Academic Research International

Online ISSN: 2223-9944
Results of the ADF Unit Root Test
Results of the Long Run Model GDPG as Dependent Variable
Regression Result of ECM, ∆GDPG As Dependent Variable
This research paper investigates the relevance of the dependence of Bangladesh economy on external public debt. Using some econometric tools, the study is conducted to find out the effect of external public debt on economic growth from the perspective of Bangladesh economy for the period 1974 - 2010. The study will probe debt overhang and crowding out effect of external public debt to represent the effect. To specify the debt overhang and crowding out effect of external public debt, the debt burden has been segmented into two part; external debt stock and external debt service. Long run significant negative effect of external public debt service and positive effect of external public debt stock on GDP growth have been found from this investigation. In short run, only external debt service has negative effect but the debt stock does not have any significant effect. Thus the investigation did not find any evidence of debt overhang provided that there is no significant adverse effect of debt stock on GDP growth. But crowding out effect was originated from the fact that there is evidence of adverse effect of debt service payment on economic growth for the period. As more debt stock means more service payment, the study shows a dichotomy in obtained results. So the reconciliation of debt should be prudent to optimize the growth of Bangladesh. Short run disequilibrium in the path of long run is corrected at a good speed.
The SEM image of SA(left) and SA–AC nanoparticles(right). 
FTIR absorption spectra of SA, SA–AC 
Using the Taguchi method, this study analyzes the optimum conditions for removal of lead from aqueous solution in batch method by Nanocomposite Silica Aerogel Activated Carbon (SA–AC), which is prepared using the sol gel method. The controllable factors used in this study consisted of the following: (1) pH of the solution(A); (2) adsorption temperature(B); (3) lead initial concentration(C); (4) adsorbent dosage(D); (5) contact time (F).The effects of each factor were studied at four levels on the removal efficiency of lead from aqueous solution.L 16 orthogonal array (OA) has been used for experimental design. Concentrations of lead were assessed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The statistical analysis revealed that the most important factors contributing to the removal efficiency are pH of the solution and adsorption temperature. The study shows that the Taguchi's method is suitable to optimize the experiments for total lead ions removal. The total optimum adsorptive removal of leadions were obtained with C 0 = 10 mgL -1 , T = 65°C, pH = 6, m = 0.16 g and t = 6 h.
Showing plant names and their uses 
ABSTRACT Medicinal plants have been observed to be very effective in the treatment of ailments that defile orthodox medicine. Despite this, only few people know the location and uses of most of the plants around them due to inadequate knowledge of their usefulness. In this study, common plants used by the indigenous people of Southwestern Nigeria were classified based on their locations, types and uses. These plants were briefly described and their local names provided. The study revealed that 82% of the plants used for treating ailments were sourced from the wild, while 18% were cultivated. Most of the medicinal plants were wantonly destroyed as a result of inadequate information. However, in order to sustain the practice of traditional medicine as a subsystem of the health system, it is imperative to encourage the cultivation of these fast disappearing and endangered plants by the rural farmers as a quick way of initiating short-term conservation measure, while awaiting longer policies embedded in the realms of legislation. Keywords: Ethno-medicine, Conservation, Medicinal Plants, Conversation Southwestern Nigeria, Ethno-Motanical Approach
2017 yılı ocak ayında Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı taslak öğretim programları yayım- lamış ve bunu kamuoyuna sunmuştur. Taslak öğretim programları 2017-2018 eğitim öğretim yılında ilkokul birinci sınıf, ortaokul beşinci sınıf ve lise doku- zuncu sınıftan başlayarak kademeli olarak tüm yurtta uygulanacaktır. Bu çalışma ülkemizde 2017 yılı ocak ayında kamuoyuna açıklanan ortaokul sosyal bilgiler dersi taslak öğretim programını sosyal bilgiler öğretmenlerinin görüşleri çerçeve- sinde değerlendirmeyi amaçlamıştır. Bu çalışma nitel bir araştırma olarak yürü- tülmüştür. Veri toplamada nitel araştırmalar için uygun olan yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme tekniğinden yararlanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 2016-2017 eğitim öğretim yılı bahar yarıyılında Diyarbakır ilindeki ortaokullarda görevli 10 sosyal bilgiler öğretmeni (dört kadın ve altı erkek) oluşturmaktadır. Katılımcılar, verilerin güvenirliğinin sağlanması için araştırmacının hazırladığı görüşme for- munu kendileri doldurmuştur. Çalışmada, yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formunda yer alan açık uçlu sorular yardımıyla toplanan nitel veriler, “betimsel analiz” yöntemine göre analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, katılımcıların bü- yük çoğunluğu ortaokul sosyal bilgiler dersi taslak öğretim programını genel ola- rak olumlu bulmuşlardır.
The object of this work is the sustainable urban development which can be achieved through the urban renewal of the coastal town of Chalkida. This city, apart from its general coastal character, has a special feature which is the extension of the coastal front on two coasts, which belong to different regions: the Prefecture of Evia and Viotia. The unequal development of the two coastal fronts, which present a continuation via their connection with the old bridge, is a direct awareness and contradictory mood in every observer of the region. Researchal object of this paper is primarily to identify the main differences between these two sections of the beach of Chalcis and secondly the proposal of solutions for the renovation and its total upgrading. The ultimate goal is to create a single, integrated view of the coastal front of the city as a whole, which will schematically "embrace" the Evian Gulf. The proposal focuses on the redevelopment of the undeveloped beachfront piece of Chalkida, the Viotian side and attempts to connect it with the developed seafront and also with the city center.
(a) and (b) show the transverse images hot regions (a) without and (b) with material filter  
Contrast of various sized hot regions without and with material filter  
In the SPECT image data, presence of scatter component leads to poor image quality. Consequently, inaccuracy in the diagnosis of disease occurs. This study aims to improve the image quality by reducing some fraction of scattered gamma photons prior to detection using a material filter technique. Data were acquired by scanning a cylindrical source tank with hot/cold regions insert filled with water and uniformly distributed Tc-99m radionuclide. Philip ADAC Forte dual head gamma camera with LEHR collimator was used. Material filter, a flat sheet of Cu 0.127mm thick was attached on the outer surface of the collimator. SPECT data were acquired without and with material filter. Filtered back projection technique was applied. Images were visually examined in order to observe the improvement in image quality of uniform and hot regions as well as the detectability of hot regions. Standard deviation in the count density of uniform region and contrast of hot region images was calculated. Findings of the study reflect an overall enhancement in the image uniformity, hot regions detectability and contrast with material filter. It is concluded that, material filter technique need further investigations for applicability in clinical studies by scanning other phantoms mimicking human organs.
1 Domestic debts-to-GDP
3 public debt to GDP
2 OLS Estimation of Y1 (domestic debt function) from 1970 to 2010
This research is about public debt and economic growth of Pakistan, it uses simple OLS technique and dataset is from 1972 to 2010. Pakistan is surrounded by serious socio-economic problems. Due to low tax base and twin deficits, Pakistan has to rely on both external and internal capital flows. The foreign capital flows are not easily accessible but domestic capital flows are approachable at all times. Public debt is an important means of bridging government financing gaps, but should be used in a moderate level because it will increase liabilities in future. In Pakistan outstanding public debt has exceeded our GDP and thus income per capita is lower than per citizen indebtedness. This all is due to mismanagement and poor planning sector in the nation. It appears that external financing of domestic budget deficit is cheaper than the domestic financing. However, under certain circumstances external financing is significantly more expensive than the domestic financing. Both types of debt have negative role in the real per capita income growth rate, so they should be avoided or their quantity should be reduced in future. Debts should be used only for needed purposes and should keep away from corrupt people while debt for IMF should be avoided because their conditions worsen the economy of debtor nation.
Radon Concentration in Soil Samples
A Comparison of the Results of Some Studies of Global and Local
The research aims at measure the concentration of radon in the soil using nuclear detector effect (CR-39). The researcher took samples of five areas of Nasiriyah city by connecting the traces of alpha particles emitted by radon gas with concentrations compared with the information in the regular geological samples. The results indicate that the concentration of radon gas was uneven and exceeded the allowable limit and log the overall rate for five different regions in terms of location and nature. The record was (1386.236±24.0186) where the limit is exceeded the allowable exposure which shows radiation contamination of the by radon gas.
Flowchart Showing Steps Taken to Design Visual Basic Program for Estimation of OOIP  
Reservoir Properties for Volumetric Estimation of OGIP Properties Parameters Area of reservoir, A 3000 acres
Visual Basic Model for Volumetric Estimation of OOIP
Visual Basic Model for Volumetric Estimation Showing Calculated of OOIP  
An improper estimation of an oil and gas reservoir will have considerable inimical effect on the economical output of that reservoir considering the level of uncertainty that will emanate. Reducing the level of uncertainty in oil and gas reserve estimation before development has been a major point of consideration amongst oil companies, as a favorable expectancy in estimation result will to a large extent guarantee return on investment. To be assured of the economic potential of any given reservoir or field before development, volumetric or analogy estimation method is mostly carried-out to estimate the level of original oil in place (OOIP) and original gas in place (OGIP). This paper presents a new and computerized approach or version of volumetric estimation method, and it is done by imputing data for all parameters, components or factors required for calculation in volumetric estimation method into the Microsoft visual basic platform. This method is triggered by the desire to reduce time spent in oil and gas reserve estimation after seismic stage and before development, in order to speed-up production for better economic value of the product visa -vis cost of production. Therefore, Microsoft visual basic is used to design computation models, and data as results are generated to substantiate the reservoir estimation of oil and gas. More so, this method is less time consuming compared to time spent in numerical reservoir estimation. The complete process of this method is presented in this paper. The result can be comfortably used to make oil reserve estimation of all types of reservoir and field with different geophysical and geological properties.
The study investigated the impact of motivation on athletic achievement of athletes that took part in the " 18 th Nigeria National Sports Festival held in Lagos ". Some of the major factors of motivation were: Welfare packages, Facilities and Equipment, Coaches, Government role, etc. were examined. In Nigeria, it has been observed that most state governments, sports administrators and coaches at the competition rely mostly on the physical fitness and skill levels of athletes, whereas little or no attention is given to psychological considerations like motivation. In sport, motivation is widely accepted as an essential and basic prerequisite in getting athletes to fulfill their potential. 206 athletes were randomly selected from 10 states out of the 36 states of the country. A self structured Sport Motivation Questions (SMQ) was administered on the participants, to elicit their perceived impact of motivation on their athletic achievement. Descriptive statistical tools (mean, standard deviation, one sample t-test analysis) were used to test the hypotheses. It was discovered that athlete's morale became diminished as a result of unfulfilled promises. In conclusion the study suggested ways to help improve the motivational capacities of athletes in Nigeria, since motivation is the foundation for all athletic effort and accomplishment.
This research examines the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on Human Resource Management and the role changes of HR manager in an organization. The covid-19 pandemic reviews the weakness as well as the strength of the HR manager in an organization. Showing the competency of the HR manager to be able to think outside the box and creating measures of achieving the goals and objectives of the organization. This study also examines the dimensions of Covid-19 pandemic which are remote working and unemployment and layoff as well as the measures of Human Resource Management which are performance appraisal and recruitment.
Regression Results
This paper critically examines the short term effects of the permanent income over consumption as introduced by the Milton Friedman. The purpose of the present study is to explore the extent to which wealth indicators relating to permanent income can have an impact on consumption with respect to the income related indicators observed in Pakistan like gross value added, gross national expenditure, total reserves, natural resources and gross savings. The analysis of the consumption and income determinants has been carried out from 1976-2009. An error correction model has been conducted to study this Permanent income phenomenon to observe the impacts of all these variables in short run. The research showed the results that the adjustment process is slow and short-term disequilibrium of previous period never adjusts completely in the current period. Short run adjustment pace of consumption is statistically significant, indicating that short run discrepancies do not adjust completely in the same period. Based on these evidences it is apparent that consumption and wealth variables are important to determine the macroeconomic stability in Pakistan. If the government gives priority to long-term consumption on the basis of exploring the available natural resources, it can gain better results in economic growth, poverty alleviation and unemployment reduction. The policy makers and economists in financial sector need to focus on the greater opportunities for wealth creation in the economy income hymen and the focus of this study is also on the effects of permanent income factors over consumption. A limitation of the research was the inclusion of only a limited number of wealth indicators.
Location of organ Y on mangrove crab (S. olivacea), a pair of Y organs (red arrow), a pair of organs X (yellow arrows), hepatopancreas (blue arrows)
The pattern of concentration and amount of ecdysteroid molting crab, mangrove crab relation with phases of the moon.
Y organ or ventral gland is an endocrine gland that synthesizes the crab molting hormone (Moulting Stimulating Hormone) or ecdysteroid. Y organ activity produced molting hormone that was associated with molting stages. Molting in the crab consists of four stages, namely intermolting, premolting, ecdysis and postmolting stages. The concentration of circulating ecdysteroid in the haemolymph usually low during intermolting, increased significantly during premolting and decreases dramatically before ecdysis. This study aims to determine the Y organ cell activity based on the concentration of ecdysteroid. Parameters measured were ecdysteroid concentration and histology of Y organ during the five phases of the moon: the dark moon phase, new crescent, the first half, the first convex and a full moon. Analysis of ecdysteroid samples performed using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography (UFLC). The results showed that the pattern of ecdysteroid concentration indicated a low ecdysteroid concentration in the dark phase of the moon, began to rise in the new crescent moon, reaching the peak in the first half, decreased dramatically in the first phases of the moon convex and lower back at the full moon phase. The pattern of ecdysteroid concentration by a reference to the determination of mangrove crab molting stages. Y organs activity synthesize highest ecdysteroid in the first half of the moon phase coincides with the phase premolting middle (Mid premolt), otherwise low ecdysteroid synthesis activity in the dark phase of the moon coincides with intermolting stage and phase of the full moon coincides with postmolting stage.
In this essay I will analyze Kadare’s novel, this time to Beauty Pageant for Men in The Accursed Mountains (Konkurs bukurie për burrat në Bjeshkët e Namuna) (1999), a novel dealing with homosexual issues. I will consider what changes might have occurred in the ways in which this prominent author portrays gender identity, and what this might suggest about the strength and status of the homosexual orthodoxy as the Albanian society wears on. Looking at Kadare’s story has illustrated how he came to earn a reputation as a sympathetic chronicler of gender identities, and how he can be identified as a writer who notably subverts and challenges the dynamics of cultural memory. Looking here at the shorter novelistic form of Beauty Pageant for Men in The Accursed Mountains will provide opportunity to explore in greater depth the complexity and ambivalence that underpins his concern with homosexuality. Ismail Kadare has progressed closer to the zone of the dangerous moral taboo in many of his works. Homosexuality in Life, Games and Death of Lul Mazreku (Jeta, loja dhe vdekja e Lul Mazrekut) (2002) and the ‘freezing of the erotic message’ in the love affair of an unsuccessful filmmaker with his ‘stranger’ lover in the novel Shadow: Notes of a Failed Filmmaker (Hija: shënime të një kineasti të dështuar) (2003), add wealth to the characters who are usually avoided. In Chronicles in Stone, (Kronikë në gur) (1971) researchers have found ‘pre-historic sexuality’ (Pipa, 1991: 67). One of the reasons why Who brought Doruntine (Kush e solli Doruntinën) (1979) was judged mercilessly was the mention of incest, as a likely event of the ballad. The Broadway boys in The Winter of Great Loneliness (Dimri i vetmisë së madhe) (1977) are presented as the expected pollution of youth by the bourgeois impact. In fact, if we refer to Foucault’s ‘the question of pathology’, the characters of Ismail Kadare are not ill people with moral abnormality, but spiritual beings, that pursuit an elementary right to perform (Foucault, 1990: 295). Also, I want to show that Kadare’s particular type of stylistic excess helps him to explore and exploit cultural memory devices and ideas of fixed identity, gender stereotypes, and linguistic referentiality and thus challenge the concept that ‘nature’ is not a social construct like ‘culture’.
Asphalt concrete analysis results.
Aggregate analysis results
Composition of bricket's aggregate for aggregate's maximum size in 19 mm
Result of Marshall Test
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of 19 mm (3/4'') as aggregate's maximum size to marshal properties of asphalt concrete. In this research, marshal's properties, asphalt content-marshal parameter plot are analyzed for 19mm aggregate's maximum size. The 19 mm as aggregate's maximum size is feasible for asphalt concrete mixture because it has stability value 1557,90 kg, density 2,4 kg/cc, Void filled with asphalt (VFWA) 90,90%, Void in mix (VIM) 3,4%, Void in mineral aggregate (VMA) 15% and flow 3,5%. It is concluded that 19 mm as aggregate's maximum size can be used for asphalt concrete mixture.
Library services are reshaping round the clock and paradigm shift from manual to virtual space. Users to Users (U2U) service sharing information, ideas, views, comments, blogging, tagging frequently updating of information on web domain and instant replies of users query is big challenge task for the information experts and librarian. Information handling is become testing task due to opening of multiple channels of information. Dynamic role of information via web 2.0 create an unlimited responsibility to information provider, facilitator and users. The topic is so significant due to its importance because it’s directly link with the skills of library professionals if they have good skills & technique related to web this will be more beneficial for library users. In this challenging environment we review the Web 2.0 technology impact universities Librarian in Karachi which is the mega city of Pakistan. The purpose of this research study is to find the librarians and library staff Web 2.0 skills at universities in Karachi. Keywords: Web 2.0, university libraries, library skills
Descriptive Statistics
Attempt is made to identify the determinants of fresh inflation in Pakistan. Specific objectives are, to find out the relationship between inflation, Interest Rate and Money Supply; analyze policies of the State Bank of Pakistan and the tools it is using to control inflation. Literature Review shows that the expansionary economic policies of the government and of the central bank (State Bank of Pakistan-SBP), which on one hand resulted in remarkable economic performance, but on the other hand stirred a rise in the Consumer Price Index (CPI).Some experts make fiscal or monetary policies responsible for, while others blamed it as an imported inflation, administered prices or mismanagement and weak control of the government. Non-contrived convenient random sampling Method was used in survey to collect data from State Bank of Pakistan, National Bank of Pakistan and Statistical and planning division of Pakistan. An econometric framework was used to focuses on the detection of the main determinants of recent inflation trends. The analytical result indicated by applying Regression model method and SPSS tool on collected data from the
OZET Türkiye ekonomisi son dönemde büyüme oranlarının sıfıra yakınsadığı bir süreç yaşamaktadır. Bu durum her ne kadar içinde bulunulan döneme özgü bir karakteristik çerçevesinde değerlendirilse de, gelecek dönemde büyüme sürecinin sürekliliği açısından temel problemin ortaya konulması önemlidir. Büyüme sürecinin en önemli bileşenlerinden birisi yatırımlardır. Türkiye'de doğrudan yabancı yatırımlar ile yurtiçi yatırımların 2010 sonrası süreçte gösterdiği eğilimler, büyüme sürecinin sıfıra yakınsaması ile ilgili bilgiler sunmaktadır. Ancak bu sürecin temel nedenlerinin incelenmesi için Türkiye'de 2010 sonrasındaki kurumsal faktörlerdeki gelişimin incelenmesi de gerekmektedir. Bu kapsamda mülkiyet hakları koruması, sözleşmelerin yasal yaptırımı, işgücü piyasasına yönelik düzenlemeler, sermaye ve bireylerin hareketliliği üzerindeki kontroller, iş kurma ve ekonomik özgürlüğe ilişkin kurumsal faktörlerin gösterdiği eğilim üzerinde durulmuştur. Kurumsal faktörlere ait eğilime göre mülkiyet hakları koruması, sözleşmelerin yasal yaptırımı, sermaye ve bireylerin hareketliliği üzerindeki kontroller ve ekonomik özgürlük gibi kurumsal değişkenlere ait değerlerin azaldığı görülmüştür. Buna göre Türkiye'nin 2020'li yıllara daha güçlü bir büyüme hedefiyle girebilmesi için kurumsal faktörlere yönelik sorunların tespit edilmesi, bu sorunların giderilmesi ve sorunlar giderildikten sonra da mevcut kurumsal yapının daha da güçlendirilmesi gerekmektedir. Kurumsal yapı güçlendirildiğinde teşvik mekanizması da harekete geçirilerek, kaynakların daha verimli kullanımının önü açılmış olacaktır. A B S T R A C T The Turkish economy has been experiencing a process in which the growth rates converged to zero in there cent period. Although this situation is evaluated within the framework of a characteristic specific to the current period, it is important to reveal the main problem in terms of the continuity of the growth process in the up coming period. One of the most important components of the growth process is investments. The trends of foreign direct investments and domestic investments in Turkey in the post-2010 period provide information about the convergence of the growth process to zero. However, in order to examine the main reasons for this process, it is also necessary to examine the development of institutional factors in Turkey after 2010. In this context, the trend of institutional factors related to property rights protection, legal enforcement of contracts, regulations forthe labor market, controls over capital and the mobility of individuals, establishment of a business and economic freedom is emphasized. According to the trend of institutional factors, values of institutional variable ssuch as property rights protection, legal enforcement of contracts, controls over capital and the mobility of individuals and economic freedom have decreased. Accordingly, in order for Turkey to enter the 2020's with a stronger growth target, it is necessary to identify the problems related to institutional factors, to eliminate these problems and to strengthenth existing institutional structure after the problems are resolved. When the institutional structure is strengthened, the incentive mechanism will be activated and the way for more efficient use of resources will be paved.
The overview condition of the teachers' competencies in the 21 st century
The overview condition of the teachers' competencies in the 21 st century considering each major
This research intends to study the condition and expectation for teachers' competencies in the 21 st century of the pre-service teachers in the Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The sample group for the study is 200 pre-service teachers in the Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University determined by the Taro Yamane's sample size and the proportional random sampling method. The instrument applied for data collection was the questionnaire. The data obtained were analyzed by the applications of percentage, mean and standard deviation. The research results revealed the following: 1) The overview condition of the teachers' competencies in the 21 st century of the pre-service teachers was high (í µí²™ = 3.61). When considering each competency, the spiritual teacher was high (í µí²™ = 3.73). The personal development was high (í µí²™ = 3.57). The teacher characteristic was high (í µí²™ = 3.53). Based on the overall aspect, the spiritual teacher was the highest average. The lowest average was the teacher characteristics. The overview expectation for the teachers' competencies in the 21 st century of the pre-service teachers was high (í µí²™ = 4.16). When considering each competency, the expectation for the spiritual teacher was high (í µí²™ = 4.23). 2) The expectation for the personal development was high (í µí²™ = 4.18). The expectation for the teacher characteristics was high (í µí²™ = 4.05) Based on the overall aspect, the expectation for the spiritual teacher was the highest average. The lowest average was the expectation for teacher characteristics.
This study investigated the relationship between socioeconomic development and job creation for the Nigerian youths in Akwa Ibom State in the 21 st century. The objective of the study was to determine whether the following variables: foreign investments and industrialization have facilitated meaningful job creation for the youths. Two null hypotheses based on the variables were formulated to guide the study. The population for the study comprised all unemployed youths in Akwa Ibom State and they numbered about 5000. A survey research method was used. The instrument used for the study was a questionnaire title "socio-economic development and job creation questionnaire" designed by the researcher to obtain information from the respondents. Pearson product moment correlation statistics was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings from the study revealed that foreign investments and industrialization have failed to provide meaningful jobs to majority of youths in Akwa Ibom State and credit facilities create jobs for the unemployed youths in Akwa Ibom State youths. Based on the findings conclusions were drawn, recommendations made and suggestions for further study offered.
Physical properties of Polymer concrete
Cubic specimen of polymer concrete  
Polymer concrete is a composite material realized with resin and aggregates. In this study, the unsaturated polyester composite resin was used for binding the aggregates. In the composition were introduced near the silica foam as filler and glass fibers .Some mechanical properties of polymer concrete have been investigated, by destructive and non – destructive method. The experimental results of non – destructive method were correlated with compressive strength. The fiber percentage and silica foam was constant, the unsaturated polyester resin and the Silica sand dosages were varied. This research was conducted at 26 KHz.
Many constraints must be considered in steel structure design due to the code requirements and practical aspects like strong column weak beam, soft story, column's plastic modulus and column's position. The purpose of this paper is to discuss differences between result of optimization with strong column weak beam, column's plastic moment and column position as constraints. Optimization processes are carried out through 30 members of 2D steel structure model using genetic algorithm-SAP2000.Performance of two optimized structures are presented by conducting nonlinear static analysis. Optimized structure's data are analyzed such as structure weight, displacement, pushover curve, ductility, columns plastic modulus, column cross section area and beam to column flexural strength ratio The second objective function which considered five constraints can produce 81.25% lighter and 1.765 times more ductile than the other one. It is concluded that optimization considering the sequence of column failure mechanism is very useful and should be included in every design of steel structure.
State transition diagram of a power system
(a): Hydro Installed Plants
An n-bus power network
a): Swing curves for Fault at Oshogbo with clearing time of 0.25s
Swing plot for three-phase fault at Benin bus
The security of power system operation is a measure of its reliability; hence the planning and real-time operation of power system requires regular security assessment. This paper presents a dynamic security assessment of the Nigeria 330 kV power network. It considered the installed capacity of the power system alongside the available capacity as well as network structure in terms redundancy for flexibility. Some weak areas of the system were identified and the security status of the network assessed under large disturbance condition. Results match expectations as the system's response to impressed contingencies were discussed. Feasible corrective measures proffered for improved system's security.
Social traumas don"t affect not only on the survivals but also next generations directly or indirectly. The generations which are affected by the trauma have some psychological and physical problems at later stages of their life. The purpose of this study is to reveal the psychotraumatic effects of "Dersim 38" on the second and third generations. This qualitative study sample consist of second (14 people) or third generation(13 people) living in Tunceli and who have Alevism belief. The data of research is collected by using semi-structured form with depth interview method and evaluated with content analysis method. According to the finding of this study, there are important psycho-traumatic effects on both generations. even though many years have passed, emotion focused coping method is still used; third generation has also tried solution oriented coping.
Learning is a complex entity that involves not only the cognitive faculties such as thinking, reasoning and judgment, but also elicits conative and affective responses. In this paper, the authors examined three cognitive models of the learning process – the modal model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1971), the process model (Sternberg, 1969) and the interactive model (Neisser, 1976) – and put forth their meta-theoretical model based on trans-multiple abilities (TMA) to explain the process of learning. The meta-theory of the TMA model of learning process takes into consideration of three mental potentials – cognition, conation and affect – that form the core components of the mind (Poland, 1974) and their interactions joined by sensation within the mental domains of episodic, semantic and procedural memories. It also introduces the developmental range of learning from peri-level (at concrete level) via rebus level to apo-level (at abstract level) from the learner’s sensory self. In addition, the authors explained how the TMA model works with an illustration in learning/teaching basic numeracy skills.
The disabled people have a lot of difficulties throughout their life, and one of these difficulties is sexual life. These individuals are a specific group to be emphasized in terms of their sexual life. The studies on the sexual life of disabled people are limited, and it is found that sexual problems of these people are ignored. Therefore, families, teachers and health personnel have great responsibilities for disabled individuals in improving themselves regarding both psychological and social aspects, and for adapting to society.
Distribution of spina bifida according to the seasons of the year 
Distribution of cases according to the maternal age Table 2. Maternal risk factors associated with spina bifida 
Scoliosis and kyphosis as neuro-orthopedic deformities in 104 patients with spina bifida 
A: anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of 22 days aged female with lumbo- sacral spina bifida showing a segmented hemivertebra in T12 ( black arrow ). Scoliosis is already developed. B: Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of spine for 28 days age infant with large lumbar myelomeningocele, associated with kyphosis and scoliosis. 
Spina bifida is a common cause of disability in infancy and childhood. Up to 70% of spina bifida cases can be prevented by maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The aim of this prospective research was to study the risk factors and spine abnormalities in children with spina bifida in Central Sudan. Between June 2009 and May 2011, 105 Sudanese children with spina bifida, 55 females and 50 males, aged between the first day of life to 9 years were recruited in this study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire and radiographs. Statistical package for social science (SPSS) was used to perform data analysis. First born child had increased risk for the disease and incidence was more common in winter. Thirty nine percent of mothers were in the age group (26-35) and no mother had used folic acid before pregnancy. The neural arch defect involved three vertebrae in 23.5% of myelomeningocele cases and one vertebra in 40.9% of meningocele cases. Complete absence of laminae was seen in 66.3% of cases. In 55.8% of patients the defect was less than one centimeter in width. None of mothers used folic acid before getting pregnant and about half of mothers used it after they detected their pregnancy.
The article envisages the empirical-based-approach in ELT. It is a brief vignette of classroom research based on the evidences, which were collected during a class observation. This small research deems to reinforce the idea that whether ELT theories of feedback are practically implemented in the classrooms and give the same results as predicted by some linguistics. The observer focuses three main areas of feedback that 'when an error is made how repair is initiated and who repairs it: self or others, and how is it repaired? For data collection I have designed a chart based on two the theory of Allwright and Bailey (1991), which they adapted from Schegloff, et al (1977), and Chaudron (1988).
Rotational viscometer test columns for asphalt cement modified by crumb rubber
Mass loss columns for aged asphalt cement modified by crumb rubber Dynamic Shear Rheometer The third test method for characterizing performance grade of asphalt binder is dynamic shear rheometer. The rutting factor, (G*/sin ɗ) results from testing the base and CRM binders with the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) at 64, 70 and 76 
Binders Testing Program 
Fatigue factor columns for aged asphalt cement modified by crumb rubber 
The purpose of this research is to study the performance grade of asphalt cement with scrap tire in form of crumb rubber (CR) as additive material. It also emphasizes on determining the optimum proportion of additive to be used in the mixing process. In this research, the materials used have been originally taken from the available sources in Iraq. One type of asphalt cement with penetration grade is equal to (40-50) from Al-Nasseryia refinery was used with one type of locally polymer is Crumb rubber with different particle sizes from scrap tires as asphalt modifier. The results showed that modified binders outperformed conventional asphalt cement in term of performance grade. It can be concluded from this research that the use of crumb rubber as additive material is the best alternative. Due to its domestic availability, crumb rubber is more suitable for road making in the scrap tire producing countries and to the fact that the utilized scrap tire as additives tend to improve viscosity and rheological and mechanical properties of asphalt cement and bringing greater service life expectancy. The suggested proportion of crumb rubber in blending with asphalt cement is 18 percent by total weight.
Annual world mined gold production, 1900-2018
The World Gold Council and its member companies support the responsible mining and trading of gold from all legitimate sources, including artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). The responsible development of gold resources both through large-scale mining (LSM) and ASM, especially when coupled with sound governance, has the potential to deliver broad social and economic benefits to individuals, communities and countries. There has been a significant growth in artisanal and small-scale mining in many developing countries over the last twenty years. ASM issues have become more salient in public policy debates as a result of the adoption of instruments designed to prevent the funding of illegal armed groups and from the implementation on reducing mercury in the environment. Artisanal and small-scale mining is more than simply an industry with the potential to contribute positively to foreign exchange earnings and employment; it is a way of life. Its participants, most of whom were lured into work by the prospect of gaining wealth quickly, include rural community dwellers, nomadic peoples, seasonal subsistence farmers, and retrenched large-scale mine workers. However, despite providing higher wages than comparative rural sectors of industry, artisanal and small-scale mining is generally associated with a deteriorated quality-of life. Its operators are often malnourished and overworked because they are subjected to harsh conditions and tedious labour; prospective mining regions generally lack adequate sanitary facilities, and thus propagate a plethora of diseases; and the majority of the industry's operations are haphazard, threatening the livelihoods of both workers and surrounding villagers.
Top-cited authors
Kabir Sadeghi
  • Near East University
Ali I. Al-Mosawi
Fatemeh Nouban
  • Near East University
Ishaq Aliyu Abdulkarim
  • Bayero University, Kano
Abdul Qayyum
  • Pakistan Institute of Development Economics