We have previously demonstrated that glucocorticoids increased G(q/11)alpha protein expression and phospholipase C activity in the rat osteosarcoma cell line UMR 106-01. In this study, we demonstrated that G(11)alpha is the primary G(q)-subtype family member expressed in UMR cells. Dexamethasone treatment increased the expression of G(11)alpha protein in both a time- and a dose-dependent manner. Glucocorticoid treatment significantly increased the half-life of G(11)alpha protein from 20.3 to 63 h. Steady-state G(11)alpha mRNA level was also increased by glucocorticoid treatment by approximately 70%. This change was not the result of changes in RNA stability but rather the result of increased transcription, because the glucocorticoid-mediated upregulation of G(11)alpha mRNA was blocked by the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D. The dexamethasone induction of G(11)alpha mRNA occurred after a time lag of 12-24 h and was blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. These results suggest that the dexamethasone-induced rise in G(11)alpha protein results primarily from changes in the degradation rate of the protein, whereas changes in G(11)alpha mRNA play a smaller role and require de novo synthesis of regulatory protein(s).
We have investigated the role of protein kinase C (PKC) signal transduction pathways in parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) gene expression in the rat osteoblast-like cell line UMR-106-01. Involvement of the PKC pathway was determined by the findings that bisindolylmaleimide I inhibited 40% of the PTH effect, and 1 microM bovine PTH-(3-34) stimulated a 10-fold induction of IGFBP-5 mRNA. PTH-(1-34) and PTH-(3-34) (100 nM) both stimulated PKC-delta translocation from the membrane to the nuclear fraction. Rottlerin, a PKC-delta-specific inhibitor, and a dominant negative mutant of PKC-delta were both able to significantly inhibit PTH-(1-34) and PTH-(3-34) induction of IGFBP-5 mRNA, suggesting a stimulatory role for PKC-delta in the effects of PTH. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated PKC-alpha translocation from the cytosol to the membrane and inhibited approximately 50% of the PTH-(1-34), forskolin, and 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-stimulated IGFBP-5 mRNA levels, suggesting that PKC-alpha negatively regulates protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated induction of IGFBP-5 mRNA. These results suggest that the induction of IGFBP-5 by PTH is both PKA and PKC dependent and PKC-delta is the primary mediator of the effects of PTH via the PKC pathway.
The present study investigated a novel oral dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (DACRA), KBP-042, in head-to-head comparison with salmon calcitonin (sCT) in regards to in vitro receptor pharmacology, ex vivo pancreatic islet studies and in vivo proof of concept studies in diet-induced obese (DIO) and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In vitro, KBP-042 demonstrated superior binding affinity and activation of amylin and calcitonin receptors, and ex vivo, KBP-042 exerted inhibitory action on stimulated insulin and glucagon release from isolated islets. In vivo, KBP-042 induced a superior and pronounced reduction in food intake in conjunction with a sustained pair-fed corrected weight-loss in DIO rats. Concomitantly, KBP-042 improved glucose homeostasis and reduced hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia in conjunction with enhanced insulin sensitivity. In ZDF rats, KBP-042 induced a superior attenuation of diabetic hyperglycemia and alleviated impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. Concomitantly, KBP-042 preserved insulinotropic and induced glucagonostatic action, ultimately preserving pancreatic insulin and glucagon content. In conclusion, oral KBP-042 is a novel DACRA, which exerts anti-obesity and anti-diabetic efficacy by dual modulation of insulin sensitivity and directly decelerating stress on the pancreatic alpha and beta-cells. These results could provide the basis for oral KBP-042 as a novel therapeutic agent in type 2 diabetes.
Protein metabolism as Abstract AJP
Rakotoambinina et al.
To assess the dynamics of taurine metabolism in vivo, two sets of stable isotope studies were carried out in healthy volunteers.
First, pilot studies were carried in a single human subject to determine the time course of plasma and whole blood isotope enrichment over the course of an 8-h, unprimed continuous infusion of [1,2-(13)C(2)]taurine.
Second, five healthy adult males received two tracer infusions on separate days and in randomized order: 1) a 6-h continuous infusion of [1,2-(13)C(2)]taurine (3.1 +/- 0.2 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) and 2) a bolus injection of [(13)C(2)]taurine (3.0 +/- 0.1 micromol/kg). Isotope enrichments in plasma and whole blood taurine were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The pilot experiments allowed us to establish that steady-state isotope enrichment was reached in plasma and whole blood by the 5th h of tracer infusion. The plateau enrichment reached in whole blood was lower than that obtained in plasma taurine (P < 0.02). In the second set of studies, the appearance rate (R(a)) of plasma taurine, determined from continuous infusion studies was 31.8 +/- 3.1 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1). After a bolus injection of tracer, the enrichment decay over the subsequent 2 h was best fitted by a two-exponential curve. Taurine R(a) was approximately 85% higher when determined using the bolus injection technique compared with continuous infusion of tracer.
We conclude that 1) taurine R(a) into plasma is very low in healthy postabsorptive humans, and, due to taurine compartmentation between the extra- and intracellular milieus, may represent only interorgan taurine transfer and merely a small fraction of whole body taurine turnover; and 2) the bolus injection technique may overestimate taurine appearance into plasma. Further studies are warranted to determine whether alterations in bile taurine dynamics affect taurine R(a).
Carbon (C) in the 1-position of leucine is released as CO(2) with the decarboxylation of alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC). Carbon in the 2-position of leucine undergoes several additional metabolic steps before entering the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in the 1-position of acetyl-CoA, where it can be released as CO(2) or be incorporated into other compounds. This study examined the metabolic fate of C in the 2-position of leucine. We infused 11 healthy subjects with [1-(13)C]leucine and [1,2-(13)C(2)]leucine for 3.5--4 h to measure leucine kinetics and the oxidation of the tracers from enrichments of (13)C in blood and expired CO(2). The fraction of leucine infused that was oxidized (f(ox)) was used to define the degree of recovery of the (13)C label(s) for each tracer. As expected, leucine appearance (means +/- SE) did not differ between tracers ((13)C(1): 92.1 +/- 3.1 vs. (13)C(2): 89.2 +/- 3.2 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) when calculated using plasma leucine enrichments as an index of intracellular enrichment. A small (3%) but significant (P = 0.048) difference between tracers was found when KIC was used to calculate leucine appearance ((13)C(1): 118.0 +/- 4.1 vs. (13)C(2): 114.4 +/- 4.5 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). The value of f(ox) was 14 +/- 1% for [1,2-(13)C(2)]leucine and was lower than the f(ox) for [1-(13)C]leucine (19 +/- 1%). From the f(ox) data, we calculated that the recovery of the 2-(13)C label in breath CO(2) was 58 +/- 6% relative to the 1-(13)C label. These findings show that, although a majority of the 2-(13)C label of leucine is recovered in breath CO(2), a significant percentage (approximately 42%) is retained in the body, presumably by transfer to other compounds, via TCA exchange reactions.
Antisera were raised against the NH(2)-terminus of the putative basal lateral membrane (BLM) receptor for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3); BLM-VDR]. In Western analyses of BLM proteins, antibody (Ab) 099 was monospecific for a 64.5-kDa band. A protein of 64.5 kDa was also labeled by the affinity ligand [(14)C]1, 25(OH)(2)D(3)-bromoacetate; label was diminished in the presence of excess unlabeled secosteroid. The monoclonal antibody against the nuclear VDR (9A7) failed to detect an appropriate band in BLM fractions. Preincubation of isolated intestinal cells with Ab 099, but not 9A7, affected the following two 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated signal transduction events: augmented intracellular calcium and protein kinase C activity. Subcellular distribution of Ab 099 reactivity by Western analyses and fluorescence microscopy revealed the highest concentrations in BLM followed by the endoplasmic reticulum. Exposure of isolated intestinal cells to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) for 10 s or vascular perfusion of duodena for 5 min resulted in a time-dependent increase in nuclear localization of the BLM-VDR antigen, as judged by electron microscopy, whereas 24, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) failed to increase antigenic labeling in nuclei. Densitometric quantitation of Western blots of subcellular fractions prepared from isolated intestinal cells treated with vehicle or 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) confirmed a hormone-induced increase of putative BLM-VDR in the nucleus. It is concluded that a novel cell surface binding protein for 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has been identified.
The vitamin D(3)-25-hydroxylase CYP27A is located predominantly in liver, but its expression is also detected in extrahepatic tissues. Our aim was to evaluate the regulation of CYP27A by vitamin D(3) (D(3)) or its metabolites in rat duodena. Vitamin D-depleted rats were repleted with D(3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] or acutely injected 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) to investigate the mechanisms of action of the hormone. All D(3) compounds led to a progressive decrease in CYP27A mRNA, with levels after D(3) representing 20% of that observed in D depletion. 25OHD decreased CYP27A mRNA by 55%, whereas 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) led to a 40% decrease, which was accompanied by a 31% decrease in CYP27A protein levels and an 89% decrease in enzyme activity. Peak circulating 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations were, however, the highest in D(3)-repleted, followed by 25OHD- and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-repleted animals. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) resulted in a decrease in both CYP27A mRNA half-life and transcription rate. Our data illustrate that the intestine expresses the D(3)-25-hydroxylase and that the gene is highly regulated in vivo through a direct action of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or through the local production of D(3) metabolites.
Recent studies suggest that vitamin D signaling regulates bone formation. However, the overall effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on bone turnover in vivo is still unclear. In this study, our aim was to examine the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on bone turnover in SAM-P/6, a hormone-independent mouse model of senile osteoporosis characterized by a decrease in bone formation. Male and female 4-mo-old SAM-P/6 mice were treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 (18 pmol/24 h) or vehicle for a period of 6 wk, and a group of age- and sex-matched nonosteoporotic animals was used as control. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine increased rapidly by >30 +/- 5% (P < 0.001) in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated SAM-P/6 animals, whereas BMD decreased significantly by 18 +/- 2% (P < 0.01) in vehicle-treated SAM-P/6 animals and remained stable in control animals during the same period. Static and dynamic bone histomorphometry indicated that 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly increased bone volume and other parameters of bone quality as well as subperiosteal bone formation rate compared with vehicle-treated SAM-P/6 mice. However, no effect on trabecular bone formation was observed. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in the number of osteoclasts and eroded surfaces. A significant increase in circulating bone formation markers and a decrease in bone resorption markers was also observed. Finally, bone marrow cells, obtained from 1,25(OH)2D3-treated animals and cultured in the absence of 1,25(OH)2D3, differentiated more intensely into osteoblasts compared with those derived from vehicle-treated mice cultured in the same conditions. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 acts simultaneously on bone formation and resorption to prevent the development of senile osteoporosis.
Responsiveness to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] may be diminished in osteoporosis and inflammatory arthritis. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is produced in excess in these disorders and has been shown to decrease osteoblast transcriptional responsiveness to vitamin D and to inhibit the binding of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and its nuclear partner the retinoid X receptor (RXR) to DNA. Previous studies have shown that a vitamin D (VDRE) or retinoid X DNA response element (RXRE) is sufficient to confer TNF-alpha inhibition of vitamin D or retinoid-stimulated transcription in the absence of known TNF-alpha-responsive DNA sequences. We tested the hypothesis that the TNF-alpha-stimulated transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB could, in part, mediate TNF-alpha action by inhibiting the transcriptional potency of the VDR and RXR at their cognate cis regulatory sites. Osteoblastic ROS 17/2.8 cells transfected with a dose of NF-kappaB comparable to that stimulated by TNF-alpha decreased 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-stimulated transcription. This inhibitory effect of NF-kappaB was not observed on basal transcription of a heterologous reporter in the absence of the VDRE. The effects of NF-kappaB and TNF-alpha were comparable but not additive. COS-7 cells were cotransfected with reporters under the regulation of VDRE or RXRE along with vectors expressing VDR, RXR, and NF-kappaB nuclear proteins. Reconstituted NF-kappaB and the NF-kappaB subunit p65 alone, but not p50, dose dependently suppressed basal and ligand-stimulated transcription. p65 overexpression completely abrogated enhanced VDRE-mediated transcriptional activity in response to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Electrophoretic mobility shift experiments did not reveal a direct effect of recombinant NF-kappaB or its individual subunits on the binding of heterodimeric VDR-RXR to DNA. These results suggest that TNF-alpha inhibition of hormone-stimulated transcriptional activation may be mediated by activation of NF-kappaB. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of TNF-alpha on binding of receptors to DNA is unlikely to be mediated by NF-kappaB and is not necessary for inhibition of transcription.
We investigated the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)(2)D(3)] on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) secretion from primary cultures of rat heart microvascular cells. After an initial 5-day culture period, cells were treated for 24 h with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and several of its analogs. The results showed that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induced tPA secretion at 10(-10) to 10(-16) M. A less calcemic analog, Ro-25-8272, and an analog that binds the vitamin D receptor but is ineffective at perturbing Ca(2+) channels, Ro-24-5531, were approximately 10% as active as 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). An analog that binds the vitamin D receptor poorly but is an effective Ca(2+) channel agonist, Ro-24-2287, required approximately 10(-13) M to induce tPA secretion. Combinations of Ro-24-5531 and Ro-24-2287 were approximately as potent as 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Treatment of the cells with BAY K 8644 or thapsigargin also increased tPA secretion, suggesting that increased cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]) induces tPA secretion. The results suggested that the sensitivity of the tPA secretory response of microvascular cells to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was due in part to generation of a vitamin D-depleted state in vitro and in part to synergistic effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on two different induction pathways of tPA release.
In this study, the interrelationship between signal transduction pathways and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)2D3] action was examined in UMR106 osteoblastic cells. Treatment of these cells with 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM) resulted in an upregulation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and an augmentation in the induction by 1,25(OH)2D3 of 25(OH)D3 24-hydroxylase [24(OH)ase] and osteopontin (OPN) mRNAs as well as gene transcription. Transfection with constructs containing the vitamin D response element devoid of other promoter regulatory elements did not alter the cAMP-mediated potentiation, suggesting that cAMP-enhanced transcription is due, at least in part, to upregulation of VDR. Treatment with phorbol ester [12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) 100 nM], an activator of protein kinase C, significantly enhanced 1,25(OH)2D3-induced OPN mRNA and transcription but had no effect on VDR or on 24(OH)ase mRNA or transcription. Studies using OPN promoter constructs indicate that TPA-enhanced OPN transcription is mediated by an effect on the OPN promoter separate from an effect on VDR. Thus interactions with signal transduction pathways can enhance 1,25(OH)2D3 induction of 24(OH)ase and OPN gene expression, and, through different mechanisms, changes in cellular phosphorylation may play a significant role in determining the effectiveness of 1,25(OH)2D3 on transcriptional control in cells expressing skeletal phenotypic properties.
We recently discovered that chronic high fructose intakes by lactating rats prevented adaptive increases in rates of active intestinal Ca(2+) transport and in levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D. Since sufficient Ca(2+) absorption is essential for skeletal growth, our discovery may explain findings that excessive consumption of sweeteners compromises bone integrity in children. We tested the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH)2D3 mediates the inhibitory effect of excessive fructose intake on active Ca(2+) transport. First, compared with those fed glucose or starch, growing rats fed fructose for 4 wk had a marked reduction in intestinal Ca(2+) transport rate as well as in expression of intestinal and renal Ca(2+) transporters that was tightly associated with decreases in circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, bone length, and total bone ash weight but not with serum PTH. Dietary fructose increased the expression of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and decreased that of 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), suggesting that fructose might enhance the renal catabolism and impair the synthesis, respectively, of 1,25-(OH)2D3. Serum FGF23, which is secreted by osteocytes and inhibits CYP27B1 expression, was upregulated, suggesting a potential role of bone in mediating the fructose effects on 1,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis. Second, 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment rescued the fructose effect and normalized intestinal and renal Ca(2+) transporter expression. The mechanism underlying the deleterious effect of excessive fructose intake on intestinal and renal Ca(2+) transporters is a reduction in serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3. This finding is significant because of the large amounts of fructose now consumed by Americans increasingly vulnerable to Ca(2+) and vitamin D deficiency.
Despite being widely recognized as the important bone-derived phosphaturic hormone, whether fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 modulated intestinal calcium absorption remained elusive. Since FGF-23 could reduce the circulating level of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ [1,25(OH)₂D₃], FGF-23 probably compromised the 1,25(OH)₂D₃-induced intestinal calcium absorption. FGF-23 may also exert an inhibitory action directly through FGF receptors (FGFR) in the intestinal cells. Herein, we demonstrated by Ussing chamber technique that male mice administered 1 μg/kg 1,25(OH)₂D₃ sc daily for 3 days exhibited increased duodenal calcium absorption, which was abolished by concurrent intravenous injection of recombinant mouse FGF-23. This FGF-23 administration had no effect on the background epithelial electrical properties, i.e., short-circuit current, transepithelial potential difference, and resistance. Immunohistochemical evidence of protein expressions of FGFR isoforms 1-4 in mouse duodenal epithelial cells suggested a possible direct effect of FGF-23 on the intestine. This was supported by the findings that FGF-23 directly added to the serosal compartment of the Ussing chamber and completely abolished the 1,25(OH)₂D₃-induced calcium absorption in the duodenal tissues taken from the 1,25(OH)₂D₃-treated mice. However, direct FGF-23 exposure did not decrease the duodenal calcium absorption without 1,25(OH)₂D₃ preinjection. The observed FGF-23 action was mediated by MAPK/ERK, p38 MAPK, and PKC. Quantitative real-time PCR further showed that FGF-23 diminished the 1,25(OH)₂D₃-induced upregulation of TRPV5, TRPV6, and calbindin-D(9k), but not PMCA(1b) expression in the duodenal epithelial cells. In conclusion, besides being a phosphatonin, FGF-23 was shown to be a novel calcium-regulating hormone that acted directly on the mouse intestine, thereby compromising the 1,25(OH)₂D₃-induced calcium absorption.
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) maintains a balance of plasma calcium and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], its natural active ligand, by directly regulating the calcium ion channel (TRPV6) and degradation enzyme (CYP24A1), and indirectly regulating the parathyroid hormone (PTH) for feedback regulation of the synthetic enzyme, CYP27B1. Studies that examined the intricate relationships between plasma and tissue 1,25(OH)2D3 levels and changes in VDR target genes and plasma calcium and PTH are virtually nonexistent. In this study, we investigated temporal correlations between tissue 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations and VDR target genes in ileum and kidney and plasma calcium and PTH concentrations in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment in mice [2.5 µg/kg (i.p. or intraperitoneal) singly or q2d x4]. After a single i.p. dose, plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 peaked at about 0.5 h, then decayed biexponentially, falling below basal levels after 24 h, then returning to baseline after eight days. Upon repetitive i.p. dosing, plasma, ileal, renal, and bone 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations rose and decayed in unison. Temporal profiles showed increased expressions of ileal Cyp24a1 and renal Cyp24a1, Mdr1/P-gp and VDR but decreased renal Cyp27b1 mRNA after a time-delay in VDR activation. Increased plasma calcium and attenuated PTH levels and increased ileal and renal Trpv6 expression paralleled the changes in tissue 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations. Gene changes in the kidney were more sustained compared to those in ileum, but the magnitudes of change for Cyp24a1 and Trpv6 were lower than in ileum. The data revealed that 1,25(OH)2D3 equilibrates with tissues rapidly, and VDR target genes respond quickly to exogenously administered 1,25(OH)2D3.
We have investigated the molecular mechanism whereby 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] inhibits adipogenesis in vitro. 1,25(OH)2D3 blocks 3T3-L1 cell differentiation into adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner; however, the inhibition is ineffective 24-48 h after the differentiation is initiated, suggesting that 1,25(OH) 2D3 inhibits only the early events of the adipogenic program. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 does not block the mitotic clonal expansion or C/EBPβ induction; rather, 1,25(OH)2D3 blocks the expression of C/EBPα, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, and other downstream adipocyte markers. The inhibition by 1,25(OH)2D3 is reversible, since removal of 1,25(OH)2D3 from the medium restores the adipogenic process with only a temporal delay. Interestingly, although the vitamin D receptor (VDR) protein is barely detectable in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, its levels are dramatically increased during the early phase of adipogenesis, peaking at 4-8 h and subsiding afterward throughout the rest of the differentiation program; 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment appears to stabilize the VDR protein levels. Consistently, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of human (h) VDR in 3T3-L1 cells completely blocks the adipogenic program, confirming that VDR is inhibitory. Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by 1,25(OH) 2D3 is ameliorated by troglitazone, a specific PPARγ antagonist; conversely, hVDR partially suppresses the transacting activity of PPARγ but not of C/EBPβ or C/EBPα. Moreover, 1,25(OH) 2D3 markedly suppresses C/EBPα and PPARγ mRNA levels in mouse epididymal fat tissue culture. Taken together, these data indicate that the blockade of 3T3-L1 cell differentiation by 1,25(OH) 2D3 occurs at the postclonal expansion stages and involves direct suppression of C/EBPα and PPARγ upregulation, antagonization of PPARγ activity, and stabilization of the inhibitory VDR protein.
We used mice with targeted deletion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase [1α(OH)ase(-/-)] to investigate the effects of calcium and phosphorus on defects in the reproductive system of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D]-deficient female mice. The 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice and their wild-type littermates were fed either a normal diet or a rescue diet (high calcium, phosphate, and lactose) starting from weaning until 3 mo of age. We then determined serum calcium and phosphorus levels, assessed gonadotropin and gonadal hormone production, and evaluated folliculogenesis, corpus luteum formation, ovarian angiogenesis, uterus development, and fertility. Results showed that hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic female 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice developed infertility accompanied by decreased estrogen and progestogen levels, elevated follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels, defects in follicular development and corpus luteum formation, uterine hypoplasia, and decreased ovarian expression of angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 and -2, and Tie-2. When serum calcium and phosphorus were normalized by the rescue diet, the defective reproductive phenotype in the female 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice, including the dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and ovarian angiogenesis were reversed. These results indicate that the infertility seen in 1,25(OH)(2)D-deficient mice is not a direct effect of active vitamin D deficiency on the reproductive system but is an indirect effect mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus.
CYP27A is considered the main vitamin D(3) (D(3))-25 hydroxylase in humans. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of the D(3) nutritional and hormonal status on hepatic CYP27A mRNA, cellular distribution, transcription rate, and enzyme activity. Studies were carried out in normal and in D-depleted rats supplemented with D(3), 25OHD(3), or 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). CYP27A exhibited a significant gender difference and was observed throughout the hepatic acinus not only in hepatocytes but also in sinusoidal endothelial, stellate, and Kupffer cells. Neither D(3) nor 25OHD(3) influenced CYP27A mRNA levels. However, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) repletion led to a 60% decrease in CYP27A mRNA, which was accompanied by a 46% decrease in mitochondrial D(3)-25 hydroxylase activity. The effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was mediated by a significant decrease in CYP27A transcription, whereas its mRNA half-life remained unchanged. Our data indicate that CYP27A is present in hepatic parenchymal and sinusoidal cells and that the gene transcript is not influenced by the D(3) nutritional status but is transcriptionally regulated by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) exposure.
As the fourth most abundant anion in the body, sulfate plays an essential role in numerous physiological processes. One key protein involved in transcellular transport of sulfate is the sodium-sulfate cotransporter NaSi-1, and previous studies suggest that vitamin D modulates sulfate homeostasis by regulating NaSi-1 expression. In the present study, we found that, in mice lacking the vitamin D receptor (VDR), NaSi-1 expression in the kidney was reduced by 72% but intestinal NaSi-1 levels remained unchanged. In connection with these findings, urinary sulfate excretion was increased by 42% whereas serum sulfate concentration was reduced by 50% in VDR knockout mice. Moreover, levels of hepatic glutathione and skeletal sulfated proteoglycans were also reduced by 18 and 45%, respectively, in the mutant mice. Similar results were observed in VDR knockout mice after their blood ionized calcium levels and rachitic bone phenotype were normalized by dietary means, indicating that vitamin D regulation of NaSi-1 expression and sulfate metabolism is independent of its role in calcium metabolism. Treatment of wild-type mice with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or vitamin D analog markedly stimulated renal NaSi-1 mRNA expression. These data provide strong in vivo evidence that vitamin D plays a critical role in sulfate homeostasis. However, the observation that serum sulfate and skeletal proteoglycan levels in normocalcemic VDR knockout mice remained low in the absence of rickets and osteomalacia suggests that the contribution of sulfate deficiency to development of rickets and osteomalacia is minimal.
To assess the interaction of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and dietary calcium on mammary calcium transport in lactating dams and skeletal growth and turnover in the neonate, female lactating 1α(OH)ase(+/-) or 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice were fed either a high-calcium diet containing 1.5% calcium in the drinking water or a "rescue diet." Dietary effects on the expression of molecules mediating mammary calcium transport were determined in the dams, and the effects of milk calcium content were assessed on skeletal growth and turnover in 2-wk-old 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-deficient pups. Results showed that the reduction of milk calcium levels in the 1α(OH)ase(-/-) dams and the elevation of milk calcium levels in dams fed the rescue diet were associated with the down- or upregulation of calbindin D(9k) and plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase isoform 2b expression, respectively, in mammary epithelial cells. The action of ambient calcium in stimulating skeletal growth in the neonates appeared to supercede the direct action of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), and the response of chondrocytes in the neonates to elevated calcium was more sensitive in hypocalcemic animals. Osteopenia was more apparent in pups nursed by dams with lower milk calcium than in 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-deficient pups nursed by dams with higher milk calcium. Bone formation parameters were increased significantly in all pups fed by dams on the rescue diet but were still lower in 1α(OH)ase(-/-) pups than in 1α(OH)ase(+/-) pups. Consequently, there is an important contributory role of calcium in conjunction with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) to mammary calcium transport in lactating dams and skeletal growth and turnover in the neonate.
Carp (Cyprinus carpio), a freshwater fish that lives in a low-calcium environment, and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), a seawater fish that lives in a high-calcium environment, were studied for the presence of a novel membrane binding protein ("receptor") for the vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. Basal lateral membranes from enterocytes of either species were prepared and analyzed for specific saturable binding. Membranes from carp revealed a dissociation constant of 1.23 nM with a maximal binding capacity of 212 fmol/mg protein. In comparison, membranes from Atlantic cod enterocytes revealed very low and nonsignificant levels of specific binding. The [(3)H]1,25(OH)(2)D(3) binding activity in carp was further characterized for protein dependence, detergent extractability, and competition for binding with the metabolites 25(OH)D(3) and 24R,25(OH)(2)D(3). Finally, introduction of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) to isolated carp enterocytes enhanced protein kinase C activity within 5 min, whereas intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations were unaffected by a range of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations, as judged by fura 2 fluorescence. Thus the binding moiety may be a putative plasma membrane receptor for vitamin D, because it is functionally coupled to at least one signal transduction pathway.
Inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor type II (InsP3R-II) is the most prevalent isoform of the InsP3R in hepatocytes and is concentrated under the canalicular membrane where it plays an important role in bile secretion. We hypothesized that altered calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling may be involved in metabolic dysfunction as InsP3R-mediated Ca(2+) signals have been implicated in the regulation of hepatic glucose homeostasis. Here, we find that InsP3R-II, but not InsP3R-I, is reduced in the livers of obese mice. In our investigation of the functional consequences of InsP3R-II deficiency, we found that organic anion secretion at the canalicular membrane and Ca(2+) signals were impaired. However, mice lacking InsP3R-II show no deficits in energy balance, glucose production, glucose tolerance, or susceptibility to hepatic steatosis. Thus, our results suggest that reduced InsP3R-II expression is not sufficient to account for any disruptions in metabolic homeostasis that are observed in mouse models of obesity. We conclude that metabolic homeostasis is maintained independently of InsP3R-II. Loss of InsP3R-II does impair secretion of bile components and therefore, we suggest that conditions of obesity would lead to a decrease in this Ca(2+) sensitive process.
Increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) predominantly from the liver is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes, which positively correlates with fasting hyperglycemia. Gluconeogenesis is the biochemical pathway shown to significantly contribute to increased EGP in diabetes. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a regulated enzyme in gluconeogenesis that is increased in animal models of obesity and insulin resistance. However, whether a specific increase in liver FBPase can result in increased EGP has not been shown. The objective of this study was to determine the role of upregulated liver FBPase in glucose homeostasis. To achieve this goal, we generated human liver FBPase transgenic mice under the control of the transthyretin promoter, using insulator sequences to flank the transgene and protect it from site-of-integration effects. This resulted in a liver-specific model, as transgene expression was not detected in other tissues. Mice were studied under the following conditions: 1) at two ages (24 wk and 1 yr old), 2) after a 60% high-fat diet, and 3) when bred to homozygosity. Hemizygous transgenic mice had an approximately threefold increase in total liver FBPase mRNA with concomitant increases in FBPase protein and enzyme activity levels. After high-fat feeding, hemizygous transgenics were glucose intolerant compared with negative littermates (P < 0.02). Furthermore, when bred to homozygosity, chow-fed transgenic mice showed a 5.5-fold increase in liver FBPase levels and were glucose intolerant compared with negative littermates, with a significantly higher rate of EGP (P < 0.006). This is the first study to show that FBPase regulates EGP and whole body glucose homeostasis in a liver-specific transgenic model. Our homozygous transgenic model may be useful for testing human FBPase inhibitor compounds with the potential to treat patients with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetic heart disease contributes to the high mortality in diabetics, although effective clinical management is lacking. The protease inhibitor 5-[5-(2-nitrophenyl) furfuryliodine]-1,3-diphenyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (UCF-101) was reported to protect the hearts against ischemic injury. This study examined the role of UCF-101 on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic heart defect. Vehicle or UCF-101 was administrated to STZ diabetic mice, and cardiomyocyte mechanical properties were analyzed. UCF-101 reduced STZ-induced hyperglycemia and alleviated STZ-induced aberration in cardiomyocyte contractile mechanics. Diabetes dramatically decreased AMPK phosphorylation at Thr(172) of catalytic alpha-subunit, which was restored by UCF-101. Neither diabetes nor UCF-101 affected the expression of HtrA2/Omi and XIAP or caspase-3 activity. The AMPK activator resveratrol mimicked the UCF-101-induced beneficial effect against diabetic cardiac dysfunction. Mechanical properties in cardiomyocytes from the AMPK-kinase-dead (KD) mice displayed markedly impaired contractile function reminiscent of diabetes. STZ injection in AMPK-KD mice failed to elicit any additional cardiomyocyte contractile defect. UCF-101 significantly downregulated the AMPK-degrading enzymes PP2A and PP2C, the effect of which was mimicked by resveratrol. Taken together, these results indicate that UCF-101 protects against STZ-induced cardiac dysfunction, possibly through AMPK signaling.
Abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles have recently been associated with sporadic pituitary adenomas, suggesting that miRNAs can contribute to tumor formation; miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that inhibit posttranscriptional expression of target mRNAs by binding to target sequences usually located in the 3'-UTR. In this study, we investigated the role played by miR-107, a miRNA associated with different human cancers, in sporadic pituitary adenomas and its interaction with the pituitary tumor suppressor gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP). miR-107 expression was evaluated in pituitary adenoma and normal pituitary samples using microRNA screen TLDA (TaqMan Low-Density Array) and RT-qPCR assays. We show that miR-107 expression was significantly upregulated in GH-secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. We found that human AIP-3'-UTR is a target of miR-107 since miR-107 inhibited in vitro AIP expression to 53.9 ± 2% of the miRNA control in a luciferase assay and reduced endogenous AIP mRNA expression to 53 ± 22% of the miRNA control in human cells. However, we did not observe a negative correlation between AIP and miR-107 expression in the human tumor samples. Furthermore, we show that miR-107 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation in human neuroblastoma and rat pituitary adenoma cells. In conclusion, miR-107 is overexpressed in pituitary adenomas and may act as a tumor suppressor. We have identified and confirmed AIP as a miR-107 target gene. Expression data in human samples suggest that the expression of AIP and miR-107 could be influenced by a combination of tumorigenic factors as well as compensatory mechanisms stimulated by the tumorigenic process.
The effects of progesterone on breast epithelial cells remain poorly defined with observations showing both proliferative and antiproliferative effects. As an example, progesterone levels correlate with increased epithelial cell proliferation, but there is discordance between the dividing cells and the cells with nuclear progesterone receptor expression. The release of paracrine growth factors from nuclear receptor-positive cells has been postulated as a mechanism, since in vitro studies show a lack of growth effect by progesterone in breast epithelial cells lacking nuclear receptors. This study examined possible nongenomic effects of progesterone in breast epithelia by using MCF-10A cells known to lack nuclear progesterone receptor expression. Treatment for 30-60 min with progesterone or the progestin, R5020, increased mitochondrial activity as shown by an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential (hyperpolarization) with a concordant increase in total cellular ATP. The reaction was inhibited by a specific progesterone receptor antagonist and not affected by the translation inhibitor cycloheximide. Progestin treatment inhibited apoptosis induced by activation of the FasL pathway, as shown by a decrease in sub-G(1) cell fraction during fluorescence-activated cell sorting and a decrease in caspase 3/7 levels. Progestin treatment did not alter the cell cycle over 48 h. Our study demonstrates a nongenomic action of progesterone on benign breast epithelial cells, resulting in enhanced cellular respiration and protection from apoptosis.
Inactive cortisone is converted to active cortisol within the liver by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11 beta-HSD1), and impaired regulation of this process may be related to increased hepatic glucose production (HGP) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute 11 beta-HSD1 inhibition on HGP and fat metabolism during insulin deficiency. Sixteen conscious, 42-h-fasted, lean, healthy dogs were studied. Somatostatin was infused to create insulin deficiency, and the animals were treated with a specific 11 beta-HSD1 inhibitor (compound 531) or placebo for 5 h. 11 beta-HSD1 inhibition completely suppressed hepatic cortisol production, and this attenuated the increase in HGP that occurred during insulin deficiency. PEPCK and glucose-6-phosphatase expression were decreased when 11 beta-HSD1 was inhibited, but gluconeogenic flux was unchanged, implying an effect on glycogenolysis. Since inhibition of hepatic cortisol production reduces HGP during insulin deficiency, 11 beta-HSD1 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of excess glucose production that occurs in diabetes.
Excessive fetal exposure to glucocorticoids has been implicated in the etiology of adult metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) may protect the fetus from excessive glucocorticoid exposure. Maternal stress may be accompanied by elevated levels of cortisol and increased proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)]. We hypothesize that proinflammatory cytokines inhibit human placental 11beta-HSD activity. We incubated explant cultures of term human placental villi in the presence or absence of 10 ng/ml IL-1beta, IL-6, or TNF-alpha, with or without agonists or antagonists of intracellular Ca2+ and adenylyl cyclase. Activity for 11beta-HSD2 was estimated using a radioisotope assay, and mRNA was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. All cytokines significantly (P < or = 0.05) reduced 11beta-HSD2 activity (>75% suppression); maximal inhibition occurred within 2 h and was maintained for at least 24 h. The IL-1beta-induced inhibitory activity was attenuated using a Ca2+ channel blocker (nifedipine), an intracellular Ca2+ antagonist [8-(N,N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate], or the adenylyl cyclase stimulant forskolin. Conversely, 11beta-HSD2 activity was diminished in the presence of the Ca2+ ionophore A-23187 or the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ-22536. mRNA levels for 11beta-HSD2 were not changed by any of the treatments. Proinflammatory cytokines inhibit human placental 11beta-HSD2 activity through a mechanism that involves increased intracellular Ca2+ and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. This could result in excessive fetal exposure to maternal cortisol. This mechanism might mediate part of the increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adult offspring.
Most of the current medical treatments for endometriosis aim to downregulate estrogen activity. However, a high recurrence rate after medical treatment has been the most significant problem. BAY 11-7085, a soluble inhibitor of NK-kappaB activation, has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of a variety of cells. To examine the potential application of BAY 11-7085 in the treatment of endometriosis, we investigated the effects of this agent on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of cultured ovarian endometriotic cyst stromal cells (ECSCs) by a modified methylthiazole tetrazolium assay, a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation assays. The effect of BAY 11-7085 on the cell cycle of ECSCs was also determined by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related molecules was examined in ECSCs with Western blot analysis. BAY 11-7085 significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and DNA synthesis of ECSCs and induced apoptosis and the G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest of these cells. Additionally, downregulation of the B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-X(L) expression with simultaneous activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 was observed in ECSCs after treatment with BAY 11-7085. These results suggest that BAY 11-7085 induces apoptosis of ECSCs by suppressing antiapoptotic proteins, and that caspase-3-, -8-, and -9-mediated cascades are involved in this mechanism. Therefore, BAY 11-7085 could be used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of endometriosis.
Tissue-specific alterations in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1 activity, which amplifies glucocorticoid action, are thought to contribute to some of the metabolic complications of obesity. The present study tested whether hypertriglyceridemia is one such complication by investigating the effects of an 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor (compound A, 3 mgxkg(-1)xday(-1), 21 days) on triglyceride (TG) metabolism in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. The dose of compound A used did not affect food intake or final body weight. Compound A improved fasting triglyceridemia (-42%) through a robust reduction (-41%) in hepatic TG secretion rate, without change in plasma TG clearance rate. Uptake of TG-derived fatty acids was, however, increased in oxidative tissues, including red gastrocnemius (+47%), heart (+39%), and brown adipose tissue (BAT, +46%) at the expense of the liver, with a concomitant increase in plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein. Lipid oxidation products were increased in red gastrocnemius (+35%) and heart (+33%), as were levels of uncoupling protein 1 mRNA in BAT (+48%), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 activity tended to be increased in some oxidative tissues. These findings demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 at a dose that does not affect food intake improves triglyceridemia by reducing hepatic very low density lipoprotein-TG secretion, with a shift in the pattern of TG-derived fatty acid uptake toward oxidative tissues, in which lipid accumulation is prevented by increased lipid oxidation.
The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive to active glucocorticoids. 11beta-HSD1 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of obesity and controls glucocorticoid actions in inflammation. Several studies have demonstrated that TNF-alpha increases 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity in various cell models. Here, we demonstrate that mRNA and activity of 11beta-HSD1 is increased in liver tissue from transgenic mice overexpressing TNF-alpha, indicating that this effect also occurs in vivo. To dissect the molecular mechanism of this increase, we investigated basal and TNF-alpha-induced transcription of the 11beta-HSD1 gene (HSD11B1) in HepG2 cells. We found that TNF-alpha acts via p38 MAPK pathway. Transient transfections with variable lengths of human HSD11B1 promoter revealed highest activity with or without TNF-alpha in the proximal promoter region (-180 to +74). Cotransfection with human CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and C/EBPbeta-LAP expression vectors activated the HSD11B1 promoter with the strongest effect within the same region. Gel shift and RNA interference assays revealed the involvement of mainly C/EBPalpha, but also C/EBPbeta, in basal and only of C/EBPbeta in the TNF-alpha-induced HSD11B1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed in vivo the increased abundance of C/EBPbeta on the proximal HSD11B1 promoter upon TNF-alpha treatment. In conclusion, C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta control basal transcription, and TNF-alpha upregulates 11beta-HSD1, most likely by p38 MAPK-mediated increased binding of C/EBPbeta to the human HSD11B1 promoter. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing involvement of p38 MAPK in the TNF-alpha-mediated 11beta-HSD1 regulation, and that TNF-alpha stimulates enzyme activity in vivo.
Increased dietary fat intake is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic disease. In transgenic mice, adipose tissue-specific overexpression of the glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) exacerbates high-fat (HF) diet-induced visceral obesity and diabetes, whereas 11β-HSD1 gene knockout ameliorates this, favoring accumulation of fat in nonvisceral depots. Paradoxically, in normal mice HF diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with marked downregulation of adipose tissue 11β-HSD1 levels. To identify the specific dietary fats that regulate adipose 11β-HSD1 and thereby impact upon metabolic disease, we either fed mice diets enriched (45% calories as fat) in saturated (stearate), monounsaturated (oleate), or polyunsaturated (safflower oil) fats ad libitum or we pair fed them a low-fat (11%) control diet for 4 wk. Adipose and liver mass and glucocorticoid receptor and 11β-HSD1 mRNA and activity levels were determined. Stearate caused weight loss and hypoinsulinemia, partly due to malabsorption, and this markedly increased plasma corticosterone levels and adipose 11β-HSD1 activity. Oleate induced pronounced weight gain and hyperinsulinemia in association with markedly low plasma corticosterone and adipose 11β-HSD1 activity. Weight gain and hyperinsulinemia was less pronounced with safflower compared with oleate despite comparable suppression of plasma corticosterone and adipose 11β-HSD1. However, with pair feeding, safflower caused a selective reduction in visceral fat mass and relative insulin sensitization without affecting plasma corticosterone or adipose 11β-HSD1. The dynamic depot-selective relationship between adipose 11β-HSD1 and fat mass strongly implicates a dominant physiological role for local tissue glucocorticoid reactivation in fat mobilization.
Normally, the brain's fuel is glucose, but during fasting it increasingly relies on ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone) produced in liver mitochondria from fatty acid beta-oxidation. Although moderately raised blood ketones produced on a very high fat ketogenic diet have important clinical effects on the brain, including reducing seizures, ketone metabolism by the brain is still poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to assess brain uptake of carbon-11-labeled acetoacetate (11C-acetoacetate) by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in the intact, living rat. To vary plasma ketones, we used three dietary conditions: high carbohydrate control diet (low plasma ketones), fat-rich ketogenic diet (raised plasma ketones), and 48-h fasting (raised plasma ketones). 11C-acetoacetate metabolism was measured in the brain, heart, and tissue in the mouth area. Using 11C-acetoacetate and small animal PET imaging, we have noninvasively quantified an approximately seven- to eightfold enhanced brain uptake of ketones on a ketogenic diet or during fasting. This opens up an opportunity to study brain ketone metabolism in humans.
Cadmium, a common environmental pollutant and a major constituent of tobacco smoke, has been identified as a new class of endocrine disruptors with a wide range of detrimental effects on mammalian reproduction. During human pregnancy, maternal cadmium exposure, via the environment and/or cigarette smoking, leads to fetal growth restriction (FGR), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Although a substantial amount of evidence suggests that cadmium may affect fetal growth indirectly via the placenta, the molecular targets remain to be identified. Given that reduced placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11 beta-HSD2, encoded by HSD11B2 gene) is causally linked to FGR, the present study was undertaken to examine the hypothesis that cadmium induces FGR in part by targeting placental HSD11B2. Using cultured human trophoblast cells as a model system, we showed that cadmium exposure resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in 11 beta-HSD2 activity, such that an 80% reduction was observed after 24-h treatment at 1 microM. It also led to a similar decrease in levels of 11 beta-HSD2 protein and mRNA, suggesting that cadmium reduced 11 beta-HSD2 expression. Furthermore, cadmium diminished HSD11B2 promoter activity, indicative of repression of HSD11B2 gene transcription. In addition, the effect of cadmium was highly specific, in that other divalent metals (Zn(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+)) as well as nicotine and cotinine (a major metabolite of nicotine) did not alter 11 beta-HSD2 activity. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that cadmium reduces human placental 11 beta-HSD2 expression and activity by suppressing HSD11B2 gene transcription. Thus the present study identifies placental 11 beta-HSD2 as a novel molecular target of cadmium. It also reveals a molecular mechanism by which this endocrine disruptor may affect human placental function and, consequently, fetal growth and development.
ID-1101 (4-hydroxyisoleucine), an amino acid extracted from fenugreek seeds, exhibits an interesting glucose-dependent insulin-stimulating activity. The present study was undertaken to investigate a possible extrapancreatic effect of ID-1101 on insulin signaling and action besides its previously described insulinotropic action. Insulin-sensitizing effects of ID-1101 were investigated in rat in vivo by three different approaches: 1) using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps in two different rat models of insulin resistance, i.e., Zucker fa/fa rats and rats fed a sucrose-lipid diet; 2) measuring liver and muscle phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity after an acute injection of ID-1101 in normal and insulin-resistant diabetic rats; and 3) after chronic treatment in two rat models of insulin resistance. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp experiments revealed that ID-1101 can improve insulin resistance through an increase of peripheral glucose utilization rate in sucrose-lipid-fed rats and by decreasing hepatic glucose production in Zucker fa/fa rats. Moreover, we demonstrated that a single injection of ID-1101 activates the PI 3-kinase activity in liver and muscle from normal rats but also in muscle from diabetic rats. Finally, chronic ID-1101 treatment significantly reduced insulinemia in type 2 diabetic rats and reduced the progression of hyperinsulinemia in insulin-resistant obese Zucker fa/fa rats. These findings clearly demonstrate that ID-1101 can reduce insulin resistance through activation of the early steps of insulin signaling in peripheral tissues and in liver. In summary, ID-1101, besides its insulinotropic effect, directly improves insulin sensitivity, making it a potentially very valuable therapeutic agent for diabetes treatment.
Glucocorticoid (GC) metabolism by the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) system is an important prereceptor regulator of GC action. The HSD enzymes catalyze the interconversion of the endogenous, biologically active GC cortisol and its inactive 11-dehydro metabolite cortisone. The role of the HSD enzymes in the metabolism of synthetic GCs, such as dexamethasone (Dex), is more complex. The human lung is a classic GC-sensitive organ; however, the roles of the HSD enzymes (HSD1 and HSD2) in the human lung are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the expression of the HSD enzymes in human adult and fetal lung tissues and the human lung epithelial cell line NCI-H441. We observed that human adult and fetal lung tissues, as well as H441 cells, express HSD2 protein and that it is upregulated by Dex (10(-7) M). By contrast, HSD1 protein was undetectable. We also show that the Dex-mediated regulation of surfactant protein A is attenuated by inhibition of HSD2 activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that unlike the inactive, 11-dehydro metabolite of cortisol (i.e., cortisone), the 11-dehydro metabolite of Dex, 11-dehydro-Dex, competes for binding to the GC receptor (GR) in human lung epithelial cells and retains GR agonist activity. Together, these data suggest that differences exist in the biological activities of the metabolites of cortisol and Dex.
Long-term glucocorticoid exposure increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Pre-receptor activation of glucocorticoid availability in target tissue by 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) coupled with hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) are important mediators of the metabolic syndrome. We explored whether the tissue-specific modulation of 11ß-HSD1 and H6PDH in adipose tissue mediates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and lipolysis and analyzed the effects of 11β-HSD1 inhibition on the key lipid metabolism genes and insulin signaling cascade. We observed that corticosterone (CORT) treatment increased expression of 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH and induced lipase HSL and ATGL with suppression of pThr(172)AMPK in adipose tissue of C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, CORT induced adipose insulin resistance, as reflected by a marked decrease in IR and IRS-1 gene expression with reduction in pThr(308) Akt/PKB. Furthermore, 11β-HSD1 shRNA attenuated CORT-induced 11β-HSD1 and lipase expression and improved insulin sensitivity with a concomitant stimulation of pThr(308) Akt/PKB and pThr(172)AMPK within adipose tissue. Addition of CORT to 3T3-L1 adipocytes enhanced 11ß-HSD1 and H6PDH and impaired pThr(308)Akt/PKB leading to lipolysis. Knockdown of 11ß-HSD1 by shRNA attenuated CORT-induced lipolysis and reversed CORT-mediated inhibition of pThr(172)AMPK accompanied by a parallel improvement of insulin signaling response in these cells. These findings suggest that elevated adipose 11β-HSD1 expression may contribute to glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and adipolysis.
A clinically employed antihyperlipidemic drug, bezafibrate, has been characterized as a PPAR(alpha, -gamma, and -delta) pan-agonist in vitro. Recent extended trials have highlighted its antidiabetic properties in humans. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully elucidated. The present study was designed to explore potential regulatory mechanisms of intracellular glucocorticoid reactivating enzyme, 11beta-HSD1 and anti-diabetic hormone, adiponectin by bezafibrate in murine adipose tissue, and cultured adipocytes. Treatment of db/db mice with bezafibrate significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, accompanied by a marked reduction of triglyceride and nonesterified fatty acids. Despite equipotent in lipid-lowering effects, another fibrate, fenofibrate, did not show such beneficial effects on glycemic control. Treatment of bezafibrate caused a marked decrease in the mRNA level of 11beta-HSD1 preferentially in adipose tissue of db/db mice (-47%, P<0.05), concomitant with a significant increase in plasma adiponectin level (+37%, P<0.01). Notably, treatment of bezafibrate caused a marked decrease in the mRNA level (-34%, P<0.01) and enzyme activity (-32%, P<0.01) of 11beta-HSD1, whereas the treatment substantially augmented the expression (+71%, P<0.01) and secretion (+27%, P<0.01) of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Knockdown of 11beta-HSD1 by siRNA confirmed that 11beta-HSD1 acts as a distinct oxoreductase in adipocytes and validated the enzyme activity assays in the present study. Effects of bezafibrate on regulation of 11beta-HSD1 and adiponectin in murine adipocytes were comparable with those in thiazolidinediones. This is the first demonstration that bezafibrate directly regulates 11beta-HSD1 and adiponectin in murine adipocytes, both of which may contribute to metabolically-beneficial effects by bezafibrate.
Adrenal androgen production is reduced in association with disease severity in HIV-infected women. This response may be maladaptive in terms of maintenance of lean body mass, functional status, and immune function. The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of an adrenal enzyme inhibitor of 11beta-hydroxylase might increase androgen production in this population. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of metyrapone (500 mg p.o. qid) or placebo for 2 wk in 10 HIV-infected women with AIDS wasting [weight <90% ideal body weight (IBW) or weight loss >10%] and reduced androgen levels. Basal and ACTH-stimulated androgen, mineralocorticoid, and glucocorticoid levels were measured at baseline and after 14 days of treatment. Subjects were similar in age (40.9 +/- 0.9 yr), weight (91.7 +/- 3.5% IBW) and hormone concentrations at study entry. Total testosterone (84 +/- 54 vs. -0.4 +/- 2 ng/dl, P = 0.024), free testosterone (6.5 +/- 2.8 vs. 0.1 +/- 0.1 pg/ml, P = 0.024), DHEA (5.0 +/- 3.2 vs. -0.6 +/- 0.5 microg/l, P = 0.024), and 11-deoxycortisol (2,145 +/- 820 vs. -14 +/- 22 ng/dl, P = 0.024) levels increased in response to metyrapone compared with placebo treatment. In response to ACTH, significant increases in the DHEA/cortisol ratio (174 +/- 48 vs. 3 +/- 3, P = 0.008) were seen in the metyrapone group compared with placebo. Blood pressure and electrolytes did not change, and signs of adrenal insufficiency were not apparent. These data demonstrate that inhibition of 11beta-hydroxylase with metyrapone increases adrenal androgen secretion in HIV-infected women. Further studies are needed to assess the physiological effects of this strategy to increase anabolic hormone levels in severe stress, including detailed testing to rule out the potential risk of concomitant adrenal insufficiency.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prolonged 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11β-HSD1) inhibition on basal and hormone stimulated glucose metabolism in fasted conscious dogs. For 7d prior to study either an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (HSD1-I; n=6) or placebo (PBO; n=6) were administered. After the basal period a 4h metabolic challenge followed where glucagon (3x-basal), epinephrine (5x-basal), and insulin (2x-basal) concentrations were increased. Hepatic glucose fluxes did not differ between groups during the basal period. In response to the metabolic challenge hepatic glucose production was stimulated in PBO, resulting in hyperglycemia, such that exogenous glucose was required in HSD-I (p<0.05) to match the glycemia between groups. Net hepatic glucose output and endogenous glucose production were decreased by 11β-HSD1 inhibition (p<0.05), due to a reduction in net hepatic glycogenolysis (p<0.05), with no effect on gluconeogenic flux compared to PBO. In addition, glucose utilization (p<0.05) and the suppression of lipolysis were increased (p<0.05) in HSD-I compared to PBO. These data suggest that inhibition of 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of diseases characterized by insulin resistance and excessive hepatic glucose production.
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) involves in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes by generating active glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone) that are strong inhibitors of angiogenesis. However, mechanism of 11β-HSD1 gene expression and its relationship to adipose angiogenesis is largely unknown. To address this issue, we examined 11β-HSD1 expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice during weight gain, and investigated the gene regulation by hypoxia in vitro. 11β-HSD1 mRNA was reduced in the adipose tissues during weight gain in DIO mice and the reduction was associated with an elevated expression of angiogenic factors. In vitro, 11β-HSD1 expression was induced in mRNA and protein by hypoxia. Of the two transcription factors activated by hypoxia, the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) enhanced, but the hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) reduced 11β-HSD1 expression. 11β-HSD1 expression was elevated by NF-kB in epididymal fat of aP2-p65 mice. The hypoxia-induced 11β-HSD1 expression was attenuated by NF-kB inactivation in p65 deficient cells, but enhanced by HIF-1 inactivation in HIF-1α null cells. These data suggest that 11β-HSD1 expression is up-regulated by NF-kB and down-regulated by HIF-1α. During AT expansion in DIO mice, the reduction of 11β-HSD1 expression may reflect a dominant HIF-1a activity in the adipose tissue. This study suggests that NF-kB may mediate the inflammatory cytokine signal to up-regulate11β-HSD1 expression.
Controversy exists as to whether endogenous cortisol production is associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance in humans. We therefore quantified cortisol production and clearance rates, abdominal fat depots, insulin sensitivity, and adipocyte gene expression in a cohort of 24 men. To test whether the relationships found are a consequence rather than a cause of obesity, eight men from this larger group were studied before and after weight loss. Daily cortisol production rates (CPR), free cortisol levels (FC), and metabolic clearance rates (MCR) were measured by stable isotope methodology and 24-h sampling; intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous fat (SQF) by computed tomography; insulin sensitivity (S(I)) by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; and adipocyte 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11beta-HSD-1) gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR from subcutaneous biopsies. Increased CPR and FC correlated with increased IAF, but not SQF, and with decreased S(I). Increased 11beta-HSD-1 gene expression correlated with both IAF and SQF and with decreased S(I). With weight loss, CPR, FC, and MCR did not change compared with baseline; however, with greater loss in body fat than lean mass during weight loss, both CPR and FC increased proportionally to final fat mass and IAF and 11beta-HSD-1 decreased compared with baseline. These data support a model in which increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in men promotes selective visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance and may promote weight regain after diet-induced weight loss, whereas 11beta-HSD-1 gene expression in SQF is a consequence rather than cause of adiposity.
The 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD) type 1 (11betaHSD1) enzyme is an NADP+-dependent oxidoreductase, usually reductase, of major glucocorticoids. The NAD+-dependent type 2 (11betaHSD2) enzyme is an oxidase that inactivates cortisol and corticosterone, conferring extrinsic specificity of the mineralocorticoid receptor for aldosterone. We reported that addition of a reducing agent to renal homogenates results in the monomerization of 11betaHSD2 dimers and a significant increase in NAD+-dependent corticosterone conversion. Estrogenic effects on expression, dimerization, and activity of the kidney 11betaHSD1 and -2 enzymes are described herein. Renal 11betaHSD1 mRNA and protein expressions were decreased to very low levels by estradiol (E2) treatment of both intact and castrated male rats; testosterone had no effect. NADP+-dependent enzymatic activity of renal homogenates from E2-treated rats measured under nonreducing conditions was less than that of homogenates from intact animals. Addition of 10 mM DTT to aliquots from these same homogenates abrogated the difference in NADP+-dependent activity between E2-treated and control rats. In contrast, 11betaHSD2 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly increased by E2 treatment. There was a marked increase in the number of juxtamedullary proximal tubules stained by the antibody against 11betaHSD2 after the administration of E2. Notwithstanding, neither the total corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone excreted in the urine nor their ratio differed between E2- and vehicle-treated rats. NAD+-dependent enzymatic activity in the absence or presence of a reducing agent demonstrated that the increase in 11betaHSD2 protein was not associated with an increase in in vitro activity unless the dimers were reduced to monomers.
The inhibitory actions of 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (PGJ(2)) on inflammatory gene expression have been attributed to the ability of this prostaglandin to inhibit the activation of NF-kappaB. In this study, we have identified an additional signaling pathway sensitive to inhibition by PGJ(2). We show that PGJ(2) inhibits interferon (IFN)-gamma-stimulated phosphorylation and DNA-binding activity of STAT1. The inhibitory actions on STAT1 phosphorylation are first apparent after a 1- to 2-h incubation and are maximal after a 6-h incubation with PGJ(2), and they correlate with the expression of heat shock protein (HSP)70 in islets. In previous studies, we have correlated the inhibitory actions of PGJ(2) on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NF-kappaB activation in response to IL-1 with the increased expression of HSP70. Using overexpression and antisense depletion, we provide evidence that HSP70 does not mediate the inhibitory actions of PGJ(2) on IL-1-induced NF-kappaB or IFN-gamma-induced STAT1 activation or cytokine-stimulated iNOS expression by beta-cells. Last, we show that the inhibitory actions of a short 6-h pulse with PGJ(2) on IL-1 plus IFN-gamma-stimulated iNOS expression and NO production by beta-cells are persistent for extended periods (< or =48 h). These findings suggest that PGJ(2) inhibits multiple cytokine-signaling pathways (IL-1 and IFN-gamma), that the inhibitory actions are persistent for extended periods, and that increased HSP70 expression correlates with, but does not appear to mediate, the inhibitory actions of PGJ(2) on IL-1 and IFN-gamma signaling in beta-cells.
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is predominantly produced in the stomach. It has been reported that endogenous ghrelin levels are increased by fasting and decreased immediately after feeding, and that fasting-induced ghrelin release is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. However, the mechanisms of plasma ghrelin decrement after feeding are poorly understood. Here, we studied the control of ghrelin secretion using ghrelin-producing cell lines, and found that these cells express high levels of mRNA encoding G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120). Addition of GW9508 (a GPR120 chemical agonist) and α-linolenic acid (a natural ligand for GPR120) inhibited the secretion of ghrelin by approximately 50 % and 70 %, respectively. However, the expression levels of preproghrelin and ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) mRNAs were not influenced by GW9508. In contrast, the expression levels of prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) were significantly decreased by GW9508 incubation. Moreover, we observed that the inhibitory effect of GW9508 on ghrelin secretion was blocked by a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the sequence of GPR120. Further, pretreatment with GW9508 blocked the effect of the norepinephrine (NE)-induced ghrelin elevation in ghrelin cell lines. In addition, we showed that GW9508 inhibited ghrelin secretion via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity in ghrelin cell lines. Finally, we found that GW9508 decreased plasma ghrelin levels in mice. These results suggest that the decrease of ghrelin secretion after feeding is partially induced by long chain fatty acids that act directly on gastric GPR120-expressing ghrelin cells.
Although the majority of children with isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency have a good growth response to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), the use of this therapeutic agent is limited by its very short half-life. Indeed, we have shown that, in mice with GHRH gene ablation (GHRH knockout; GHRHKO), even twice-daily injections of a GHRH analog are unable to normalize growth. CJC-1295 is a synthetic GHRH analog that selectively and covalently binds to endogenous albumin after injection, thereby extending its half-life and duration of action. We report the effects of CJC-1295 administration in GHRHKO animals. Three groups of 1-wk-old GHRHKO mice were treated for 5 wk with 2 microg of CJC-1295 at intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h. Placebo-treated GHRHKO mice and mice heterozygous for the GHRHKO allele served as controls. GHRHKO animals receiving daily doses of CJC-1295 exhibited normal body weight and length. Mice treated every 48 and 72 h reached higher body weight and length than placebo-treated animals, without full growth normalization. Femur and tibia length remained normal in animals treated every 24 and 48 h. Relative lean mass and subcutaneous fat mass were normal in all treated groups. CJC-1295 caused an increase in total pituitary RNA and GH mRNA, suggesting that proliferation of somatotroph cells had occurred, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry images. These findings demonstrate that treatment with once-daily administration of CJC-1295 is able to maintain normal body composition and growth in GHRHKO mice. The same dose is less effective when administered every 48 or 72 h.
A possible association between glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs and incidences of pancreatitis has been suggested based on clinical studies. In male and female diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, we investigated the effects of continuous administration of liraglutide and exenatide on biochemical [lipase, pancreatic amylase (P-amylase)] and histopathological markers of pancreatitis. Male and female ZDF rats were dosed for 13 wk with liraglutide (0.4 or 1.0 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) sc once daily) or exenatide (0.25 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) sc, Alzet osmotic minipumps). P-amylase and lipase plasma activity were measured, and an extended histopathological and stereological (specific cell mass and proliferation rate) evaluation of the exocrine and the endocrine pancreas was performed. Expectedly, liraglutide and exenatide lowered blood glucose and Hb A(1c) in male and female ZDF rats, whereas β-cell mass and proliferation rate were increased with greatly improved blood glucose control. Whereas neither analog affected lipase activity, small increases in P-amylase activity were observed in animals treated with liraglutide and exenatide. However, concurrent or permanent increases in lipase and P-amylase activity were never observed. Triglycerides were lowered by both GLP-1 analogs. The qualitative histopathological findings did not reveal adverse effects of liraglutide. The findings were mainly minimal in severity and focal in distribution. Similarly, the quantitative stereological analyses revealed no effects of liraglutide or exenatide on overall pancreas weight or exocrine and duct cell mass or proliferation. The present study demonstrates that, in overtly diabetic male and female ZDF rats, prolonged exposure to GLP-1 receptor agonists does not affect biochemical or histopathological markers of pancreatitis, and whereas both exenatide and liraglutide increase β-cell mass, they have no effect on the exocrine pancreas. However, clinical outcome studies and studies using primate tissues and/or studies in nonhuman primates are needed to further assess human risk.
In two groups of five adults, each adapted to two different dietary regimens for 6 days, the metabolic fate of dietary [1-(13)C]leucine was examined when ingested either together with a mixture of free amino acids simulating casein (extrinsically labeled; condition A), along with the intact casein (extrinsically labeled; condition B), or bound to casein (intrinsically labeled; condition C). Fed state leucine oxidation (Ox), nonoxidative leucine disposal (NOLD), protein breakdown, and splanchnic uptake have been compared using an 8-h oral [1-(13)C]leucine and intravenous [(2)H(3)]leucine tracer protocol while giving eight equal hourly mixed meals. Lower leucine Ox, increased NOLD, and net protein synthesis were found with condition C compared with condition A (19.3 vs. 24.9; 77 vs. 55.8; 18.9 vs. 12.3 micromol. kg(-1). 30 min(-1); P < 0.05). Ox and NOLD did not differ between conditions B and C. Splanchnic leucine uptake calculated from [1-(13)C]- and [(2)H(3)]leucine plasma enrichments was between 24 and 35%. These findings indicate that the form in which leucine is consumed affects its immediate metabolic fate and retention by the body; the implications of these findings for the tracer balance technique and estimation of amino acid requirements are discussed.
Hepatic glucose synthesis from glycogen, glycerol, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was measured in five overnight-fasted subjects by (1)H, (2)H, and (13)C NMR analysis of blood glucose, urinary acetaminophen glucuronide, and urinary phenylacetylglutamine after administration of [1,6-(13)C(2)]glucose, (2)H(2)O, and [U-(13)C(3)]propionate. This combination of tracers allows three separate elements of hepatic glucose production (GP) to be probed simultaneously in a single study: 1) endogenous GP, 2) the contribution of glycogen, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), and glycerol to GP, and 3) flux through PEP carboxykinase, pyruvate recycling, and the TCA cycle. Isotope-dilution measurements of [1,6-(13)C(2)] glucose by (1)H and (13)C NMR indicated that GP in 16-h-fasted humans was 10.7 +/- 0.9 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1). (2)H NMR spectra of monoacetone glucose (derived from plasma glucose) provided the relative (2)H enrichment at glucose H-2, H-5, and H-6S, which, in turn, reflects the contribution of glycogen, PEP, and glycerol to total GP (5.5 +/- 0.7, 4.8 +/- 1.0, and 0.4 +/- 0.3 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1), respectively). Interestingly, (13)C NMR isotopomer analysis of phenylacetylglutamine and acetaminophen glucuronide reported different values for PEP carboxykinase flux (68.8 +/- 9.8 vs. 37.5 +/- 7.9 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1)), PEP recycling flux (59.1 +/- 9.8 vs. 27.8 +/- 6.8 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1)), and TCA cycle flux (10.9 +/- 1.4 vs. 5.4 +/- 1.4 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1)). These differences may reflect zonation of propionate metabolism in the liver.
Low-grade inflammation associated with Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) is postulated to exacerbate insulin resistance. We report that serum levels, as well as IL-13 secreted from cultured skeletal muscle, is reduced in T2DM versus normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects. IL-13 exposure increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake, oxidation and glycogen synthesis via an Akt-dependent mechanism. Expression of microRNA let-7a and let-7d, direct translational repressors of the IL-13 gene, was increased in skeletal muscle from T2DM patients. Overexpression of let-7a and let-7d in cultured myotubes reduced IL-13 secretion. Furthermore, basal glycogen synthesis was reduced in cultured myotubes exposed to an IL-13 neutralizing antibody. Thus, IL-13 is synthesized and released by skeletal muscle through a mechanism involving let-7 and this effect is attenuated in skeletal muscle from insulin resistant T2DM patients. In conclusion, IL-13 plays an autocrine role in skeletal muscle to increase glucose uptake and metabolism, suggesting a role in glucose homeostasis in metabolic disease.
For estimating the oxidation rates (Rox) of glucose and other substrates by use of (13)C-labeled tracers, we obtained correction factors to account for label dilution in endogenous bicarbonate pools and TCA cycle exchange reactions. Fractional recoveries of (13)C label in respiratory gases were determined during 225 min of rest and 90 min of leg cycle ergometry at 45 and 65% peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak)) after continuous infusions of [1-(13)C]acetate, [2-(13)C]acetate, or NaH(13)CO(3). In parallel trials, [6,6-(2)H]glucose and [1-(13)C]glucose were given. Experiments were conducted after an overnight fast with exercise commencing 12 h after the last meal. During the transition from rest to exercise, CO(2) production increased (P < 0.05) in an intensity-dependent manner. Significant differences were observed in the fractional recoveries of (13)C label as (13)CO(2) at rest (NaH(13)CO(3), 77.5 +/- 2.8%; [1-(13)C]acetate, 49.8 +/- 2.4%; [2-(13)C]acetate, 26.1 +/- 1.4%). During exercise, fractional recoveries of (13)C label from [1-(13)C]acetate, [2-(13)C]acetate, and NaH(13)CO(3) were increased compared with rest. Magnitudes of label recoveries during both exercise intensities were tracer specific (NaH(13)CO(3), 93%; [1-(13)C]acetate, 80%; [2-(13)C]acetate, 65%). Use of an acetate-derived correction factor for estimating glucose oxidation resulted in Rox values in excess (P < 0.05) of glucose rate of disappearance during hard exercise. We conclude that, after an overnight fast: 1) recovery of (13)C label as (13)CO(2) from [(13)C]acetate is decreased compared with bicarbonate; 2) the position of (13)C acetate label affects carbon dilution estimations; 3) recovery of (13)C label increases in the transition from rest to exercise in an isotope-dependent manner; and 4) application of an acetate correction factor in glucose oxidation measurements results in oxidation rates in excess of glucose disappearance during exercise at 65% of VO(2 peak). Therefore, bicarbonate, not acetate, correction factors are advocated for estimating glucose oxidation from carbon tracers in exercising men.