# AIP Conference Proceedings

Publications
Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

Invariant distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) phase elucidates scaling symmetry in the cochlea. Below some low-frequency boundary, DPOAE phase slope steepens. The origin of this break in phase invariance is not clear. Stimulus frequency (SF)OAE delays computed from the slope of phase also manifest discontinuities at low frequencies, though the relationship between the breaking of cochlear scaling as defined by SFOAE and DPOAE metrics has not been examined. In this study, OAEs were recorded in normal-hearing human adults to probe cochlear scaling and its breaking and to examine the correspondence between two OAE metrics of scaling. Results indicate: (1) the apical break in DPOAE phase invariance cannot be explained by contributions from the reflection-source component; (2) DPOAE phase signals a break from scaling near 1.5 kHz and (3) DPOAE and SFOAE metrics of cochlear scaling produce phase discontinuities within approximately one-quarter octave of each other and show comparable rates of breaking, suggesting a common underlying origin.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a heterogeneous and multi-factorial disease characterized by the progressive loss of articular cartilage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging has been established as an accurate technique to assess cartilage damage through both cartilage morphology (volume and thickness) and cartilage water mobility (Spin-lattice relaxation, T2). The Osteoarthritis Initiative, OAI, is a large scale serial assessment of subjects at different stages of OA including those with pre-clinical symptoms. The electronic availability of the comprehensive data collected as part of the initiative provides an unprecedented opportunity to discover new relationships in complex diseases such as OA. However, imaging data, which provides the most accurate non-invasive assessment of OA, is not directly amenable for data mining. Changes in morphometry and relaxivity with OA disease are both complex and subtle, making manual methods extremely difficult. This chapter focuses on the image analysis techniques to automatically localize the differences in morphometry and relaxivity changes in different population sub-groups (normal and OA subjects segregated by age, gender, and race). The image analysis infrastructure will enable automatic extraction of cartilage features at the voxel level; the ultimate goal is to integrate this infrastructure to discover relationships between the image findings and other clinical features.

A hard X‐ray full field microscope from Xradia Inc. has been installed at SSRL on a 54‐pole wiggler end station at beam line 6‐2. It has been optimized to operate from 5–14 keV with resolution as high as 30 nm. High quality images are achieved using a vertical beam stabilizer and condenser scanner with high efficiency zone plates with 30 nm outermost zone width. The microscope has been used in Zernike phase contrast, available at 5.4 keV and 8 keV, as well as absorption contrast to image a variety of biological, environmental and materials samples. Calibration of the X‐ray attenuation with crystalline apatite enabled quantification of bone density of plate‐like and rod‐like regions of mouse bone trabecula. 3D tomography of individual lacuna revealed the surrounding cell canaliculi and processes. 3D tomography of chiral branched PbSe nanowires showed orthogonal branches around a central nanowire.

Fluorescence spectroscopy is an evolving technology that can rapidly differentiate between benign and malignant tissues. These differences are thought to be due to endogenous fluorophores, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide, and tryptophan, and absorbers such as β‐carotene and hemoglobin. This is a non‐invasive diagnostic tool that can identify diseased tissue sites in situ and in real time could have a major impact on the detection and treatment of cancer. This study evaluates the utility of autofluorescence and spectroscopy to distinguish tissue transformation associated with the malignant change in two types of human cancer—colorectal and breast cancer—Fluorescence spectra were obtained using a high‐sensitivity fiber optic spectrometer and using two types of excitation sources, Argon laser with an emission at wavelength 488 nm and Xenon lamp. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity changes from normal to malignant tissue samples may be explained in terms of simple collagen, oxidized riboflavins and NAD(P)H intensity changes. In the future, improving our understanding of the biological changes that can be assessed using spectroscopy will not only improve optical techniques but also provide new tools to better understand cancer biology.

This paper reviews the history and principles of Monte Carlo simulation, emphasizing techniques commonly used in the simulation of medical imaging.

An introduction to Monte Carlo simulation of emission tomography. This paper reviews the history and principles of Monte Carlo simulation, then applies these principles to emission tomography using the public domain simulation package SimSET (a Simulation System for Emission Tomography) as an example. Finally, the paper discusses how the methods are modified for X-ray computed tomography and radiotherapy simulations.

We describe a fundamentally different approach to MRI referred to as SWIFT (sweep imaging with Fourier transformation). SWIFT exploits time-shared RF excitation and signal acquisition, allowing capture of signal from spins with extremely short transverse relaxation time, T(2)*. The MR signal is acquired in gaps inserted into a broadband frequency-swept excitation pulse, which results in acquisition delays of only 1 - 2 microseconds. In SWIFT, 3D k-space is sampled in a radial manner, whereby one projection of the object is acquired in the gaps of each frequency-swept pulse, allowing a repetition time (TR) on the order of the pulse length (typically 1 - 3 milliseconds). Since the orientation of consecutive projections varies in a smooth manner (i.e., only small increments in the values of the x, y, z gradients occur from view to view), SWIFT scanning is close to inaudible and is insensitive to gradient timing errors and eddy currents. SWIFT images can be acquired in scan times similar to and sometimes faster than conventional 3D gradient echo techniques. With its ability to capture signals from ultrashort T(2)* spins, SWIFT promises to expand the role of MRI in areas of research where MRI previously played no or negligible role. In this article, we show wood and tooth images obtained with SWIFT as examples of materials with ultrashort T(2)*. Early experience suggests SWIFT can play a role in materials science and porous media research.

In this work, we explore the connections between parameter fitting and statistical thermodynamics using the maxent principle of Jaynes as a starting point. In particular, we show how signal averaging may be described by a suitable one particle partition function, modified for the case of a variable number of particles. These modifications lead to an entropy that is extensive in the number of measurements in the average. Systematic error may be interpreted as a departure from ideal gas behavior. In addition, we show how to combine measurements from different experiments in an unbiased way in order to maximize the entropy of simultaneous parameter fitting. We suggest that fit parameters may be interpreted as generalized coordinates and the forces conjugate to them may be derived from the system partition function. From this perspective, the parameter fitting problem may be interpreted as a process where the system (spectrum) does work against internal stresses (non-optimum model parameters) to achieve a state of minimum free energy/maximum entropy. Finally, we show how the distribution function allows us to define a geometry on parameter space, building on previous work[1, 2]. This geometry has implications for error estimation and we outline a program for incorporating these geometrical insights into an automated parameter fitting algorithm.

Magnetic fields can be used to direct magnetically susceptible nanoparticles to disease locations: to infections, blood clots, or tumors. Any single magnet always attracts (pulls) ferro‐ or para‐magnetic particles towards it. External magnets have been used to pull therapeutics into tumors near the skin in animals and human clinical trials. Implanting magnetic materials into patients (a feasible approach in some cases) has been envisioned as a means of reaching deeper targets. Yet there are a number of clinical needs, ranging from treatments of the inner ear, to antibiotic‐resistant skin infections and cardiac arrhythmias, which would benefit from an ability to magnetically “inject”, or push in, nanomedicines. We develop, analyze, and experimentally demonstrate a novel, simple, and effective arrangement of just two permanent magnets that can magnetically push particles. Such a system might treat diseases of the inner ear; diseases which intravenously injected or orally administered treatments cannot reach due to the blood‐brain barrier.

The RHIC spin program requires 2×10<sup>11</sup>proton/bunch with 70% polarization. As the injector to RHIC, AGS is the bottleneck for preserving polarization: there is no space for a full snake to overcome numerous depolarizing resonances. An ac dipole and a partial snake have been used to preserve beam polarization in the past few years. Two helical snakes have been built and installed in the AGS. With careful setup of optics at injection and along the ramp, this combination can eliminate all depolarizing resonances encountered during acceleration. This paper presents the setup and preliminary results.

Since the requirements for the S/D extensions for future devices become more and more severe with respect to activation and vertical abruptness, a huge effort has been done to develop ultra-fast annealing techniques such as laser annealing. Due to the fact that only the surface layers are heated, the Si wafer serves as a heat sink. Hence, extremely fast cooling rates can be obtained resulting in a high activation and limited diffusion of the dopants. We present a preliminary study on the activation of n- and p-type junction implants by sub-melt laser annealing. The influence of the pre-amorphization depth, the laser annealing temperature and other process parameters on the activation has been investigated. Sheet resistance and junction depth measurements reveal good activation with minimal diffusion

In $\R^d$, for any dimension $d\geq 1$, expansions of self-intersection local times of fractional Brownian motions with arbitrary Hurst coefficients in $(0,1)$ are presented. The expansions are in terms of Wick powers of white noises (corresponding to multiple Wiener integrals), being well-defined in the sense of generalized white noise functionals. Comment: 17 pages

Most simulations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to date either focus on the interplanetary propagation of a giant plasma "blob" without paying too much attention to its origin and to the formation process or they focus on the complex evolution of the coronal magnetic field due to (sub-)photospheric motions which result in an eruption. Here, we present global simulations of CMEs where coronal motions are used to produce a realistic evolution of the coronal magnetic field and cause an eruption. We focus on active region 10069, which produced a number of eruptions in late August 2002, including the August 24, 2002 CME - a fast (~2000 km/s) eruption originating from W81-, as well as a slower eruption on August 22, 2002 (originating from W62). Using a three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of these ejections with the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF), we show how a realistic initiation mechanism enables us to study the deflection of the CME in the corona and in the heliosphere. Reconnection of the erupting magnetic field with that of neighboring streamers and active regions modify the solar connectivity of the field lines connecting to Earth and change the expected solar energetic particle fluxes. Comparing the results at 1 AU of our simulations with in situ observations by the ACE spacecraft, we propose an alternate solar origin for the shock wave observed at L1 on August 26. Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, refereed proceedings for Solar Wind 12

Aims. We carried out a radial-velocity survey to search for planets around metal-poor stars. In this paper we report the discovery of two planets around HIP 11952, a metal-poor star with [Fe/H]= -1.9 that belongs to our target sample. Methods. Radial velocity variations of HIP 11952 were monitored systematically with FEROS at the 2.2 m telescope located at the ESO La Silla observatory from August 2009 until January 2011. We used a cross-correlation technique to measure the stellar radial velocities (RV). Results. We detected a long-period RV variation of 290 d and a short-period one of 6.95 d. The spectroscopic analysis of the stellar activity reveals a stellar rotation period of 4.8 d. The Hipparcos photometry data shows intra-day variabilities, which give evidence for stellar pulsations. Based on our analysis, the observed RV variations are most likely caused by the presence of unseen planetary companions. Assuming a primary mass of 0.83 M\odot, we computed minimum planetary masses of 0.78 MJup for the inner and 2.93 MJup for the outer planet. The semi-major axes are a1 = 0.07 AU and a2 = 0.81 AU, respectively. Conclusions. HIP 11952 is one of very few stars with [Fe/H]< -1.0 which have planetary companions. This discovery is important to understand planet formation around metal-poor stars

The breakup of 11Be on carbon and lead targets around 70 MeV/nucleon is investigated within a semiclassical framework. The role of the 5/2+ resonance is analyzed in both cases. It induces a narrow peak in the nuclear-induced breakup cross section, while its effect on Coulomb breakup is small. The nuclear interactions between the projectile and the target is responsible for the transition toward this resonant state. The influence of the parametrization of the 10Be-n potential that simulates 11Be is also addressed. The breakup calculation is found to be dependent on the potential choice. This leads us to question the reliability of this technique to extract spectroscopic factors.

The linear optical absorption spectra of three isomers of planar boron cluster B$_{13}$ are calculated using time-dependent spin-polarized density functional approach. The geometries of these cluster are optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G* level of theory. Even though the isomers are almost degenerate, the calculated spectra are quite different, indicating a strong structure-property relationship. Therefore, these computed spectra can be used in the photo-absorption experiments to distinguish between different isomers of a cluster.

We propose the sequential reaction process $^{15}$O($p$,$\gamma)(\beta^{+}$)$^{16}$O as a new pathway to bypass of the $^{15}$O waiting point. This exotic reaction is found to have a surprisingly high cross section, approximately 10$^{10}$ times higher than the $^{15}$O($p$,$\beta^{+}$)$^{16}$O. These cross sections were calculated after precise measurements of energies and widths of the proton-unbound $^{16}$F low lying states, obtained using the H($^{15}$O,p)$^{15}$O reaction. The large $(p,\gamma)(\beta^{+})$ cross section can be understood to arise from the more efficient feeding of the low energy wing of the ground state resonance by the gamma decay. The implications of the new reaction in novae explosions and X-ray bursts are discussed.

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the LHC. In fall 2010, Pb-Pb collisions were recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair, about 14 times higher than the energy achieved in A-A collisions at RHIC. The study of the produced hot and dense matter with an unprecedented energy density allows the characterization of the quark-gluon plasma, the deconfined state of quarks and gluons, predicted by QCD. The study of in-medium partonic energy loss allows insights into the density of the medium and the energy-loss mechanisms. This paper presents results based on inclusive spectra as well as two and more-particle correlations of charged particles. These are well suited to assess in-medium effects, ranging from the suppression of particles (R AA) and away-side jets (IAA) at high pT to longrange phenomena attributed to collective effects like the ridge at low pT . The analysis is discussed and the results are presented in the context of earlier RHIC measurements where appropriate.

We present preliminary results of Non-Photonic Electron (NPE) production, NPE-hadron azimuthal correlation as well as NPE elliptic flow studies at midrapidity using a data set with high statistics and low photon conversion background from $Au+Au$ collisions at $\sqrt {S_{NN}} = 200$ GeV collected at RHIC in Run 2010.

This paper reports on accomplishments in 2004 in (1) development of Stirling-convertor CFD models at NASA Glenn and via a NASA grant, (2) a Stirling regenerator-research effort being conducted via a NASA grant (a follow-on effort to an earlier DOE contract), and (3) a regenerator-microfabrication contract for development of a "next-generation Stirling regenerator." Cleveland State University is the lead organization for all three grant/contractual efforts, with the University of Minnesota and Gedeon Associates as subcontractors. Also, the Stirling Technology Company and Sunpower, Inc. are both involved in all three efforts, either as funded or unfunded participants. International Mezzo Technologies of Baton Rouge, Louisiana is the regenerator fabricator for the regenerator-microfabrication contract. Results of the efforts in these three areas are summarized.

Correlation is a common technique for the detection of shifts. Its generalization to the multidimensional geometric correlation in Clifford algebras additionally contains information with respect to rotational misalignment. It has been proven a useful tool for the registration of vector fields that differ by an outer rotation. In this paper we proof that applying the geometric correlation iteratively has the potential to detect the total rotational misalignment for linear two-dimensional vector fields. We further analyze its effect on general analytic vector fields and show how the rotation can be calculated from their power series expansions.

The EDEL WEISS experiment is presently using for direct WIMP detection a 320g heat-and-ionization cryogenic Ge detector operated in a low-background environment in the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM). This detector presents an increase of more than 4 times the mass of previous detectors. Calibrations of this detector are used to determine its energy resolution and fiducial volume, and to optimize the detector design for the 1 kg phase of the EDEL WEISS-I experiment. Analysis of the calibrations and characteristics of a first series of 320g-detectors are presented.

We perform a coupled channel calculation of the $DD^*$ and $c\bar c$ sectors in the framework of a constituent quark model. The interaction for the $DD^*$ states is obtained using the Resonant Group Method (RGM) and the underlying quark interaction model. The coupling with the two quark system is performed using the $^3 P_0$ model. The X(3872) is found as a molecular state with a sizable $c\bar c$ component. A comparison with Belle and BaBar data has been done, finding a good agreement. Other possible molecular molecular states are discussed. Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, Proceedings to the Hadron 2009 - XIII International Conference on Hadron Spectroscopy, Florida State University (USA)

Using the SIT (Suprathermal Ion Telescope) instrument on STEREO-A we have examined the abundance of the rare isotope 3He during the rising activity phase of solar cycle 24 between January 2010 and December 2011. We have identified six solar energetic particle (SEP) events with enormous abundance enhancements of 3He (3He/4He >1). The events were short lasting, typically ~0.5-1 day and most of them occurred in association with high-speed solar wind streams and corotating interaction regions. With one exception the events were not associated with ~100 keV solar electron intensity increases. The events showed also enhanced NeS/O and Fe/O ratios. The solar images indicate that the events were generally associated with the active regions located near a coronal hole.

Room temperature neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the polar transverse optic (TO) phonon mode in the cubic relaxor Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) reveal anomalous behavior, similar to that recently observed in Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)0.92Ti0.08O3, in which the optic branch appears to drop precipitously into the acoustic branch at a finite value of the momentum transfer q = 0.23 Å−1, measured from the zone center. By contrast, a recent neutron study indicates that PMN exhibits a normal TO phonon branch at much higher temperature (800 K). We thus speculate that this unusual feature is common to all relaxor materials at low temperatures, and is the result of the presence of nanometer-scale polarized domains in the crystal that form below a temperature Td, which effectively prevent the propagation of long wavelength (q = 0) phonons.

We review some of the most recent work on confinement in 4d gauge theories with a massive scalar field (dilaton). Emphasis is put on the derivation of confining analytical solutions to the Coulomb problem versus dilaton effective couplings to gauge terms. It is shown that these effective theories can be relevant to model quark confinement and may shed some light on confinement mechanism. Moreover, the study of interquark potential, derived from Dick Model, in the heavy meson sector proves that phenomenological investigation of this mechanism is more than justified and deserves more efforts.

Multi-Higgs doublet models appear in many interesting extensions of the standard model (SM). But they suffer from Higgs-mediated flavor changing neutral current (FCNC) problem which is very generic. In this talk, I describe that this problem can be resolved or mitigated if we introduce local $U(1)_H$ Higgs flavor gauge symmetry. As examples, I describe chiral $U(1)_{H}$ models where the right-handed up-type quarks also carry $U(1)_H$ charges and discuss the top forward-backward asymmetry (FBA) and $B\rightarrow D^{(*)} \tau \nu$ puzzle. Next I describe the two-Higgs doublet models where the usual $Z_2$ symmetry is implemented to $U(1)_H$ and show how the Type-I and Type-II models are extended. One possible extension of Type-II has the same fermion contents with the leptophobic $E_6$ $Z^{'}$ model by Rosner, and I discuss the neutrino sector in this model briefly.

In this work, we present our theoretical results for the equation of state and the phonon dispersions of MnAs, as well as the Mn concentration dependence of both the lattice parameter and the phonon frequencies of the cubic GaMnAs alloys. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results whenever this comparison is possible. Based on the obtained results, the lattice constants and the phonon frequencies of the alloys do not obey the Vegard rule. Comment: 2 pages, 3 figures, 1 table, accepted for publication in the Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors

We present a theoretical study of the optical absorption spectrum of small boron‐nitride and carbon nanotubes using time‐dependent density‐functional theory and the random phase approximation. Both for C and BN tubes, the absorption of light polarized perpendicular to the tube‐axis is strongly suppressed due to local field effects. Since BN‐tubes are wide band‐gap insulators, they only absorb in the ultra‐violet energy regime, independently of chirality and diameter. In comparison with the spectra of the single C and BN‐sheets, the tubes display additional fine‐structure which stems from the (quasi‐) one‐dimensionality of the tubes and sensitively depends on the chirality and tube diameter. This fine structure can provide additional information for the assignment of tube indices in high resolution optical absorption spectroscopy.

For the past several years, a major effort has been undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop the transport code MCNP6, the latest LANL Monte-Carlo transport code representing a merger and improvement of MCNP5 and MCNPX. We emphasize a description of the latest developments of MCNP6 at higher energies to improve its reliability in calculating rare-isotope production, high-energy cumulative particle production, and a gamut of reactions important for space-radiation shielding, cosmic-ray propagation, and accelerator applications. We present several examples of validation and verification of MCNP6 compared to a wide variety of intermediate- and high-energy experimental data on reactions induced by photons, mesons, nucleons, and nuclei at energies from tens of MeV to about 1 TeV/nucleon, and compare to results from other modern simulation tools.

We show that in the equatorial plane of marginally stable thick discs (with uniformly distributed specific angular momentum l(r, θ) = const) the orbital velocity relative to the LNRF has a positive radial gradient in the vicinity of black holes with a > 0.99979. The change of sign of the velocity gradient occurs just above the center of the thick toroidal discs, in the region where stable circular geodesics of the Kerr spacetime are allowed. The global character of the phenomenon is given in terms of topology changes of the von Zeipel surfaces (equivalent to equivelocity surfaces in the tori with l(r, θ) = const). Toroidal von Zeipel surfaces exist around the circle corresponding to the minimum of the equatorial LNRF velocity profile, indicating a possibility of development of some vertical instabilities in those parts of marginally stable tori with positive gradient of the LNRF velocity. Eventual oscillatory frequencies connected with the phenomenon are given in a coordinate‐independent form.

Matter makes a transition from non-relativistic to relativistic regime, as it falls onto a black hole. We employ a relativistic equation of state, abbreviated as RC, to study multi-species fluid flow around black holes. We show that pair-plasma fluid around a black hole is thermally not relativistic. In order to make it relativistic, a finite baryon loading is necessary. As a consequence of this, pair-plasma flow do not suffer centrifugal pressure driven shock in accretion. However, fluid with finite baryon content may undergo shock transition.

KM3NeT is a future multi-cubic-kilometre water Cherenkov neutrino telescope currently entering a first construction phase. It will be located in the Mediterranean Sea and comprise about 600 vertical structures called detection units. Each of these detection units has a length of several hundred metres and is anchored to the sea bed on one side and held taut by a buoy on the other side. The detection units are thus subject to permanent movement due to sea currents. Modules holding photosensors and additional equipment are equally distributed along the detection units. The relative positions of the photosensors has to be known with an uncertainty below 20 cm in order to achieve the necessary precision for neutrino astronomy. These positions can be determined with an acoustic positioning system: dedicated acoustic emitters located at known positions and acoustic receivers along each detection unit. This article describes the approach to combine an acoustic receiver with the photosensors inside one detection module using a common power supply and data readout. The advantage of this approach lies in a reduction of underwater connectors and module configurations as well as in the compactification of the detection units integrating the auxiliary devices necessary for their successful operation.

Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

We show that adsorption of one lithium atom to a polyacenes, i.e. chains of linearly fused benzene rings, will cause this chain to be slightly deformed. If we adsorb a second identical atom on the opposite side of the same ring, this deformation is dramatically enhanced despite of the fact, that a symmetric configuration seems possible. We argue, that this may be due to an instability of the Jahn-Teller type possibly indeed to a Peierls instability.

Advanced electromagnetic potentials are indigenous to the classical Maxwell theory. Generally however they are deemed undesirable and are forcibly excluded, destroying the theory’s inherent time‐symmetry. We investigate the reason for this, pointing out that it is not necessary and in some cases is counter‐productive. We then focus on the direct‐action theory in which the advanced and retarded contributions are present symmetrically, with no opportunity supplement the particular integral solution of the wave equation with an arbitrary complementary function. One then requires a plausible explanation for the observed broken symmetry that, commonly, is understood cannot be met by the Wheeler‐Feynman mechanism because the necessary boundary condition cannot be satisfied in acceptable cosmologies. We take this opportunity to argue that the boundary condition is already met by all expanding cosmologies simply as a result of cosmological red‐shift. A consequence is that the cosmological and thermodynamic arrows of time can be equated, the direct action version of EM is preferred, and that advanced potentials are ubiquitous.

Mars, with a rich CO2 atmosphere and Titan, with an abundance of hydrocarbons, have both been proposed as models for the atmosphere of early Earth. In the current atmospheres of Mars and Titan, CO2 and hydrocarbons, respectively, may condense to form clouds. In this paper, we explore cloud formation processes in these two very different planetary atmospheres. Under early Martian conditions, infrared scattering by CO2 clouds could have warmed the planet's surface above freezing. However, the radiative effect of the clouds depends strongly on the nucleation and growth kinetics of the cloud particles. We experimentally examine the nucleation and growth of CO2 on water ice under Martian conditions. We find that a critical saturation of S=1.3 is required for nucleation, corresponding to a contact parameter of m=0.95. After nucleation, growth of CO2 proceeds rapidly without a surface kinetic barrier. Using a microphysical cloud model, our data suggest that CO2 clouds are best described as "snow", having a small number of very large particles. Titan's atmosphere may have clouds of ethane and methane and may even support a cycle analogous to the hydrologic cycle on Earth. Alternatively, Titan's atmosphere may be highly supersaturated in organics if no suitable particles are available for nucleation. Titan's organic haze particles, dubbed tholins, may provide a suitable nucleation surface. We have prepared a laboratory sample of tholins and will be performing nucleation experiments of ethane on the tholins.

We compute Zero Point Energy in a spherically symmetric background with the help of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. This last one is regarded as a Sturm-Liouville problem with the cosmological constant considered as the associated eigenvalue. The graviton contribution, at one loop is extracted wit the help of a variational approach together with Gaussian trial functionals. The divergences handled with a zeta function regularization are compared with the results obtained using a Noncommutative Geometry (NCG) and Modified Dispersion Relations (MDR). In both NCG and MDR no renormalization scheme is necessary to remove infinities in contrast to what happens in conventional approaches.

Among presolar materials recovered in meteorites, abundant SiC and Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$ grains of AGB origins were found. They showed records of C, N, O, $^{26}$Al and s-element isotopic ratios that proved invaluable in constraining the nucleosynthesis models for AGB stars \cite{zin,gal}. In particular, when these ratios are measured in SiC grains, they clearly reveal their prevalent origin in cool AGB circumstellar envelopes and provide information on both the local physics and the conditions at the nucleosynthesis site (the H- and He-burning layers deep inside the structure). Among the properties ascertained for the main part of the SiC data (the so-called {\it mainstream} ones), we mention a large range of $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N ratios, extending below the solar value \cite{mar}, and $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C ratios $\gtrsim$ 30. Other classes of grains, instead, display low carbon isotopic ratios ($\gtrsim 10$) and a huge dispersion for N isotopes, with cases of large $^{15}$N excess. In the same grains, isotopes currently feeded by slow neutron captures reveal the characteristic pattern expected from this process at an efficiency slightly lower than necessary to explain the solar main s-process component. Complementary constraints can be found in oxide grains, especially Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$ crystals. Here, the oxygen isotopes and the content in $^{26}$Al are of a special importance for clarifying the partial mixing processes that are known to affect evolved low-mass stars. Successes in modeling the data, as well as problems in explaining some of the mentioned isotopic ratios through current nucleosynthesis models are briefly outlined.

The AGILE astrophysics mission planned to be operational in 2003 will significantly contribute to the study of Gamma-Ray Bursts. AGILE is equipped with state-of-the-art imaging Silicon detectors in the 10-40 keV and 30 MeV-50 GeV ranges. In addition, also a CsI Mini-Calorimeter can independently detect transient events. Among the instrument characteristics most useful to GRB science we mention: (1) the excellent positioning and sensitivity at large off-axis angles; (2) the very small instrumental deadtimes ( ~ 100 m\sim 100 \mu s above 30 MeV, and ~ 5 m\sim 5 \mu s below 10 MeV); (3) the on-board capability to trigger sky map acquisition in the 10-40 keV range and to transmit burst coordinates within a few seconds from the event. A special GRB search procedure will be implemented on-board for a broad range of trigger timescales from 1 millisecond to 100 seconds. AGILE will be the only Mission dedicated to astrophysics above 30 MeV and operating during the years 2003-2006.

We study concentrated colloidal suspensions, a model system which has a glass transition. The non‐equilibrium nature of the glassy state is most clearly highlighted by aging — the dependence of the system’s properties on the time elapsed since vitrification. Fast laser scanning confocal microscopy allows us to image a colloidal glass and track the particles in three dimensions. We analyze the static structure in terms of tetrahedral packing. We find that while the aging of the suspension clearly affects its dynamics, none of the geometrical quantities associated with tetrahedra change with age.

I recall how the discovery of quasars occurred more than forty years ago, and the strong debates marking out their story. It led to the discovery of Massive Black Holes, which are now known to be present in almost all galaxies, and it opened on a coherent physical model and on a new vision of galaxy evolution. Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures, talk given at the Albert Einstein Century International Conference, held in Paris, France, July 18-22, 2005, submitted to publication in AIP, Eds J.-M. Alimi and A. Fuzfa, replaced to add few references and to correct a mistake

ALICE measured transverse momentum spectra of pi0 and eta mesons via the two photon decay in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt(sNN)=2.76 TeV. NLO pQCD calculations agree with p-p measurements at 0.9 TeV, but overestimate the data at 2.76 and 7 TeV. The nuclear modification factor for neutral pions shows a strong suppression of high-pt particle production in central Pb-Pb collisions. Raw spectra of charged particle jets have been measured in Pb-Pb collisions. Detailed studies of background fluctuations have been performed and will allow us to unfold the spectra even for low momentum cut offs, giving access to soft fragmentation products in quenched jets.

Charm and beauty production are probed with the ALICE experiment at the LHC by studying the single lepton transverse momentum distribution (electrons at mid-rapidity, muons at large-rapidities) and D mesons reconstructed in their hadronic decays. The differential production cross sections in proton proton interactions show a good agreement with perturbative QCD calculations at both sqrt(s) = 2.76 and 7 TeV. The measurements in lead lead reactions at sqrt(s_{NN})= 2.76 TeV evidence a reduction (or suppression) of the production rate at intermediate and high pt in the most central collisions with respect to the rate in proton proton interactions.

We discuss aspects of antihydrogen studies, that relate to particle physics ideas and techniques, within the context of the ALPHA experiment at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility. We review the fundamental physics motivations for antihydrogen studies, and their potential physics reach. We argue that initial spectroscopy measurements, once antihydrogen is trapped, could provide competitive tests of CPT, possibly probing physics at the Planck Scale. We discuss some of the particle detection techniques used in ALPHA. Preliminary results from commissioning studies of a partial system of the ALPHA Si vertex detector are presented, the results of which highlight the power of annihilation vertex detection capability in antihydrogen studies.

The precision measurements of the strong coupling constant, alphas, and its energy-scale dependence carried out at HERA by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations are reviewed. An average value of alphas(Mz) = 0.1186 +- 0.0011 (exp.) +- 0.0050 (th.) is obtained from these measurements. The combined HERA determinations of the energy-scale dependence of alphas clearly show the running of alphas from jet data alone and are in agreement with the running of the coupling as predicted by QCD.

We present an extension of the standard model to dark sector with an unbroken local dark $U(1)_X$ symmetry. Including various singlet portal interactions provided by the standard model Higgs, right-handed neutrinos and kinetic mixing, we show that the model can address most of phenomenological issues (inflation, neutrino mass and mixing, baryon number asymmetry, dark matter, direct/indirect dark matter searches, some scale scale puzzles of the standard collisionless cold dark matter, vacuum stability of the standard model Higgs potential, dark radiation) and be regarded as an alternative to the standard model. The Higgs signal strength is equal to one as in the standard model for unbroken $U(1)_X$ case with a scalar dark matter, but it could be less than one independent of decay channels if the dark matter is a dark sector fermion or if $U(1)_X$ is spontaneously broken, because of a mixing with a new neutral scalar boson in the models.

http://adsabs.harvard.edu//abs/2007AIPC..887..260B COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOR IN NEURAL SYSTEMS: Ninth Granada Lectures. AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 887, pp. 260-260 (2007). This paper explores the role of social integration on altruistic behavior. To this aim, we develop a two-stage experimental protocol based on the classic Dictator Game. In the first stage, we ask a group of 77 undergraduate students in Economics to elicit their social network; in the second stage, each of them has to unilaterally decide over the division of a fixed amount of money to be shared with another anonymous member in the group. Our experimental design allows to control for other variables known to be relevant for altruistic behavior: framing and friendship/acquaintance relations. Consistently with previous research, we find that subjects favor their friends and that framing enhances altruistic behavior. Once we control for these effects, social integration (measured by betweenness, a standard centrality measure in network theory) has a positive effect on giving: the larger social isolation within the group, the more likely it is the emergence of selfish behavior. These results suggest that information on the network structure in which subjects are embedded is crucial to account for their behavior.

Top-cited authors
• Saint Petersburg State University
• Universiti Malaysia Perlis
• University of Barcelona
• Los Alamos National Laboratory
• Cairo University