Acta Agraria Debreceniensis

Published by Acta Agraria Debreceniensis
Print ISSN: 1587-1282
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This Conference has more then lived up to its billing, exploring policy options for a new rural America but in addition identifying the basis for a new framework for rural policy. Evidence that a new policy framework is needed is abundant (Stauber). In one way or another, rural areas of North America and of most of the developed world have for at least the past century experienced secular decline compared to urban areas. This has occurred during a period of high government transfers or subsidies, both direct and from policy interventions that have distorted the functioning of markets. It is clear that the systemic discrepancy between rural and urban populations/areas is a public policy priority. It is just as clear that there has not been a consensus on how to address these development and economic issues. Much funding and technical assistance has been allocated with little apparent impact on the condition of rural areas and rural people.
 
Since the Dayton Agreement on Bosnia of 1995 there is peace between Croats, Bosnians and Serbs. Whether this is a lasting situation remains to be seen (de Rossanet, 1997). Pessimists refer to Huntington’s “Clash of Civilizations” and argue that because Bosnia is situated on the fault line of the Western and Orthodox civilizations and on top of that has a large muslim minority a new war can not be avoided (Huntington, 1997). Others don’t accept this and are of the opinion that rational governance will overcome the problems of the multicultural society. In this view the restoration of the country’s economy is a major priority. However, on the long run, a peaceful outcome is not to be taken for granted.At present, the international community represented by the Office of the High Representative (OHR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) controls the political situation and the three ethnic groupes are forced to cooperate. To sustain a lasting peace in the future without the guidance of the OHR the reconstruction of the Bosnian economy starting with the agricultural sector is a precondition. This paper reports on a quick scan carried out in the period 15-19 April, 2002, in order to evaluate the possibilities of the agricultural sector as an economic booster in the post war situation. The quick scan was necessary to evaluate and give advise with respect to the plans of the OHR to engage in a public information campaign in order to stimulate the transformation of subsistence farming into commercial agriculture, and to encourage young urban Displaced Persons (DP’s) to consider life as a farmer as an option for their future. The campaign will include a number of sub-regional radio and television series, and a booklet and videos for distribution among the target groups.
 
In the recent decades it has become apparent that the human race can lead to a polluting and energy- wasting lifestyle and the depletion of natural resources and an ecological disaster as well. Energy efficiency is the realization of the chance to see a wider use of renewable energy. Renewable energy sources can be found in large quantities in Europe. A proper exploitation of these would be important because of the "traditional" energy sources’s sate is very critical in many ways. The utilization of renewable energy sources depends on many factors. The local natural conditions significantly determine each country's different renewable energy potentials. I find to be important the natural conditions, such as, solar radiation intensity , the number of sunny days per year, the wind conditions , the volume and their energy characteristics of the geothermal power resources , land features , soil and rock quality, the supply of fossil fuels or the nuclear possibilities of energy production. The economic environment is also a major influencing factor for the utilization of renewables. The conditions of price of fossil fuels (natural gas, oil and coal), the price of nuclear fuel production and other energy costs significantly influence the demand for renewables, as well as the level of subsidy and government tax policy. In addition, the international and national programs, objectives, strategies, subsidies and regulatory measures as well as technological factors can have a significant impact. In my paper I point out the opportunities of renewable energy should be given to live. Nowadays the positive effects of their use is undisputed. In addition to the environmentally friendly produced energy, we should strive for energy conservation and energy efficiency as well. These expectations appear in practice, which can be directly perceived by citizens, in fact we should live accordingly. Furthermore, the environmentally relevant regulations of living conditions should appear as environmental demands.
 
Regression between potassium content determined in AL and dK values determined in Baker-Amacher extractant (n=160)
The Hungarian fertilizing recommendation systems use AL soil test for the evaluation of potassium supply. The 0.01 M CaCl2 is a definitely milder extractant, it extracts the easily soluble and exchangeable potassium amount. Its European introduction was already taken into consideration in 1994. The research project on this topic is started in several european countries, also in Hungary at the Department of Agricultural Chemisty of Agricultural University of Debrecen. Another advantage this multielement method is that the different element-ratios can also be calculated.The Baker-Amacher extractant’s principle is that it contains a known amount of K, P, Mg in the CaCl2 solution. During the soil extraction adsorption and desorption process take place, so the adsorption or desorption can be calculated from the original and the final concentrations.In this paper we introduce the results of comparing analysis of the samples (n=630) from Soil Information and Monitoring System. Our aim was to measure the use of new extractants beside conventional extractant (AL) for the evaluation of K-supply would be reasonable.It can be stated that there is a medium close relationship (r=0.75) between AL-K and 0.01 M CaCl2-K. My calculations confirmed the results of former examinations, and proved that the two extractants don’t extract and change the same rate of K-fractions. We found that regression between 0.01 M CaCl2 and AL depend on texture classes, pH classes, amount of lime, and organic matter content of soils.Comparing the relations between AL and Baker-Amacher we find relatively loose correlation (r=0.45). We stated that there are K-fixing soils among soils considered to be well supplied with potassium by AL. This might be caused by the high amount of mineral clay and the quality of mineral clay. We stated that the dK averages show that the Hungarian nutrient-supply categories characterize generally well K-supplement of soil.It can be stated that it would be necessary to use new extractants to specify evaluation of plant available K. We found that the 0.01 M CaCl2 and Baker-Amacher extractants could complete usefully the AL procedure and could help effective potassium fertilization.
 
The ratio of the 0.01 M CaCl 2 soluble N-fractions (40-60 cm layer)
long-term experiments have an opportunity to investigate the effects of fertilization and plant nutrition. The paper reports the results achieved in the 39th years of a long-term-small-plot fertilisation and liming experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil in the Nyírség region. From the 32 treatment, four replications, altogether 128 plot experiments with 10 treatments are summarized. We took samples after harvest of triticale, in August.We used a reliable method (segmented continuous flow analysis) to determine different (easily mobilized - 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble) N-forms of soil. The 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble inorganic and total N content and the UV digestable organic-N form of soil were determined by this method.The results are summarized below:– The mineralized-N (Nmin.) content of soil increased with dose of nitrogen treatment. Liming treatments increase the amount of Nmin.– The maximum content of easily mobilize organic-N-fraction was found in the upper (0-20 cm) layer. This fact due to the large amount of crop and roots.– Changing of content of 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble total-N-forms due to N doses.– The ratios of these N forms are variable. It is very important that the content of organic N fraction is not negligible and this fraction plays a main role in the plant nutrition.
 
Nitrogen uptake and 0.01 M CaCl 2 soluble organic nitrogen
The best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary is the Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, which was established in 1929, and is still in use to study the effects of organic manure treatment, to develop models, and predict the likely effects of different cropping systems on soil properties and crop yields. In this respect, Westsik’s crop rotation experiment provides data of immediate value to farmers concerning the applications of green, straw and farmyard manure, as well as data sets for scientific research.Although commonly ignored, the release of nitrogen by root and green manure crops has a significant impact on soil organic matter turnover. The design of sustainable nitrogen management strategies requires a better understanding of the processes influencing nitrogen supplying capacity, as the effects of soil organic matter on soil productivity and crop yield are still very uncertain and require further research. In the treatments of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, nutrients removed from soil through plant growth and harvesting are replaced either by fertilisers and/or organic manure. Data can be used to study the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems and its effect on the 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content of soil.The aim of this paper is to present data on the nitrogen supplying capacity of brown forest soil from Westsik’s crop rotation experiment and to study its correlation with hundredth molar calcium-chloride soluble organic nitrogen. The main objective is to determine the effects of root and green manure crops on the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems. The nitrogen supplying capacity was calculated as a difference of plant uptake, organic manure and fertiliser supply.The 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen test has proved reliable for determining the nitrogen supplying capacity of soils. Brown forest soils are low in organic matter and in the F-1 fallow-rye-potato rotation, the nitrogen supplying capacity was 15.6 kg/ha/year. 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content was as low as 1.73 mg/kg soil. Roots and green manure increased the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil by more than 100%. This increase is caused by lupine, a legumes crop, which is very well adapted to the acidic soil conditions of the Nyírség region, and cultivated as a green or root manure crop to increase soil fertility.
 
Relationship between CaCl2-extractable Norg and winter wheat yield in the long-term fertilization experiment of Karcag
The ratio of CaCl2-extractable N fractions in the long-term fertilization experiment of Karcag
The effect of long-term NPK fertilization and liming on the amount of Norg fraction (long-term experiment of Karcag)
Norg content of the treatments in the long-term fertilization experiment of Karcag (mg kg -1 )
The use of new methods describing the “readily available” nutrient content of the soil is spreading on a global scale. The 0.01 M CaCl2 extractant is a dilute salt solution in which the easily soluble inorganic (nitrate-N and ammonium-N) and organic N fractions, P, K and micronutrients are also measurable. The 0.01 M CaCl2 has been tested in the University of Debrecen, Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Sciences since the 90’s. The results of the researches related to organic N fraction, performed in the last decades, and the results of the present study (originating from the long-term experiment of Karcag, 2007–2009) can be concluded as follows: The measurement of easily soluble and oxidizable organic nitrogen (Norg), besides inorganic fractions, could improve the nutrient management. The amount of the Norg fraction is determined by the soil conditions, therefore it is considered to be a site-specific parameter. Management practices and cropyear affect the amount of Norg as well. The present research confirmed that, the effect of fertilization on the amount of Norg can be explained by the changing of the yield (related to total biomass production), while the effect of cropyear is related to the differences in mineralization circumstances and yield as well. The measurement of the Norg fraction is increases the accuracy of N-supply, therefore it could prevent the environmentally harmful excess N application as well.
 
Soil properties of the nine sites in the long-term field experiment network (Csatho, 1998)
In the last decade, the 0.01 M CaCl 2 extraction procedure was tested as a multi-nutrient extractant. In 1995-97, international joint research activities were carried out within the COPERNICUS project. Detailed calibration of conventional and the 0.01 M CaCl 2 extraction procedures for pH, Mg and K were published. The amount of phosphorus extracted using a 0.01 M CaCl 2 solution is very low and reflects the intensity parameter of phosphorus bio-availability. As a readily desorbed P fraction of soils can reflect the soil P-supply and the CaCl 2 -P values are in close correlation with P-fertiliser rates and P balance. However, the effects of various soil characteristics on CaCl 2 -P values are different and their interpretation is difficult. Relatively poor correlations were found between amounts of P extracted by conventional and CaCl 2 soil test methods and, therefore, P limit values could not be calculated directly. To characterise the soil P supply at different sites, the CaCl 2 desorbed P and the adsorbed P in a modified Baker Soil Test were also applied. Soil test results of Hungarian long-term fertiliser experiments and recommended CaCl 2 -P limit values, calculated on yield effects and soil characteristics, are discussed.
 
Regression between the yield and Norg (n=20) Yield(1), Organic N(2) A trágyázás hatását a CaCl 2 -P és AL-P értékére, valamint a kezelések egyszerűsített agronómiai mérlegét a 3. táblázatban szemléltetem. A tartamtrágyázás nem volt szignifikáns hatással a kezelések átlagos CaCl 2 -P
During my research, I studied the 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable NO3--N, NH4+-N, Norg, P and K contents of the soil samples originated from a long term fertilisation trial in the experimental site Hajdúböszörmény. Relationships among the soil nutrient contents, the agronomic nutrient balances of the 2009 year, and fertilization were studied. From the results of the study it was concluded as follows:– Fertilization significantly increased the CaCl2 extractable NO3--N, NH4+-N, and K contents of soil.– Norg fraction increased as a function of the increasing yield. Hence, it can be assumed that the greater the produced yield, the more the stubble and root residues remain on the arable land. These organic residues can result significant increase in the Norg content of soils.– The CaCl2 extractable P and K contents were compared with the calculated P and K limit values. According to these, the experimental soil has a good phosphorus and lower potassium supply capacity. These results are in accordance with the results of the conventional Hungarian fertilization recommendation system.– It can be stated that the 0.01 M CaCl2 is able to determine not just inorganic N forms but Norg fraction as well that characterize the easily mineralizable nitrogen reserves. The results proved that AL-P and -K (ammonium lactate acetic acid, traditional Hungarian extractant) are in good agreement with the P and K reserves, but it is important from the aspect of environmental protection and plant nutrition to measure the easily soluble and exchangeable K-, and P-contents of soil. 0.01 M CaCl2 method is recommended for this.
 
Issues of nitrogen are still of particular importance in crop sciences. 15N-tracer are used to identify the N dynamics in soils and the N transfer between soil and plant. This tool is also helpful in clarifying fertilization problems.This article points out the special requirements for the application of stable 15N-isotops in agri-chemical research. Designs and results of selected laboratory experiments, examples of one-year field experiments, and a 15N long-term trial are represented in detail. The given literature refers to detailed results of diverse 15N publications in the system soil – fertilizer – (animal) – crop.
 
We have carried out storage experiments with wheat varieties Magvas, Fatima, Mv Emma and Mv Pálma from the 2001 growth year. During the first half of the experiments quality parameters, such as changes in moisture, protein and gluten contents as well as pharinograph readings, falling numbers and sedimentation indices were analysed and tested at an average initial moisture content of 13%.The findings in the changes in the quality parameters of different wheat varieties with 13% moisture content as a function of storage time duration were published in an earlier paper of mine (12/04/2002).This paper wishes to give an account of the second part of the storage test when the moisture contents of the different varieties were raised to 16% and the changes in the quality parameters were monitored for seven weeks. The findings show that contrary to what had been experienced in the first half of the trial, there were no changes in the protein contents, pharinograph readings, water uptake or Zeleny counts and falling numbers showed decreases with each of the varieties tested.
 
This study presents the results of the variety comparison trials conducted with the French bean variety candidate BU-16 on sandy soil, during two years at the Research Center of the University of Debrecen.The outstanding characteristics of this variety candidate are the early maturity, the showy pods (yellow, straight, cylindrical cross-section „pencil bean”) and the high yield potential.The experiments were conducted with a randomized design, with five varieties and four replications. The varieties (of which two are foreign and three are domestic) were as follows: BU-16 fj, Maxidor, Paridor, Hungold and Budai piaci. The individual plots were 2 m wide and 4 m long. The seeds were sown at a density of 30 germs per m2, with a row spacing of 50 cm.The following parameters were taken: time of flowering, time of green maturity, plant height, height of the lowest pod above ground level, number of pods per plant, distribution of the pods by the state of development (20 plants), usable pod length (1 kg of standard crop-yield), yield per hectare based on the number of plants per plot. The experiments were evaluated statistically with Excel and SPSS softwares.Results obtained with the variety candidate BU-16:– The time from the emergence to green maturity is 45 to 46 days, which is short as compared with the other cultivars studied.– Plant height is 38cm (two years average), which is among the highest ones, together with Paridor.– The pods are set high above the ground level similarly to Paridor, the height of the lowest pod is 19 cm.– The average number of pods per plant is 13 (two years average) similarly to Paridor and to Maxidor.– The distribution of pod size in 2007 is as follows: 68% of the pods of BU-16 is of the standars size, which is a good rate. The value of this trait for the other varieties is 60 to 63%, except for Paridor, the value of which is similar to that of BU-16.– The usable pod length (10 to 14 cm) is 63% in 2007 and 84% in 2006. Similar pod length rates were obtained for Maxidor, while the rate for Paridor is as high as 91%.– The total yield and the standard yield of BU-16 is among the highest ones.According to the results obtained and presented above, the variety candidate BU-16 is the earliest maturing among the varieties tested with high yield potential which, however, is not significantly different from that of the others. Significant differences can only be detected in plant height and the number of pods per plant. Considering the results, BU-16 is to be further tested.
 
During our research we aimed at finding an answer as to what extent the different concentrations of 17-alpha methyl testosterone incorporated in the diet of common carp fries can influence the production parameters of the species, as well as how efficient their sexreversal can be with the use of this method. To this end, an aquarium experiment was conducted in the course of which four different hormone treatments were set and monitored. The fish feed was enriched with 17-alpha methyl testosterone in 50 ppm, 75 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm dosages. The obtained figures revealed that the hormone treatments had no influence on the production parameters and conservation of the common carp fries. Further on, our team is to determine the sex of the fish through the examination of gonads during autopsy when they reach the 500 g average weight. Furthermore, a male specific test method which was supposed to be of great help in our attempt to select the sex-reversed specimens in the subsequent processes was also put to the trial. During the experiment the DNA-isolation of different sample types (muscle tissue, fin, mucus) of common carp with identified sex was successfully carried out. The extracted PCR product was examined with agarose gel. Our results indicated that the ccmf2 marker was applicable, however, the obtained figures were not reliable.
 
Hungarian stock of game is not only part of our national treasure but also one of our domestic products and economic income. Not indifferent therefore the number and the state of health of our wildlife. Population decline of the Brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1758) (one of our most important small game in Hungary) takes a long time. Demographic parameters of Brown hare was examined, particularly the factors affecting the decline of the species in Hungary. We took samples from typical habitats where the Brown hare could be found in relatively high density in our country. The article reports data of reproductive characteristics, diseases, parasites of Brown hare and other factors such as climatic and anthropogenic which could influence of the population dynamics. We mention sample collection and processing methods eg: population size estimates, examination of reproductive organs, the sex ratio and the age structure as well as the individual condition based on data of domestic and foreign authors and our partial results.
 
The European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma disease caused by pathogen ’Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum’ induces serious damages in cherry, sour cherry, peach, and apricot orchards mostly in Europe. Its known vector is the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni). Many articles report on the biology (morphology, taxonomy, life cycle etc.) and the method of transmission of the pathogen by the vector, and the possibilities of their control. This paper reviews our knowledge about the vector, and summarises the results of an inland research carried out in a northeastern Hungarian apricot orchards. Our goal was to show some important data for the farmers or anyone who is interested in this disease and its vector. And give some known method that we can protect our orchards against them to prevent the appearance of the disease. As the psyllid that became infected with the pathogen can hold its infectionous capacity during their lifetime, it is very important to have enough knowledge about their lifecycle, that we can determine the right time and method to control them. We also have to know how to identify them; therefore, this paper lists several important data which can be helpful. The most important keys of identification are their wing color, which dark borwn in the apex and brown is in the remaining part of the forewing. The length of the antennae is also an important factor, since other genuse’s species have longer antennae than twice the width of the head. C. pruni has as long antennae as twice the width of the head. They return to Prunus species in early spring and we have to protect our orhards in this period against them. We have to use preparations with a knock down effect on them to prevent the inoculation of the pathogen into the trees in our orchards.
 
The alfalfa root longhorn beetle is a pest of small importance in old alfalfa stands. It is rarely cited in the international, national literature, or even mentioned in specialized manuels. Plagionotus floralis is common in Hungary but its population density is low. It is a polyphagous species but it has importance - regarding the references – only in alfalfa. This paper analyses data gained in old alfalfa fields at two different regions of the country (Máriabesnyő, Debrecen). Damage of P. floralis was 56% in the roots of an 8-year-old stand in Máriabesnyő. Lenghts of tunnels were between 3 and 22 cm. In spite of the tunnels the alfalfa plants were viable. There was no root longhorn beetle in the 15-year-old Debrecen stand, however it has been found former in the region. The reason for the important density of P. floralis in Máriabesnyő could be the considerable diversity and covering of flowering weeds around the field. Adults of P. floralis feed on flower pollen and nectar. As to the Debrecen area,weeds were cut regularly, so the edge vegetation was poor. Present conditions (no pest control on alfalfa fields, overuse of old and failing alfalfa stands, many untrained growers) favour the reproduction and possible damage of alfalfa root longhorn beetle.
 
Map of the countries of L. europaeus populations included in this study
The brown hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778) is a common palearctic and a popular game species therefore it has been an obvious subject for population genetic studies since the second part of the 20th century. Among the several mitochondrial DNA studies some have been carried out concerning nuclear genes as well. The agouti signaling protein gene (ASIP) is involved in regulating the synthesis of eumelanin and pheomelanin in melanocytes of mammals. Though many studies focused on it in relation with several mammalian species, minimal information is available on this topic concerning the brown hare. Here we present a short communication concerning the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) gene in four different country’s L. europaeus populations, namely Lithuania, Hungary, Serbia and Georgia. N=45 tissue samples have been investigated from overall 17 sampling sites of the different countries. There has not been found any polymorphism among the sequences. In an alignment with other Leporid species’ partial ASIP sequences downloaded from ENA we have found that based on a 178 base pairs long DNA sequence the haplotype of our samples contains three other Lepus species as well. This is concordant with the findings of a previous study focusing predominantly on the European rabbit (Orycto lagus cuniculus Linnaeus 1758) and the several mutations of its ASIP gene.
 
One of the conditions for successful small game management is the good management of predator species. The predator species play an important role in the sustainable utilization of the domestic brown hare populations. A portion of these species are under nature protection and with the rest of the species can be utilizing by the wildlife management professionals. Important prey species of brown hares: perspective are red fox, domestic dog and domestic cat. Based on latest date of the National Game Management Database in hunting bags increasing every year the number of the European badger, the stone marten and the golden jackal. In Hungary the brown hare’s most important predator bird species are common buzzard, marsh-harries and goshawk. The human race is not only as a top predator affects the number of the population of brown hares with the wildlife management but indirectly with traffic, (soil cultivation, mowing, and pest control) as well. The control of predators is absolutely necessary for successful small game management, but without sufficient habitat size and habitat development it is hardly sufficient.
 
In the course of our examinations we were determining the gender of collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) feeding at animal breeding farms by biometric data. We were estimated their nourishment and necropsies were carried out.We compared the results of the nutrition analysis with similar data of collard doves feeding at agricultural areas.We analyzed the crop and gizzard content and recorded the body proportions of collard doves that were captured between December of 2004 and August 2005. In the course of the necropsy examinations we did parasitological, bacteriological examinations as well as examinations for the detection of Newcastle disease. In the course of the gender analysis of the collard doves that were collected at animal breeding farms, both the wing length and the length of the third quill-feather has shown a significantly greater value in the case of males (p>0.05).From the orts found in the crop and gizzard it has been stated that the feed consumed the most was corn (80.77% m%). The collared doves consumed much less other cereal seeds (wheat 0.82%, barley 1.26%).In the course of the necropsy examinations done in the Veterinary Institute of Debrecen, the birds proved to be free of parasites, and the results of the Salmonella and Newcastle disease analysis were negative as well. E. coli bacteria had been detected in the liver of not more than three birds.
 
Box tree moth shows (Cydalima perspectalis) rapid spread in Europe. In Hungary it appeared first near to the western border of the country in 2011. In the eastern part of Hungary the first specimen was caught in 2015 with blacklight trap. Here we summarize its distribution in northern part of the Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain) on the basis of blacklight, pheromone and feeding attractant traps. We publish five new distribution data from northern part (4 from Hungary, 1 from Transcarpathia) and two from southern part of the Alföld. Beyond that the flight of three generations was observed both in the year 2015 and 2016.
 
The last decades have carried changes in the legal and social position of women bearing enfranchisement, a new approach to women’s education, and their increased participation in the job market. This article outlines the historical participation of women on the political scene of the United States between the years of 1917-2011 including an analysis of the situation in the individual states. Furthermore, it analyses what types of positions have been held by women in the American Government Administration including the most prestigious ones of the Speaker and the Secretary of State. It also introduces Hilary Rodham Clinton, the first woman ever to run in the presidential elections 2008. This analysis reveals that women are still underrepresented in the federal-level positions which makes it difficult for them to influence the quality of the lawmaking and results in a difficulty to promote such decisions that are important for the women themselves.
 
László Huzián as a young man 3. ábra Huzián László Manninger Gusztáv Adolf professzor mellett (alsó sor)
László Huzián was a determining personality of the higher education of Hungarian crop protection more precisely that of the agricultural entomology. Training of the scientific and extension specialists of Hungarian agricultural entomology from 1960 till 1983 would have been unimaginable without him. He was the builder of the agricultural entomology school established by Gusztáv Adolf Manninger, the developer of the training’s essential and organisational standard, who sacrificed his life’s work for developing the crop protection. He found, characterized many pests (E.g. Scrobipalpa ocellatella, Lixus scabricollis, Tanymecus palliatus, Mesagroicus obscurus) new for the Hungarian fauna and worked out a control technology against them. It is important to mention his activity in creating the forecasting of the big field crop animal pests mainly that of the sugar beet pests. One top of his educational work was the wonderful manual „Agricultural Entomology” written with Sándor Bognár in 1979. László Szalay-Marzsó said of this book that it was impossible to write a better one. He has been right. The magnificent crop protection library and the unique richness and accuracy of the animal demonstration material (slides, pictures, preparates, showcases, etc.) established at the Gödöllő University of Agriculture can be thanked to his extraordinary systematizing mentality and tireless efforts.
 
Twenty five years ago died professor József Vörös, internationally recognized mycologist, phytopathologist. On the field of microscopic fungi research, especially on taxonomy of plant pathological conidial fungi (Deuteromycetes, Coelomycetes, Hyphomycetes) gained imperishable reputation during his more than 40 years research activity. As author of 17 fungus taxa and publisher of numerous mycological data J. Vörös took place in the history of mycology.
 
American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus) imago caught by yellow sticky trap in 2015
The vector of Grapevine Flavescens Dorée phytoplasma, the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus) has been in Europe since 1924. In Romania, the first populations were detected in 2009 in the central, eastern and southern part of the country. Later, the leafhopper was found also in West Romania in 2014. In 2015 and 2017, altogether, 14 sampling sites were studied in two vine regions of this area. The Scaphoideus titanus could be detected in 10 of them with relatively small abundances. During the studies, the yellow sticky traps proved more effective methods than sweep netting. To prevent vineyards from disease, we should do everything against the vector from prevention to chemical protection.
 
The first European appearance of american grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus), which is the vector of Grapevine Flavescence Dorée phytoplasma (‘Ca. Phytoplasma vitis’), were detected in France in 1924. The leafhopper has been distributed since 2006 in Hungary and now it occurs in the whole country, while the first record of the phytoplasma was published in 2013.We studied the distribution of the leafhopper in surroundings of Nagyvárad (Oradea, West Romania) in 2015 and surroundings of Debrecen (East Hungary) in 2016. During the studies 17 sites were sampled. The leafhoppers were found in six Romanian places with relatively low abundances while it occurs in all studied Hungarian sites and two of them showed extremely high frequenncy.
 
A comparison of selected crop production for Hungary and Tanzania is presented. The roles of climate, land use and productivities of crops vary significantly in the two countries. Climate impacts the distribution of crops in Tanzania more than in Hungary as Tanzania’s climate is diverse with hot, humid, semi-arid areas, high rainfall lake regions, and temperate highlands. In contrast, the Hungarian climate is temperate and uniform across the country. Land use changes significantly in Tanzania than in Hungary. Tanzania indicates a reduction in forest land and expanding agricultural land associated mainly with the variation in crop productivities and population growth. To maintain sustainable crop production, increasing crop productivity is of paramount focus to meet the requirements of the growing population.
 
The Furioso-North Star (FNS) is one of the indigenous Hungarian horse breeds, originated from Mezőhegyes Stud. The aim of this work was to analyze the pedigree diversity and inbreeding of the registered Hungarian Furioso-North Star population in two different time points: the first was the active population in 1989, the second was the active population in 2019. Pedigree data was analyzed using Endog 4.8 software. The pedigree completeness was calculated in three different ways. In the past 30 years the pedigrees became more complete. In the population 2019 were 5 horses with ancestor in the 40th generation. Only 17–17 animals covered the 50% of the genetic variability for the two population. The most important ancestor was Herod xx in both reference populations. The FNS breed has English Thoroughbred background, that might be the reason of having several horses form this breed in the database. There were six animals among the ten most important ancestors in both reference populations. The average inbreeding coefficient was 3.31 in 1989 and 4.22 in 2019. Animals with highest inbreeding coefficient were born from the mating of close relatives (typically father-daughter). The Bart Furioso III-84 Boglár had the highest inbreeding coefficient (0.299) in the population 2019.
 
The partial productivity measures in the Western provinces between 1991 and 2002 (annual growth rate, %)
Almost fifteen years have passed since the reunification of Germany. At the beginning of the 1990s, it was still unclear how the agricultural sector in the former East Germany would be able to survive, as it was still characterized by large scale farms, organized for a socialist economy. The course of this essay will look at how the agricultural productivity has changed the two different productivity systems in the western and eastern part of Germany.Productivity can be defined as output produced per unit of input. If we define productivity indicator as output per one type of inputs then we get so-called partial productivity index, however, if we define productivity indicator as output produced per unit of more than one inputs we get multi-factor productivity.In agriculture, the most often used partials productivity indexes are: labour, capital, land productivity and intermediate consumption productivity.The analysis of total factor productivity requires the aggregation of all inputs by using input prices.
 
Since the political changes in Hungary, agricultural businesses have worked in a declining economic environment and hectic market situation, with a widening price gap between agricultural and industrial products and low profitability. A declining export comes then by no surprise. The sector has not been able to even benefit from export opportunities provided in the European Agreement. The area least benefiting from quotas is animal products (beef, mutton, lamb, slaughtered chicken, cheese, egg). The ministry of agriculture was lagging behind in responding to these problems, and it was as late as in 1995 when it launched a reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up (5).The author has conducted empirical studies on agricultural enterprises in Csongrád county to see what results the special investment support delivered under the reorganisation programme produced. The fundamental aim of the reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up was to boost exportable Hungarian animal product stocks in a bid for businesses to better benefit from the preferential quotas set by the European Agreement. The author examined how the special investment support scheme succeeded in its aims, whether livestock grew considerably in its wake, whether farmers were able to attain exportable quality and what development funds enterprises were able to raise.
 
Degree of total virus infection and WDV infection in winter barley breeding materials showing leaf yellowing and dwarfing symptoms during 1996-2010 Degree of virus infection(1), Years of survey (2), Percent of total virus infection (3), Percent of WDV infection (4)
Yearly change of the infection of Wheat dwarf virus was studied in winter barley during 1996-2010. Surveys were carried out at Kompolt (Rudolf Fleischmann Research Institute, Róbert Károly College), in winter barley breeding lines showing leaf yellowing and stunting symptoms. In 1996, 250 winter barley samples were tested. During the period of 1997–2005, 100 samples were collected in each year. In 2006, 490 winter barley samples were tested. In 2007 and 2008 the number of samples collected was 500 from winter barley. In 2009 year 100, and in 2010 year 100 winter barley samples were collected for virus testing. Virus diagnosis was carried out using DASELISA for the detection of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV-MAV, BYDV-PAV, BYDV-RMV, BYDV-SGV), and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV). During the ten of the last fifteen years, the occurrence of Wheat dwarf virus in infected samples exceeded those of other viruses causing leaf yellowing and dwarfing symptoms. There were years (1997, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2010) when only the Wheat dwarf virus played the main role in development of yirus symtoms. A contrasting tendency can be observed between the degrees of infection of WDV and BYDV. With a rise of infection in the WDV, the proportion of BYDV decreased and vice-versa.
 
The income of agricultural enterprises varies greatly according to the type of agricultural production.We analysed the financial situation of some agricultural companies from Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg and Hajdú-Bihar counties. We got the data from the Department of Justice from reports made between 1997-1999. The available data was classified and averaged by counties.Although the management of the examined enterprises ensured profit, closer analyses of their cash flows reveal that, at least in some cases, expenses were not always coverable, despite income. Both counties, major emphasis was on improvement and support investments. It is highly probable that these investments will later result in an increasing income level and profit.Altogether we cannot say which county enjoys a better situation, and what the reasons for the differences are. Further data collection and analyses are needed to find the answers.
 
The income of agricultural enterprises varies greatly according to the type of agricultural production. The available data was classified and averaged on the basis of the form of association.Although the management of the examined enterprises ensured a profit, closer analysis of their cash flows reveals that, at least in some cases, expenses were not always coverable, despite income. In all forms of association major emphasis was put on improvement and support investments. It is highly probable that later on these investments will result in an increasing income level and profit. The situation is the most advantageous in the case of co-operatives, as the cash flow of the second examined year originated from regular activity could cover the cash flow of investments and financing. In the case of limited liability and shareholder companies the above is not true, but advantageous changes occur there too. Unfortunately, in most cases the role of loans is very important in the operation of the company. As far as favourable aspects are concerned it can be stated that credit repayment covered by the regular activity.
 
Effect of different sowing-time on change of infection index with a resistante hybrids (Debrecen-Látókép, 1999) different sowing-time(1), (2), (3), date(4), infection index(5) IRODALOM
Plant protection, and especially the efficiency of protection against mycosis, is a very important production technological element concerning sunflower. The efficiency of production can be increased on the basis of a thorough pathological survey and its results carried out in a wide variety of hybrids, as the features of hybrids, the reactions of genetic bases to pathogens can be found out under domestic conditions.The tests were carried out at variety-test lots of OMMI for hybrids used for food or oil and other sunflower varieties admitted by the state at the Experimental Site DTTI Látókép, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen between 1998 and 2002. The number of the tested hybrids was 49 in 1998, 45 in 1999, 49 in 2000, 55 in 2001, and 44 in 2002.Due to the infection source of high amounts remained from 1997 and the favourable weather conditions for the pathogens, an infection of high degree was experienced in the tested stands. The lowest infection index in the hybrids with a very short vegetative period was experienced with Beni hybrids. Comparing to the average of the hybridgroup with short vegetative period, a low infection index characterised the Baleno, Trident, IBH-166, Hysun 321, Resia, Alexandra, Cergold and Pixel hybrids. In 1999, among hybrids with medium vegetative period, Zoltán, Zsuzsa and Util hybrids could be highlighted because of their low infection index. In 1998, among confentionary hybrids, Marica-2 hybrid had the most favourable index values (2,55).During our trials, the experienced infection dynamics were compared in the event of hybrids with higher and lower susceptibility under different sowing technological elements. The results call for the fact that when a hybrid with higher susceptibility is produced, production technological elements, such as the time of sowing, influence considerably the damage caused by the pathogen, therefore it must not be ignored when its determination takes place. In the event of hybrids with lower susceptibility the change of the tested production technological elements within the biological optimum does not lead to the increased risk of the damage caused by Diaporthe helianthi.
 
Knowledge-intensive businesses sectoral nature of the operation and the specific attributes of the innovation life cycle processes, different needs and different needs induce. These features can also differentiate time that their activities when and what type of resources they require. The availability of capacity in terms of a network co-benefits for those businesses that are creating the possibility that such resources are available to ensure the realization of goals that are not individually owned. These factors and the availability of local availability is also motivated by the small and medium enterprises willingness to cooperate. Regional supply of resources necessary for the operation of the business of insurance, universities play a key role. The functions of universities in innovation as a business service can be understood as an activity that mediate high added value to other organizations and companies. Questions arise as to the innovative nature of the business industry and sector weights would differentiate whether the R&D&Iintensive areas of expertise.
 
The more widely use of GIS, remote sensing technology provides appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build several national and international biodiversity monitoring system of environmental protection and natur conservation. The ChangeHabitats 2 is a similar international project, which uses airborne hyperspectral and airborne laser scanning (airborne LiDAR) sources beyond traditional data collection methods to build a monitoring system of Natura 2000 habitats. The goal of our research, on one hand, was to separate the most typical species of trees which can be found in the largest coverage in the research plots of Debreceni Nagyerdő Nature Reserve from field and airborne remote sensing data, use image classification that based on spectral and geometry (height) characteristics of the trees. On the other hand our goal was to evaluate the efficient use of the integration of mobilGIS, airborne hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR data collecting methods to complement or substitut of the traditional, field data collecting methods. We used ArcGIS 10.2 and Exelis 5.0 GIS software for data evaluation, in which the mosaicing, the selection of plots and the spectral image processing were carried out.
 
Precipitation between October 1999 and August 2002 (Debrecen)
In order to ensure modern Hungarian sunflower production, the development of hybrid-specific techniques are highly important. The continual expansion in hybrid choice makes the examination of genotypes necessary in the relation of genotype and environment interactions and critical factors. The Plant density as a complex determinant factor has a strong effect on sunflower yield, quality and plant hygiene. As a result of the experiments, we can state that the optimal density was 45.000-65.000 plant/hectar. In 2001-2002, the optimal density was 45.000-55.000 plant/hectar; while in 2000, it was 65.000 plant/hectar.
 
The timely and effective establishment of Natura 2000 network is one of the greatest environmental challenges for the new Member States of the European Union. Slovak Republic is facing this challenge now. By the June 2005, the Government in our country must prepare a list of sites to be included in the Natura network, according to the criteria set up in the Habitat Directive. Natura 2000 sites, according to the specificEUDirectivesconsistofSpecialAreasofConservation(SACs),andSpecialProtectionAreas(SPAs).TheSPAsandtheSACs, the latter selected as Sites of Community Importance (SCIs), will be incorporated into the Natura 2000 network. The problems of proclaiming the system of protected areas of European importance for the Natura 2000 have been one of the major topics of the ichthyological activities in our country in recent years.For 3 lampreys and 20 fishspeciestheterritoryofpotentialsiteofcommunityinterest(pSCI)hasbeenlimitedandproposed.Theselection of localities and examinations of population state in individual species of fishespresentedintheAnnex(II.,IVandV.)totheCouncilDirective No. 92/43/EEC were carried out in 2003/2004. In total 179 pSCI localities for fishandlampreysinthealpinebiogeographicregion (83) and in the pannonian biogeographic region (96) pSCI in the Slovak republic were selected and limited. The number of pSCI localities selected for individual species is different regards to their distribution within the river net of Slovakia. For example, for species of general distribution, 30 localities pSCI (Misgurnus fossilis, Rhodeus sericeus, Gobio albipinnatus, Barbus barbus) or 35 localities pSCI (Cobitis elongatoides, Barbus peloponnesius), have been proposed, on the contrary, in several species of exclusive distribution as Lampetra planeri - 8, Gobio uranoscopus - 9 and Zingel zingel -12 localities.The pSCI territory for individual species of the ichthyofauna presented here represents the firststageintheprocessofcreatingtheprotected territory system of European interest Natura 2000 in the territory of the Slovakia for this group of aquatic vertebrates. The list of proposal sites will have to be submitted to the European Commission by the date of Accession.
 
Areas Connected to Sport at the University of Debrecen (2011) Sport at the Univestity of Debrece (1), Education(2), leisure Sport(3), Competitive Sport(4), Coordination Body for Physical Education(5), Autonomia Studentesca(6), DEAC Sport NK ltd.(7), DEAC Sportclub(8), DASE(9), Other external clubs(10), Physical Education and Sport Center/ TEK(11), Physical Education and Sport Center/AgTC(12), Physical Education and Sport Center/OEC(13)
The strategic and conceptional approach to sport has brought substantial changes in the sporting life of University of Debrecen during the period between 2005–2013. The restructualisation process aiming at the development of university sport as well as the measures related to creating a more transparent financing system demonstrates elements of improvement in comparison to the period prior to the Bologna process. The Sport Concept of the university operates the different areas of sport within a transparent, planed and complex structural framework in accordance with the principles outlined in both the National Sports Strategy (2007) and the legal regulations specified by the Sports Law and its modification (2004, 2011). The conceptional changes of sport at the University of Debrecen followed the main objectives and guidelines of the European Commission that lays a great emphasis on issues such as the integration of athletes into higher education allowing maintenance of parallel educational and athletic carriers for athletes.
 
In this paper we analysed the results of maize planting time experiments by the Department of Crop Sciences and Applied Ecology of the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences in 2001. We made the experiments at the experimental garden of DE ATC in Hajdúböszörmény.We examined in 2001, 2002 ten hybrids with three planting times. The results were analysed by analysis of variance with two factors. In 2001 the yields were high, between 7.2-11.6 t/ha. The seed moisture contant of hybrids was 6-8% less after early planting than after late planting. The vegetation period of the hybrids became longer after early planting, which helped the drying-down of the hybrid and determined the seed moisture content at harvest to a great extent.In 2002 the yields were high, between 4.02-10.47 t/ha. The seed moisture contant of hybrids was 5-14% less after early planting than after late planting.On the basis of the above, variety specific technologies should be applied where the planting time is adapted to the hybrids. In accordance with the other cultivation factors.
 
An der Schwelle eines sich vereinenden Europas besteht unter dem Wettbewerbsdruck der Globalisierung und dem Verbraucherdruck nach Qualitätssicherung der Nahrungsmittels sowie Erhalt der Naturgüter die eigentliche Herausforderung an die Agrarpolitik darin, die Politiksteuerung bei abnehmender Protektion langfristig stärker als bisher für den nachhaltigen Aufbau der Eigenwirtschaftlichkeit von Unternehmen und zugleich für den Abbau des Dualismus von Produktion einerseits und Naturschutz andererseits auszurichten. Transfermittel müssen deshalb strukturell verändert und differenzierter unter Beachtung regionaler und nationaler Erfordernisse eingesetzt werden. Dies erfordert eine Neuordnung des Agrarhaushalts und der agrarpolitischen Steuerungsinstrumente. Im Rahmen des Beitrages werden zur Politiksteuerung und zur Unternehmensstrategie Lösungswege aufgezeigt. Beachtung erfährt hierbei der Strukturwandel in der Landwirtschaft, besonders unter Berücksichtigung von Unternehmensgröße, Betriebsverfassung. Eigentum und Rechtsform. Der Übergang zum umweltgerechten Landbau wird begründet. Folgen aus der neuen Grenzziehung der Europäischen Union werden angerissen.
 
We have started a small parcell and a factorial S fertilization experiment with winter wheat in the 2001/2002 cropping year to examine its effect on yield and quality. The scene of experiment was the Latokep Experimental Station of the DE ATC (calcareous chernozeem) in case of small parcell examination and the Agricultural Company of Felsőzsolca (brown forest soil) in case od factorial examination.The protein and gluten content of the grain was investigated with PerCon Inframatic 9001 NIR Analyser, then we have measured these parameters with PerCon 8620 infra appliance. After the milling we measured the following parameters: glutenindex, farinographic parameters (farinographic index, water absorption capacity, dough development time, stability, softening, extension) and valorigraphic index.Based on the results there’s no justified relation between the fertilization and the protein and gluten content. The valorigraphic index of the samples taken from Felsőzsolca factory characteristically increased as a result of the S-fertilization. In the small-parcell experiment the values of the water absorption capacity, the dough development time and the softening parameters from the valorigrphic parameters depended significantly from the mineral treatments. Signifikant quality improvement wasn’t experieced.There was sampling in all of critical phenophase (…). The green plant samples were examined on element content with ICP-OES. These measurements are currently in progress.
 
Nowadays, for increasing efficiency of sunflower production treating hybrid-specific technologies was required. Increasing of hybrid choice gave reasons for trials in respects of critical factors, as well as in case of genotype-enviroment interactions. The effect of changing plant density show up as determinant factor which affects on yield as well as on plant hygienic conditions. Trials were established on calcareous chernozem soil (Hajdú-Bihar county), in 2001-2002. The field trials were randomized, in four repetition on small parcels. The plant density trials were established in 35.000-75.000 plant/hectar interval using a scale of 10.000 plant/hectar. 10 hybrids were used in both year.In 2001, 55.000 plant/hectar density was the optimal, in case of most of the hybrids. The yield of tested hybrids did not show significant difference. Yield decreasing effect of using less than optimal density was more significant than in case of using optimal plant density. In 2002, the optimal density was in 45.000-65.000 plant/hectar interval, there was no possibility to find narrower optimum.Presence of Diaporthe helianthi and the damage caused by the pathogen was significant in 1997-1999, whereas in 2001-2002 the large-scale appearance of the pathogen did not occur. In 2001, the affect of high plant density on disease caused by Diaporthe helianthi showed just tendency-like appearance, in 2002, the infection showed up just in the end of the vegetation period, without significant damage. In spite of the low infection level, the difference between the infection of the diverse plant density treatment was significant. Increasing plant density made increase the frequency of the Diaporthe helianthi infection. The rate of the flower diseases was around 3-16% in 2001, the highest infection level emerged in 65.000-75.000 plant/hectar density, whereas in 2002, the rate of infection level was less than 10%. The increasing plant density helped the development of flower diseases.
 
Today, an increasing number of natural disaster events are witnessed. Our respond to these disasters is increasingly important and more timely problem. Before PhD studies my research aimed at revealing the impacts reconstruction, restoration and damage prevention had on the environmental, social and economic segments of disaster-hit areas. This present paper intends to provide preliminary results of the work already carried out in the Bereg Region, where I specialized on the effects of Tisza flood.This paper focuses on the results and conclusions drawn from the analysis of environmental consequences resultant from the flood based on a study area.
 
Ismeretes, hogy földművelés és mindenféle művelés műveltség még a szó etimológiáját tekintve is azonos eredetű. Tehát kezdetben volt az agrikultúra, s ebből származik minden másfajta kultúra. Azaz: az ember előbb a földet tanulta meg művelni, aztán ennek mintájára önmagát és embertársait kezdte formálni, fejleszteni, tökéletesíteni. A vad, sőt barbár, olykor veszélyekkel teli növény- és állatvilágot az ember életadóvá alakította, önnön megmentőjévé tette. Ennek analógiájára a beszéd és írás módjait, jeleket és tapasztalatokat arra használt fel, hogy tudást és szépséget, tudományt és művészetet, azaz műveltséget örökítsen tovább.
 
The aim of the study was the examination of the achievement of the Hungarian agricultural enterprises – special regard to the agricultural co-operatives – based on the aggregated database of Hungarian Tax and Financial Control Administration (APEH), from the database of the Research Institute of Agricultural Economics. From the methodological aspect plain statistical devices were used, indicators for corporate analyses werecalculated and analyzed for the time series. One important conclusion is that the socio-economic weight of the agricultural co-operatives was strongly decreased in the period after the EU accession. The other important statement is that over the general examination of economic actors on an aggregated level the comparative analysis of the single enterprises forms would be needed. In the case of the co-operatives the separated examination of the former type producer co-operatives and the new type co-operatives would be necessary
 
We examined 35 early, 32 mid-season and 12 mid-late winter wheat varieties on calciferous chernozem soil after sunflower green crop in 2003. We set-up the experiment on small-size parcels, with 4 repetitions. In addition to the favourable agrotechnical conditions, with this year’s extreme ecological conditions the varieties resulted in weaker yields (2500-3200 kg/ha). Our findings have proven that there is a significant difference both between the maturity groups and between the yield potential of varieties with different genotypes, inside each group. Early varieties showed lower yield potentials according to the other two groups. The differences between the various variety’s yields was the smallest in the mid late group (893 kg/ha). Under given ecological and agrotechnical conditions, the following varieties showed the relatively best yields and best adaptability:• early maturing varieties (3200-3700 kg/ha): Mv palotás, KG Magor, Mv Mambo, Mv Emese, GK Margit, GK Tündér, GK Csongrád, GK Attila, Mv Amanda, Ukrainka;• mid season varieties (3300-3800 kg/ha): Győző, GK Marcal, Róna, GK Rába, Buzogány, MF Kazal, GK Mura, Hunor, GK Cipó, Mv Magvas, Mv Vilma, GK Zugoly, Jubilejnaja 50;• mid-late varieties (3200-3600 kg/ha): Maximus, Complet, KG Kunhalom, GK Holló.
 
Values of the Z index and its quality categories
The demand of modern societies for high food quality is evident. Thus, it is important for agriculture to produce row materials that are valuable for nutrition and have favourable characteristics for food processing. For this we need a knowledge about the factors which determine the quality of products. One of the main features of plant production is the “immobility”. This way the characteristics of the field influence the quality of the product, like example winter wheat, which is the main cereal in Hungary and Europe.The Concordia Co. has charged the Central Laboratory of Debrecen University, Agricultural Centre with laboratory testing of the 2002/2003 winter wheat crop. The samples consist of thirteen winter wheat varieties from six different sites under the same cultivating conditions. Therefore, the important wheat quality factors were analysed solely against site conditions with the use of Győri’s “Z” index, which contains these parameters.Soils were tested first. In this experiment excepting the negligible differences between the sites, there were no linear relations found between quality factors, productivity and soil features. The case is the same with the relation between precipitation, temperature and quality parameters. However, it must be noted that additional soil analyses are required to interpret the extreme results obtained from Karcag.The calculated Győri’s Z-index shows relative stability concerning certain varieties, although considerable deviation can be found in varieties related to the sites. According to these results, it can bestated that winter wheat quality was not linearly influenced by soil and weather in the 2002/2003 vegetation period. As the same cultivation technology was used in the experiment, the index was determined by genetic features. It must be noted that these findings are relevant only to this experiment.
 
Offshoring projects location in Poland
The globalised world is looking for savings and actually finds it in Poland. Global economy is a system of connected vessels, functioning in close relations, with increasing role of Poland. The text demonstrates the developmental perspectives of outsourcing and offshoring in the largest Polish metropolies and the possibilities of the development of smaller cities.
 
According to the sales results of the past two years we can draw the conclusion that although the Hungarian hybrids have very good capabilities, they are still in a big disadvantage in the corn seed sales sector, considering other foreign varieties. These above mentioned disadvantages, as published in prior essays, are not because of the variety’s low quality, but the lack or little presence of marketing. In order to gain position and market on the seed sales sector in Hungary, a lot more has to be done in the area of advertisement.Seed advertising is very particular and different from all other types of goods. To make growers familiar with your product, you have to be in continuous contact with them, through field days, exhibitions and presentations, besides the well known and in other areas also used quotidian advertisement methods.Although Hungarian breeders reach better and better results each year, they still cannot catch up with the multinational companies spending millions of dollars on development and advertising, thanks to their financial position.Finally we can state that choosing the appropriate variety for our needs and possibilities of land and machinery is of great importance in order to reach the best results we can.
 
Top-cited authors
Csaba Szőke
  • Hungarian Academy of Sciences
János Nagy
  • University of Debrecen
Radoviciu Edith
  • University of Oradea
Ioana Mihaela Tomulescu
  • University of Oradea
Agnieszka Jasińska
  • Poznań University of Life Sciences