Radar technology at several airports is still using flightradar24 as a source of information, and building an ADS-B station is expensive. However, the flightradar24 has several weaknesses, among which is that if the user wants to display more information, the user is required to pay periodically or subscriptions, and there is delay due to the process of data that requires the Internet connection. With a concept of receiver ads-b based RTL-SDR R820T2, a low cost receiver ads-b with the results can receive an ads-b signal without delay and can receive data from an airplane. But there is a weakness in rtl-b receivers based RTL-SDR R820T2, because it doesn't explain and can't know how far the receiver can receive signals and target parameters data from the aircraft. Thus on this research a receiver ads-b using RTL-SDR R820T2, with a low-noise amplification and an ads-b antenna 1090 MHZ in the hopes of knowing how far the aircraft's target range is from the receiver and knowing how far the receiver's range of data signals the target parameters. By performing some step-by-step testing of the design. The designed receiver ads-b USES low noise amplification with an ads-b antenna 1090 MHZ capable of receiving data and target parameters ads-b for 284 km on adsbSCOP software range and 287.63 km mathematically.
Xbee s2 pro module works at 2,4 Ghz using IEEE 802.15.4 standard and polarization are linear. There are many types of antennas that can be used, which one is the dipole antenna. The simulation model implemented in this study uses Ansoft HFSS 14.0 software. HFSS stands for high frequency structure simulator is a pioneer in the use of finite element method for electromagnetic wave simulators that implement tangential vector finite elements, adaptive meshing and Adaptive Lanczos-Pade Sweep (ALPS) technology. By using HFSS 14.0 simulation, the axial ratio value of 35.0359 dB that means linier polarization. For the value of s-parameter -21,1851 db and VSWR value approaches 1, that is 1.5195 db. The gain value obtained is 0.7469 dB, the gain value needs to be optimized by using a metamaterial to get a good gain.
Communication is the process of delivering information from a node to other nodes. In general, communication in the form of voice and data must be understood by both nodes. Flight data communication is used for pilots to collect information from the devices used. In this research, ARINC 429 data communication system is simulated using visual basic 2010 express. By using a GUI, the input data is obtained from the flight radarpro24 application. The data are representation of altitude and airspeed of Lion Air commercial flight JT922. The 32 bits of binary data are converted into decimal format. It was concluded that the altitude and airspeed data can be read and analyzed using this format.
The high content of harmonics in an electric power system can cause several disturbances to the system, such as increasing power losses in the system, causing various damage to electrical equipment, and causing the use of electrical energy to be ineffective. Harmonics is caused by the operation of non-linear electrical loads. The interacting harmonic currents with the supply system impedance distorts the supplier's output current and voltage which in turn adversely affects the loads connected to the system and the supply itself. This study aims to analyze the quality of THD in Bubung Tujuh Hamlet, Sangku Village. In this study, THD measurements were carried out and analyzed the effect of harmonics on the power factor using a linear regression test. The results of the measurement and analysis of THDV ranged from 1.0% - 6.8%, with the final analysis of THDV still meeting the set standard of 5%. THDI ranged from 2.3% - 66.7% with the final analysis THDI did not meet the standard. THD of the village's electrical system is still at the standard limits set and THD(V) effect on PF.
An Induction motor is an electric machine that converts electrical energy into kinetics energy and widely used in the industrial fields. Many disturbances that occur in the motor that cause production to be not optimal as for the problems that occur at PT. Madu Baru Yogyakarta is when there is a disturbance in the three-phase induction motor, workers still use manual methods to analyze the disturbance, so that the time used in the analysis takes a long time even the three-phase induction motor cannot work again. In overcoming this, it is necessary to implement a data logger system that can detect the electrical parameters of a three-phase induction motor in real time, in order to make it easier to analyze existing disturbances through graphs. The voltage sensor CYVS13-34U0 and current sensor SCT-019 will detect the electrical parameters which will then be processed by the Arduino Mega 2560 pro so that the processed data will be stored on the microsd card. The data resulting from the processing are electrical parameters in the form of voltage, current, apparent power, real power, reactive power, and power factor. The data will be saved as a file with .txt format which has an interval of about 1 minute for each storage.
The analog AC-voltmeter usually can only measure the ideal-sinusoid voltage with narrow frequency range. Meanwhile, in fact the grid voltage is often not in the form of an ideal sinusoidal. To be able to measure a non-sinusoidal AC voltage with a wide range of frequency, a true-RMS voltmeter is needed. The research designed a true RMS measuring system using an ATmega 328P microcontroller. The input voltage is converted to pulse using Schmit triger and fed to the microcontroller’s external interrupt pin to calculate the input signal frequency. Meanwhile the microcontroller’s ADC sampled the input signal with a frequency of 128 times the signal’s frequency. RMS voltage calculations are performed using arithmetic operations for 16 and 32 bit integer variables. The test results show that the system can measure voltages with zero errors from 100 to 275 volts with a frequency of 50 Hz. The system can also measure voltages with zero errors at 220 volt with frequencies from 40 Hz to 150 Hz. However, this system can still be used to measure voltages ranging from 25 volts to 300 volts at frequencies from 35 Hz to 195 Hz with an average error of 0.21%. During RMS voltage calculation, the microcontroller’s CPU usage was 13.35%, so that this system can be further developed.
Electric power and power factor are two parameters that must be considered because they involve the quality of the energy consumed. In order to be able to analyze these, a microcontroller-based power and power factor meter are needed which can be further developed. In this research, a power and power factor meter based on the ATmega328P microcontroller was developed on the Arduino board. Several algorithms are used to calculate the frequency of the grids, as well as the true-RMS of voltage and current. The simulation results show that this system can measure the power and power factor for input voltages of 100 to 300 volts with a frequency of 45 to 156 Hz for loads up to 5 amperes. The mean calculation average error for linear load is 0.28% for active power and -0.33% for apparent power. Meanwhile, for nonlinear loads, the calculation average error for active power is 1.86% and apparent power is 0.47%.
The work to get data directly from the field for optimizing a network is called drive test. The implementation of drive test by directly down to the field has several obstacles, such as the condition of the terrain is insufficient and risky to be passed by car. Barriers such as traffic congestion, risky environmental conditions and narrow road areas between buildings makes the implementation of drive test by using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or known by drone. In this research, drive test is carried out on 4G LTE Network and uses an Android smartphone that has the G-NetTrack application installed. The Data parameters of the drive Test and QoS are searched. there are Reference Signal Receive Power (RSRP), Reference Signal Receiving Quality (RSRQ), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), delay and throughput. This research compares two methods, which are drive test with normal condition and drive test by using a UAV. The result of the drive test with normal condition is obtained an average value of RSRP -90.32 dBm, RSRQ -9.58 dB and SNR 3.99 dB. Whereas in the drive test by using UAV is obtained an average value RSRP -90.8 dBm, RSRQ 9.32 dB and SNR 4.77 dB. The results of this research showed that all parameters in comparison of both methods has meet the standard of Key Performance Indicator (KPI) with small value difference because drive test by using UAV is equals with normal drive test that is to know the real condition of obstacle in field.
This article discusses about device-to-device communication on 5G cellular networks using mmWave. Device-to-device communication will support 5G cellular technology, because it can be a solution to overcome the limitations of cellular coverage and service capacity. D2D can be used in a variety of applications. The main problem in D2D is that interference between signals in one cell will be very vulnerable to occur, so that effective resource management is needed. In addition, the use of D2D will also increase the complexity of a cellular system, in terms of resource management, interference, and also the routing required. Several studies have been carried out to create D2D communication that can be implemented effectively on 5G. One of them is research to perfect the load balancing scheme which is one of the functions obtained from D2D communication. Load balancing is the distribution of cellular traffic loads, using D2D the traffic load is channeled to communication between devices and reduces the burden on the main network.
Wireless communication is used in many sectors to support the need of communication, the example of wireless communication is applied in mission critical network. Wireless communication system that used in mission critical are Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) and Long Term Evolution (LTE). TETRA systems supports voice services while LTE supports voice and data services. Co-exsitence between LTE and TETRA in same frequency band is one of the optimilazition quality for mission critical network. For this final project analyses interference in co-exsitence between LTE and TETRA in frequency band 800 MHz. There are four scenarios using extended-hata model propagation in urban area. There are several parameters that reviewed, desired Received Signal Strength (dRSS), interfering Received Signal Strength (iRSS), Carrier to Interference ratio (C/I) and probability of interference. In all scenarios occur Co-Channel Interference (CCI) between LTE and TETRA in frequency band 800 MHz so the performance not optimal. The performance increased when add guard band variation. The variation that applied are 0,5 MHz, 0,75 MHz, 1 MHz. Based on the result of the simulation that have been done, proposed the used of guard band variation for elevate the performance.
The orientation angle of a quadrotor UAV can be estimated from gyroscope and accelerometer data. Orientation can be predicted from gyroscope data under static or dynamic conditions, but the predicted value has accumulated errors. Meanwhile, orientation can also be calculated from accelerometer data, but only correct if the sensor is in a static state. To get a more precise orientation angle, the orientation predicted from the gyroscope data and the orientation calculated from the accelerometer data were fused using a Kalman filter. Determination of the condition of the sensor using a threshold value that is applied to the covariance of the acceleration data. in this study, the zero-acceleration compensation algorithm is used so that when the sensor is static, the orientation angle is calculated from the accelerometer. The use of this algorithm can increase the accuracy of the quadrotor orientation for roll angle to 96.84% and pitch angle to 98.91%.
This study aims to develop a Kalman filter algorithm in order to reduce the accelerometer sensor noise as effectively as possible. The accelerometer sensor is one part of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) used to find the displacement distance of an object. The method used is modeling the system to model the accelerometer system to form mathematical equations. Then the state space method is used to change the system modeling to the form of matrix operations so that the process of the data calculating to the Kalman Filter algorithm is not too difficult. It also uses the threshold algorithm to detect the sensor's condition at rest. The present study had good results, which of the four experiments obtained with an average accuracy of 93%. The threshold algorithm successfully reduces measurement errors when the sensor is at rest or static so that the measurement results more accurate. The developed algorithm can also detect the sensor to move forward or backward.
One of the main sectors that uses the largest electrical energy in a country is the commercial sector. One of the parts of this sector is education. This sector has a sub-sector. It is called a building. Electrical energy conservation efforts are needed to streamline electrical energy consumption by looking at energy-saving opportunities. This research was conducted at Halim Building and Wiweko Building in Institut Teknologi Dirgantara Adisutjipto (ITDA), Yogyakarta. The research was conducted by taking energy audit data regarding the level of electrical energy consumption as seen from the Energy Consumption Intensity (IKE) parameter. The research method began with the data collection. Furthermore, the data were processed using Ms. Excel, SPSS, and Matlab. Statistics analysis with ANOVA was carried out to conclude what parameters affected IKE. The results showed that the IKE value of the Halim Building was 30,48 kWh/m2/year and the IKE value of the Wiweko Building was 24,16 Wh/m2/year. The IKE value was still significant in the efficient category following ESDM & JICA Electric Power Development Co. LTD standards.
Pada penelitian ini diusulkan sebuah metode untuk kriptografi sebuah teks dan kumpulan teks. Metode yang diusulkan dalam penelitian ini adalah permutasi dengan mengadopsi bahasa Jawa Walikan gaya Yogyakarta. Cara kerja Bahasa Jawa walikan ini dengan cara menggeser karakter sejauh sepuluh langkah. Pada Bahasa Jawa walikan gaya Yogyakarta, karakter yang dikenai pergeseran sepuluh langkah ini sejumlah dua puluh karakter yang terbagi menjadi empat baris, sedangkan karakter alfabet latin jumlah karakternya dua puluh enam. Agar terjadi pertukaran karakter sebanyak sepuluh langkah, maka diperlukan penambahan karakter dari dua puluh enam karakter pada alfabet sehingga menjadi empat puluh karakter. Terdapat empat belas simbol yang dimasukkan untuk melengkapi huruf abjad yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Penggunaan simbol sebanyak empat belas buah terbukti membuat ROT10 menjadi bagian dari kriptografi substitusi dengan menggeser sepuluh langkah maju dan mundur dapat bekerja secara stabil tanpa ada kesalahan pada proses enkripsi dan dekripsi.
In LTE Advanced technology there are two methods used in the duplexing process, there are frequency division duplex (FDD) wherein this duplexing concept communication is divided based on the frequency and the other is time division duplex (TDD) where communication is divided based on the time. Duplexing using the TDD method has advantages of handling data-based services that the majority have Non-Guarantee Bit Rate (N-GBR) characteristics because most of these services do not require a minimum bit rate to be able to work and this is an advantages because nowadays people like to use data-based services. So in this LTE Advanced network planning using the TDD method, frequency 2300 MHz for TD-LTE advanced, and parameters that to be the main focus are throughputs, reference signal received power (RSRP), reference signal strength indicator (RSSI), carrier to interference noise ratio (CINR), and block error rate (BLER). And the result of the simulations from TD-LTE Advanced planning are the mean of throughput value is 3,5 Mbps, mean of RSRP value is -110,8 dBm, mean of RSSI value is -72,36 dBm, mean of CINR value is 4,81 dB, and mean of BLER value is 0,07%.
Tandon adalah alat untuk menampung air, tapi monitoring ketinggian air tandon tidak tersedia secara jarak jauh hanya dengan alat pelampung mekanik. Penelitian ini membuat rancang bangun alat monitoring ketinggian air, volume air yang diisi ke tandon, dan aliran air yang dikeluarkan. Pengukuran ketinggian air dan volume menggunakan sensor ultrasonik, sedangkan sensor aliran air digunakan untuk mendeteksi aliran air secara jarak jauh melalui internet of things (IoT). Alat monitoring menggunakan smartphone dan aplikasi Blynk dengan indikator level air, aliran air, dan volume air. Pengujian menggunakan metode kalibrasi dengan penggaris untuk sensor ultrasonik dan gelas ukur untuk volume air. Hasil pengujian sensor ultrasonik menunjukkan hasil hampir mendekati sempurna dengan rata-rata error untuk sensor ultrasonik tandon atas 1,74 % dan 1,25 % untuk tandon bawah. Sensor water flow menghasilkan error hasil pengujian sebesar 0,88 % atau setara dengan 27 ml. Pada pengujian LCD menunjukan hasil yang mendekati akurat dengan tampilan pada aplikasi Blynk hanya berbeda pada bilangan desimal. Sementara itu untuk pengukuran volume air tandon mendekati hasil pengukuran manual dengan error sebesar 0,099 % dan 0,9 %.
The Flight Deck or cockpit is designed to support the prosecution of aircraft mission. For aircraft with commercial purpose such as passenger transport aircraft, there must be good “fit” between the human, the machine which composed of various aircraft system and the aircraft mission; and these are what the Flight Deck design process needs to ensure but not limited to display design, aircraft control, automation, HCI on the Flight Deck and pilot’s view to outside through cockpit windows namely external vision. The external vision of cockpit windows must satisfy regulatory requirements which intended to ensure that the view is adequate for pilots to operate the aircraft safely and gives them a reasonable opportunity to see and avoid other aircraft that pose a collision threat.Concurrently during critical periods of flight, it is important that the flight crew access information in front of his view with minimal head rotation. Cockpit-Displays with critical flight information should then be located to these locations. Compromising both external vision and internal vision as Pilot’s visibility should be attained.
Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk membuat sistem keamanan termonitor dengan pengenalan wajah pada boarding house dengan mengontrol akses keluar-masuk boarding house. Pengenalan wajah dilakukan menggunakan metode Haar Cascade Classifier. Metode ini merupakan salah satu metode yang digunakan dalam pendeteksian wajah manusia dan memiliki kelebihan komputasi yang cepat karena hanya bergantung pada jumlah piksel dalam persegi dari sebuah image. Implementasi sistem ini dibuat dengan menggunakan kontroler Raspberry Pi dengan kamera, ESP32, sensor ultrasonik, motor DC beserta driver BTS7960, prototipe akses boarding house, buzzer, dan kartu RFID. Penelitian ini berhasil dibangun dan mengimplementasikan metode Haar cascade classifier pada akses boarding house dengan hasil pengenalan wajah yang akurat dari 8 data sampel serta rata-rata akurasi yang diperoleh sebesar 80% dengan intensitas cahaya 100±4 lux.
Earth stations are built to monitor the presence of satellites starting from satellite data, monitoring satellites, and carry out orders and corrections if needed. On the earth station there is a satellite data receiving antenna, the more elevation angle of the current satellite data receiver antenna can affect the time duration of the satellite data. The purpose of this research is to apply the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method to design a time optimization system for satellite data at the LAPAN Pekayon earth station, East Jakarta. The data used as input is the elevation angle. The benefit of this research is expected to make it easier for operators and technicians to measure the time optimization of satellite data at earth stations. The best training results with learning rate = 0.2, error = 0.0001, max. epoch = 100000, neuron hidden layer = 15. The MSE value obtained is 0.0001 reaching the goal at epoch 68810. Regret the training / training reverse sequence reaches 0.99878. The best test result is to use learning speed 0.2 hidden layer neurons 15 comparison of training data = 54 and test data = 18. The accurate result is exactly the same as the specified error, namely 0.0001. The difference in the average target duration is 3 seconds compared to the ANN target. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with the back propagation method of training function gradient descent (traingd), was successfully used to an optimization system for satellite data acquisition time at earth stations.
The limited ground marshall, yellow line and others at an airport will affect when parking aircraft. Aviation technology has provided solutions, among others, by attaching to aircraft equipment known as the Visual Docking Guidance System (VDGS), is a tool provided by the airport to help a pilot park his plane without the help of a marshaller to direct the movement of planes to the correct parking. However, not all airports are equipped with sophisticated equipment. So this research aims to create a system that can make it easier for pilots to park aircraft while in Apron. To overcome this problem, a VDGS tool was designed which was designed using a TF Mini Lidar sensor and programmed for aircraft parking systems at pioneering airports. This tool is able to provide information on the distance of the plane as far as 12 meters given a condition that the aircraft will display identification of guidance or collision prevention that will STOP if the aircraft is at a distance of 1-3 meters, and GO identification if the aircraft is at a distance of 4-12 meters so that this tool can serves as a guide to the position of the aircraft when parking right in the designated parking area and prevent aircraft crashes when parking when entering the apron area at the pioneer airport.
Penelitian ini merancang sebuah alat berupa kapal pengukur volume sedimen. Alat ini menggunakan algoritma PID yang berfungsi untuk mengontrol pergerakan motor PG45 dan PG28. Nilai yang diukur adalah panjang, lebar, tinggi dan volume. Adjustable infrared sensor switch dan rotary encoder digunakan sebagai acuan pengukuran volume sedimen dengan pemroses data berupa Arduino Mega 2560. Hasil penelitian ini alat mampu membaca volume sedimen. Didapatkan nilai perbandingan antara nilai asli dan nilai hasil pengukuran alat yang implementasikan dalam bentuk persentase nilai error. Dalam 10 kali percobaan didapatkan rata-rata nilai error panjang sebesar 2,13 %, lebar sebesar 7,09 %, tinggi sebesar 0,95 %, dan volume sebesar 4,74 %.
Optimizing the output power value of a solar cell requires a tracker. The tracking is called the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) which will produce a maximum output power value. Each component in this system is modeled into Simulink. This simulation is designed to optimize the work of solar cells by searching maximum power points using perturb and observe (P & O) algorithms, then duty cycles are output of the algorithms become Buck-Boost Converter inputs as switching so they can produce output power with better output power. Simulation results show that MPPT can increase the average output power on changes in the value of sun irradiation, temperature and load than systems that do not use MPPT. The factor of the average difference in power is 37.82%.
This article discusses about longitudinal equation for the three dimensional rocket motion of RKX-Lapan. The RKX-Lapan’s rocket is guided rocket which was designed using two phases, boosting and sustaining. The rocket has six degrees of freedom movement. The freedom movements consists of three translational motions and three rotational motions which causess unstable rocket movement. Therefore, stable rocket motion system is needed. The rocket motion system is three dimensional of nonlinear equation, thus linearization process of rocket motion equation is requaired. One of this linearization process is longitudinal motion which consists of two translational motions and one rotational motion. The equation of longitudinal motion has stabilization system analysist on sustaining phase. Bifurcation analysis of longitudinal equation for the three dimensional rocket motion of RKX-Lapan has been created in this article. It determined equilibria and its equation stability character. Furthermore, bifurcation analysist on equilibria and numerical simulation have been done to find out that bifurcation value indicated a topologically nonequivalent.
Timbangan merupakan alat yang dipakai dalam melakukan pengukuran massa suatu benda. Ada bermacam-macam jenis timbangan yang dikelompokkan fungsinya. Salah satunya timbangan nutrisi. Timbangan nutrisi menghitung kalori, karbohidrat, dan lemak. Sebuah sistem yang dapat mengukur kalori dan gizi pada makanan sehari-hari dapat membantu pasien dan ahli gizi untuk mengukur dan mengelola jumlah asupan makanan sehari-hari. Pada penelitian ini, diukur nilai nutrisi makanan karbohidrat dengan keluaran nilai kalori yang akan ditampilkan di LCD menggunakan sensor load cell. Alat timbangan nutrisi ini menghitung nilai kalori suatu kelompok makanan berdasarkan pengukuran berat, khususnya nutrisi karbohidrat, yaitu pada jenis makanan nasi putih, nasi merah dan kentang. Hasil analisis dari perancangan ini ialah besarnya nilai akurasi perbandingan massa dari timbangan digital dibandingkan dengan massa hasil pembacaan Digital Nutrition Scale. Akurasi adalah tingkat kedekatan hasil pengukuran alat terhadap nilai yang sebenarnya. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan pengukuran yang baik dengan akurasi 99%. Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa alat yang dirancang dapat bekerja dengan baik.
The problem that often arises lately in electrical motors is the occurrence of voltage imbalances. Unbalanced voltage is an unequal voltage value in a three-phase voltage system contained in an electric power system. On the basis of these problems, it is necessary to conduct research that can analyze the dynamics of the performance of synchronous motors. The frame of reference theory is used to analyze the performance of both synchronous and induction motors. This study implements the modeling of the transformation on the natural axis abc and the transformation on the dq0 axis of the stator and rotor variables in the coordinates of the reference frame. The results of this study indicate that the voltage imbalance from 1% to 5% at the electromagnetic torque has decreased from 8.5 Nm to 6 Nm, the stator current in one phase has increased from 44.2 amperes to 45.2 amperes, the motor rotation speed has decreased from 1820 rpm to 1570 rpm, motor output power decreased from 25550.05 watts to 18968.45 watts, and power efficiency decreased from 98.24% to 82.43%.