probably because that the monodentate surface complex of absorbed arsenite has changed into mononuclear-bidentate complex and released proton. The decline in pH values indicates not the end of the absorption but a change in the reaction type. Temperature and dissolved gas has little effect on these two types of reactions. The total absorption of arsenite increases after the absorbent is irradiated with ultrasound, which also lead to difficulty in separating the solids from solution. The absorption capacity for arsenite of Fe(OH)3 gel dried in a microwave oven under vacuum is 53.18% and 17.22% respectively better than that of Fe (OH)3 gel and gel dried at 80°C. The possible reasons are that the water molecules in the gel vibrates with high frequency under the effect of microwave irradiation, thereby producing higher porosity and improved surface activity.
In recent years, a series of large low and medium abundance oil and gas fields are discovered through exploration activities onshore China, which are commonly characterized by low porosity-permeability reservoirs, low oil/gas column height, multiple thin hydrocarbon layers, and distribution in overlapping and connection, and so on. The advantageous conditions for large-area accumulation of low-medium abundance hydrocarbon reservoirs include: (1) large (fan) delta sandbodies are developed in the hinterland of large flow-uncontrolled lake basins and they are alternated with source rocks extensively in a structure like “sandwiches”; (2) effective hydrocarbon source kitchens are extensively distributed, offering maximum contact chances with various sandbodies and hydrocarbon source rocks; (3) oil and gas columns are low in height, hydrocarbon layers are mainly of normal-low pressure, and requirements for seal rock are low; (4) reservoirs have strong inheterogeneity and gas reservoirs are badly connected; (5) the hydrocarbon desorption and expulsion under uplifting and unloading environments cause widely distributed hydrocarbon source rocks of coal measures to form large-area reservoirs; (6) deep basin areas and synclinal areas possess reservoir-forming dynamics. The areas with great exploration potential include the Paleozoic and Mesozoic in the Ordos Basin, the Xujiahe Formation in Dachuanzhong in the Sichuan basin, deep basin areas in the Songliao basin etc. The core techniques of improving exploration efficiency consist of the sweetspot prediction technique that focuses on fine characterization of reservoirs, the hydrocarbon layer protecting and high-speed drilling technique, and the rework technique for enhancing productivity.