Published by Academic Journals
Online ISSN: 1684-5315
Distribution of serologically confirmed E. coli isolates and their sources.
One hundred samples from healthy animals were screened for the presence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157: H7 and 17 were positive for EHEC 0157:H7 after confirmation using serology kits. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns showed the isolates to be highly susceptible to the various antibiotics screened with a few showing multiple antibiotic resistance. The plasmid profiles revealed that 8/17 (47%) of the animal isolates harboured detectable plasmids ranging in size from 0.564 kb to >23 kb.
As part of our attempt at isolating and stocking some indigenous microbial species, we isolated a bacterium from a waste dumpsite with appreciable dechlorination activity. 16S rDNA profiling revealed the isolate to be a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the sequence has been deposited in the NCBI nucleotide sequence database (accession number AJ550306). The bacterium utilized 0.1% (v/v) 1, 2-dichloroethane (1, 2 - DCE) as sole source of carbon and attained peak cell density of 6.0 x 107 cfu/ml in 48 h. It also has a proportionate increase in chloride release during this period resulting in the release of 80% free Cl-. The bacterium also had dehalogenase activities against other chlorinated organics such as monochloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, dichloromethane, trichloromethane and tetrachloromethane at pH 7.5 and 9.0. Optimum temperature for dehalogenase activity against 1, 2 - DCE was 35°C.
Plate screening of CMCase in the surrounding of colonies and Congo Red dye staining for displaying clearing zone.
Cellulases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes capable of degrading cellulose to smaller sugar components like glucose units. These enzymes are produced by fungi and bacteria. The aim of this research was to identify a Aspergillus species with over production of endo-β-1,4-glucanase. Properties of endo-β-1,4-glucanase/carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) from a culture filtrate of the Aspergillus sp. was also studied. Aspergillus sp. (R4) was selected as over producer of endo-β-1,4-glucanase among 13 different species. SDS-PAGE activity staining with 1% Congo Red solution revealed three protein bands showing cellulolytic activity. The molecular weights of these proteins were estimated to be approximately 18.5, 23 and 28 kD. Also, conservative region of endo-β-1,4-glucanase coding gene was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplified fragments with 1204 bp and 399 bp were confirmed by restriction pattern with HindII and PstI enzymes.
We report the production and characterization of endo-β-1, 4-glucanase from isolated phytopathogenic bacterium Enterobacter cloacae . The bacterium was grown on different carbon sources including carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 2% Avicel, for the production of endo-1, 4-β –D-glucanases enzyme. E. cloacae produced maximum levels of cellulases after 96 h of fermentation. Higher levels of endoglucanases were produced when microbe was grown on CMC. Endo-1, 4- β-D- glucanase had optimum pH and temperature of 5.8 and 40°C. The enzyme was inactivated by calcium chloride and a reducing agent β-mercaptoethanol.
HPLC chromatograms of methanol extract at 540 nm. 
Mass spectra corresponding to fraction 1. The molecule identified by GC/MS was the 2,6-bis (1.1- dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol. 
The 2, 6-bis (1.1-dimethylethyl)-4 methylphenol extracted from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum leaf tissue. 
2, 6-Bis (1.1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol (BHT) is a synthetic antioxidant used generally for food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. The leaf extract from the halophyte plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, was fractionated by using semi-preparative HPLC. The different fractions were tested for their antioxidant activity using DPPH method. One fraction exhibited a high level of antioxidant activity. The molecule responsible for this antioxidant activity was identified as 2, 6-bis (1.1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol) by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS).
Pie charts for 12 rice chromosomes depicting the proportion of genome introgression in an interspecific rice population derived from CG 14 (donor) and WAB 56-104 (recurrent) parents. The pie charts were plotted from the graphical genotyping analyses outputs; the numbers in the center of the pies correspond to the number of SSR markers used in the study.
Graphical genotypes of the 13 interspecific lines using 130 microsatellite markers. Vertical bars represent the 12 chromosomes of rice, with chromosome number given on the left side of each bar; Each chromosome is segmented by horizontal lines at the marker positions. Numbers on the top of the vertical bars refer to the 13 lines: N1 to N7 refers to NERICA 1 to 7 (e.g., N1: NERICA 1; N7: NERICA 7); line number 30, 69 and 70 had the lowest number of introgressions while line 4, 48 and 58 contained the highest number of introgressions. Refer to Table 1 for pedigree for each line. Legend: A: CG14; B: WAB56-104; H: heterozygote; M: missing data; U: non-parental alleles. 
Score plot of the first two principal components from principal component analysis of the 70 interspecific lines genotyped with 130 microsatellite markers. Numbers in the plot correspond to the names as shown in Table 1. 
NERICA rices are interspecific inbred progeny derived from crosses between Oryza sativa x O. glaberrima. In this study, we evaluated 70 BC2 interspecific lines, developed by crossing a tropical japonica variety (WAB 56-104) as the recurrent parent to an O. glaberrima variety(CG 14) as the donor parent, followed by the use of anther culture to derive doubled haploids (DH) (26 lines) or eight generations of inbreeding to fix the lines (44 lines). Seven of these BC2 derived inbred lines have been released as NERICA 1 - NERICA 7. This study examined the relative contribution of each parent and the extent of genetic differences among these 70 sister lines using 130 well-distributed microsatellite markers which cover 1725 cM of the rice genome. The average proportion of O. sativa recurrent parent genome was 87.4% (1,508 cM), while the observed average proportion of O. glaberrima donor genome was 6.3% (108 cM). Non-parental alleles were detected in 83% of the lines and contributed an average of 38 cM per line (~2.2% of genomic DNA). Lines that had undergone eight generations of inbreeding in the field contained significantly more non-parental alleles (av. 2.7%) compared to the DH lines (av. 1.3%) that were developed from BC2 anthers. Using both cluster and principal component analyses, two major groups were detected in these materials. The NERICA varieties (NERICA 1 to 7) clustered in one group while the remaining 63 lines clustered in another group, suggesting that the second group may offer significant opportunities for further selection and variety development.
Effect of addition of carbon sources on mannanase production by B. amyloliquefaciens.
Different Bacillus species were screened for the production of 1,4-β- mannanase on solid media. Bacillus amylolequifaciens was selected as the most potent in producing enzyme of high activity. Utilization of various agro-industrial residues on mannanase production was evaluated. Potato peels at a concentration of 14 g/l was found to be the most effective carbon source. Maximum enzyme activity (61.5 U/mg protien) was obtained with ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source. The optimum incubation temperature and pH for enzyme production were 35°C and 7, respectively. The influence of inoculum size was so remarkable that, at optimum, a crude filtrate with an enzyme activity of 105.7 U/mg protien was obtained and appeared among the highest levels reported for mannanase titre. Addition of simple carbon source to media containing potato peels cause catabolic repression of mannanase synthesis.
Transcript expression analysis of the CBM22-2 gene in transgenic tobacco leaves. A differential transcript expression pattern is shown in the upper panel with the representative of each class in the transgenic line CBM22-2. Lines 10, 7 and 3 represent high, low and non-expressers, respectively. Lower panel shows RNA blots for the ribosomal RNA internal control with comparable intensities. 
Cross sections of representative transgenic and control stems. Sections of the transgenic line 10, high expresser of CBM22-2 module (A) and empty pGreen7k control (B) were stained with toluidine blue. Figures 2 A and B show the cortex of the sections of the transgenic and the control plants, respectively. Figures reveal no marked difference in the cortex of the two stem sections. Ct = cortex, ep = epidermis. Scale bar = 50 μm. 
Carbohydrate-binding modules have been shown to alter plant cell wall structural architecture. Hence, they have the potential application of being used to engineer the plant to produce tailor-made natural fibers in the cell wall. The Clostridium thermocellum xylanase, Xyn10B, contains two CBMs that belong to family 22 (CBM22). The C-terminal CBM22-2 of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 10 had been characterized to interact with xylan, a major hemicellulosic component in the secondary cell wall of plants. In this work, the expression of the CBM22-2 in transgenic tobacco plants was evaluated. Histological examinations of the transgenic stems did not reveal marked cell wall phenotype. In addition, there were no observable changes in the height or the appearance of the transgenic plants expressing the CBM22-2 module. The results indicate that the family 22 carbohydrate binding module is not a potential candidate for use in in planta modification of the cell wall.
Microbial populations of lagoon water samples.
Growth dynamics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (black squares), Alcaligenes eutrophus (blue triangles) and Bacillus subtilis (red circles) on 100 ppm of biphenyl. Data points represent the averages of triplicate determinations.
Physico-chemical properties of lagoon water samples.
Growth dynamics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (black squares), Alcaligenes eutrophus (blue triangles) and Bacillus subtilis (red circles) on 100 ppm of Aroclor 1221. Data points represent the averages of triplicate determinations.
Growth kinetics of bacterial strains on biphenyl and Aroclor 1221.
Samples obtained from three locations in the Lagos lagoon were studied for the effect of Aroclor 1221 on their population dynamics. In all three cases, both control and experimental microcosms showed slight increases between day 5 and day 10 with the highest value of 4 × 1010 cfu/ml in control and 1.2 × 1011, 8 × 1010 and 9 × 1010 cfu/ml for Iddo, Apapa and Tin Can samples respectively. Three isolates namely, Bacillus subtilis , Alcaligenes eutrophus and Pseudomona aeruginosa were obtained from the microcosms after successive enrichment. All the isolates grew readily on 100 ppm of Aroclor 1221 concomitant with production of yellow metabolites in mineral salts medium. Whereas maximal growth was observed at day 12 on biphenyl, that of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture was on day 15. Generally, growth dynamics were similar irrespective of the substrate while typical generation times, with the exception of B. subtilis on Aroclor 1221, ranged insignificantly (P < 0.05) from 6.86 to 8.35 day, thus, suggesting that chlorine substitution has little or no effect on catabolic potentials of the organisms. The degradative capability of these strains suggest that they contribute immensely to the self-purification processes occurring in the lagoon, and this could be exploited for decontamination of PCB polluted aquatic ecosystems.
Response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to evaluate the effects of cultivation time, pH and substrate concentration on production of xylanase by Aspergillus niger AN-13. Agricultural residue wheat bran was used as main substrate under submerged fermentation. Xylanase production was optimized by Box-Behnken design (BBD). Statistical analysis of results showed that, the linear and quadric terms of these three variables had significant effects, and evident interactions existing between pH and substrate concentration were found to contribute to the response at a significant level. Furthermore, Box-Behnken design (BBD) used for the analysis of treatment combinations gave a second-order polynomial regression model, which was in good agreement with experimental results, with R2=0.9959 (P<0.05). By response surface methodology and canonical analysis, the optimal fermentation parameters for enhanced xylanase production were obtained. Under these conditions, namely cultivation time of 53.3 h, pH of 7.92 and wheat bran concentration of 54.2 g·L-1, the model predicted a xylanase activity of 125.14 U·mL-1. Verification of the optimization showed that xylanase production of 127.12 U·mL-1 was observed under the optimal condition, which had a marked increase compared with a xylanase activity of 4.80 U·mL-1 in experiments according to Box-Behnken design.
The capability of rice bran for removal of Nylomine Red (Acid Red 138) an anionic monoazo direct dye, from aqueous solutions was studied. The effect of various experimental parameters such as treatment of the bran, particle size, contact time, stirring speed, temperature and pH of solutions were studied, and the optimal conditions were selected. The dye sorption onto rice bran increased in the presence of inorganic salt. It was found that the rice bran with a mesh of 20 and activated with saturated sodium chloride have higher adsorption capacity. The optimum reaction time, at a speed of 30 rpm, is 60 min. At initial pH of 2 and at room temperature, AR 138 was removed more effectively. The isothermal data for biosorption followed the Langmuir and Freundlich models.
MICs (g/ml) of the E. coli isolates investigated in this study. 
Two Escherichia coli isolates which were isolated from the urine of patients in state hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were investigated to determine the sequence of the TEM β-lactamases responsible for their resistance to β-lactamase inhibitors. The isolates were subjected to MIC determinations, isoelectric focusing analysis, plasmid analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of β-lactamase genes and sequencing of the blaTEM.Analysis of the nucleotide sequences revealed the presence of two novel TEM β-lactamases, TEM-145 and TEM-146 which had the R244H mutation. Mutations at position 244 have been previously reported in other inhibitor-resistant TEMs (IRTs).
Fungal toxins cause serious damage to the cellular functions of host tissue. In the present report the toxin extracted from Colletotrichum falcatum Went was partially purified and treatments were given to the callus of susceptible sugarcane callus variety CoC 671. The influence on 14C-glucose uptake and its further utilization was investigated. The toxin treatment reduced the total uptake of glucose and also inhibited its conversion into insoluble products of cellular metabolism. Accumulation of organic acids and lowered synthesis of total sugars was mainly noticed. The susceptibility of sugarcane var. CoC 671 to red toxin seems to be due to poor efficiency and imbalance in utilization of glucose under biotic influence.
Scytalidium thermophilum 15.8 produced two extracellular glucoamylases. Using a DEAE-Cellulose chromatographic column glucoamylases form II (GAII) was separated and purified from glucoamylases form I (GAI) that was previously purified and characterised (Cereia et al., 2000) when the filtrate of the culture medium was applied to a DEAE-Cellulose chromatographic column. GAII bound to the DEAE-Cellulose and was eluted with a NaCl gradient, while GAI did not bind to the resin. GAII presented electrophoretic homogeneity in 6% denaturing and non-denaturing PAGE, separately, with a molecular mass of 83 kDa, after the second round DEAE-Cellulose purification step. The enzyme pI was 7.2. Optima pH and activity temperature were 5.5 and 55°C respectively for starch and maltose as substrates, with a termostability of 2.5 min at 60°C. Enzymatic activities were activated by 1 mM Na+, Mn2+ and Mg2+ or 10 mM NH4+ , Ba2+ and Mg2+ . The carbohydrate content was 10%. The kinetic parameters Km and Vmax with starch and maltose as substrate were 0.2 and 1.5 mg/ml, and 22.3 and 4.39 U/mg of protein, respectively. The amino acid sequence of GAII had 92% homology with the glucoamylase of Humicola grisea var. thermoidea after 13 cycles. Generally, GAII had different properties compared with GAI (Cereia et al., 2000).
Dry matter weight, % 15 N AE, proportions and amounts of total nitrogen in plant parts of three species of Crotalaria cultivated in 10 kg pots using Senna as reference plants
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to measure nitrogen fixation in three Crotalaria species : C. ochroleuca , C. perrottetii and C. retusa growing in Senegal by using 15N direct isotope dilution technique. Two non-fixing plants, Senna obtusifolia and Senna occidentalis served as reference plants. The amount of nitrogen fixed two months after planting was obtained using the average of the two reference plants. The atom % 15N excess in the Crotalaria species was significantly lower than that of the reference plants, indicating that significant nitrogen fixation occurred in the three plants. Significant differences were observed between the Crotalaria species; C. ochroleuca yielded more dry matter weight and total nitrogen than did C. perrottetti and C. retusa . The % nitrogen derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa) in leaves and stems was also higher in C. ochroleuca . There was no significant difference in %Ndfa in the whole plant between the three Crotalaria species (47% to 53%). In contrast, interspecific variability was observed based on the %Ndfa. C. ochroleuca significantly exhibited the higher amount of total nitrogen fixed, equivalent to 83 kg of nitrogen fixed per hectare. Based on these data, it was concluded that C. ochroleuca could be used in multiple cropping systems in Senegal for making more nitrogen available to other plants.
Texture profiles analysis of fresh kareish cheese samples using CNS/Farnell LFRA texture analyzer computer interface.  
Texture parameters of fermented milk manufactured with different combination of commercial starter MY900 and ropy strain of Lactobacillus plantarum 162RM.
Contents of moisture, fat and pH of Kariesh cheeses manufactured with or without ropy strain of Lb. plantarum 162RM, during ripening*.
The contribution of selected ropy and capsular Lactobacillus plantarum 162RM on texture of fermented milk as well as on the functionality of kareish cheese was established in this study. The cell suspension of this strain was used in combination with commercial starter cultures MY900 ( Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus ) and MM100 ( Lactococcus lactis ssp.lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. L. plantarum 162RM affects significantly some textural properties of EKC cheese, relative to the control. The CKC samples were gummier and more chewy than the EKC fresh samples. It is therefore evident that, used in appropriate amount, this strain can increase moisture content in low fat Kareish cheese leading to improvement of textural properties. L. plantarum 162RM were not significantly different. Fermented milk hardness, consistency, and adhesiveness increased significantly when 8 % (V/V) of strain Lactobacillus plantarum 162RM was used. This strain produces exopolysaccharides (EPS), which by attaching to the casein matrix increases and improves the texture characteristics of fermented milk. The Experimental Kareish Cheese (EKC), made by pairing commercial starter MM100 with 8% (v/v) of L. plantarum 162RM were also compared to Control Kareich Cheese (CKC) in terms of their moisture content and textural properties. The EKC showed the greatest moisture retention and the use of ropy and capsular strain of L. plantarum 162RM affects significantly some textural properties of EKC cheese, relative to the control. The CKC samples were gummier and more chewy than the EKC fresh samples. It is therefore evident that, used in appropriate amount, this strain can increase moisture content in low fat Kareish cheese leading to improvement of textural properties.
Process to obtain the neem products ( Azadirachta indica , A. Juss ) (Provided by the SENCHIM chemistry’s industry Dakar- SENEGAL). P.N.O., pure neem oil; F.N.O., formulated neem oil; T.N.P., technical neem powder; and N.P., neem powder. 
Longitudinal section in posterior part of the gut of A. aegypti Linneaus 1762 showed that some cells appeared to be degenerated (Dég. cell and arrows). Epithelial intestinal cells ( showed a beach of lysis (BL). Cells are in an advanced stage of infection (head of arrows). The ventral nerve chain (VNC) appeared to be normal. Bross border (Bb.destr.), microvilli (Mv) and peritrophic membrane (Pmb) are destroyed. Nuclear (N), alimentary flow (Alim.flow) is present in alimentary canal (Alim.canal). Bm = Basal membrane.
Treatment and comparative analysis of the properties of aqueous extracts of seed kernel of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) was carried out on Aedes aegypti larvae. The aim of this work was to evaluate lethal effects of neem products (1% Suneem, formulated neem oil and neem powder) on A. aegypti larvae. Assays showed that A. indica was toxic to larvae of A. aegypti. For 1% Suneem, 1% formulated neem oil and neem powder, the lethal concentrations and lethal time at 50% (LC50 and LT50) for A. aegypti were 2 and 8 mg/l after 24 h and 3 mg/l after 120 h, respectively. Assays showed that Suneem and Formulated neem oil were more toxic to A. aegypti than Neem powder. Both products of the neem (A. indica, A. juss) have a remarkable influence on the development of A. aegypti larvae, causing an inhibition of nymphs and adults emergency. The Histopathological results revealed a serious damage on the epithelial columnar cells, a perturbation of alimentary flow, slightly hypertrophied cells, a beginning of vacuolisation on apical level, and a bursting of some cells in posterior part of the gut. However, nuclei, adipose tissue and muscles seem to keep normal appearance.
Effect of hormonal treatment on hatchability of eggs at same environmental variables for H. bidorsalis.
Effect of hormonal treatment on larval deformities of H. bidorsalis under similar environment.
Induced spawning of African giant catfish ( Heterobranchus bidorsalis ) was successfully carried out using synthetic hormone (Ovaprim) and natural hormone (homoplastic hormone-pituitary extract from H. bidorsalis). The study which was carried out at Aquafish Farm, Ihiala, Anambra State, Nigeria, lasted 70 days (May to July). Sixty gravid females and twenty mature males of H. bidorsalis (weight range of 310 to 550 g) were used for the study. In all, 10 trials were carried out with a control. The results showed that ovaprim performed significantly better (P < 0.01) in almost all the parameters investigated. The two hormonal materials gave slightly different results in terms of pre and post hormonal induced spawning mean somatic weight loss of 423.83 ± 14.19 g and 446.00 ± 13.37 g, mean number of dead eggs of 396.10 ± 19.15 and 194.90 ± 11.00, hatchability of 9,180.13 ± 343.37 and 11,162.27 ± 362.00 hatched larvae, 35.80 ± 1.11 and 12.37 ± 1.54 deformed larvae, and 99.61 and 99.88% survival were recorded respectively for homoplastic hormone and ovaprim, respectively. Comparative cost benefit analysis showed that ovaprim which recorded better results, was also relatively cheaper. Ovaprim worth N3467.00 was used for induced breeding of H. bidorsalis with combined body weight of 13.38 kg while pituitary hormone was extracted from N 6350.00 worth of H. bidorsalis and used for induced breeding of gravid H. bidorsalis with combined body weight of 12.72 kg. Because of its relatively cheap cost, ease of handling and better survival of hatchlings from H. bidorsalis, ovaprim is highly recommended for hatchery users.
Soil enzymes regulate ecosystem functioning and in particular play a key role in nutrient cycling. In this review we briefly summarise potential roles of selected enzymes such as amylase, arylsulphatases, β-glucosidase, cellulose, chitinase, dehydrogenase, phosphatase, protease and urease in the ecosystem. We also highlight areas where further research is needed to increase our understanding of other possible role(s) of enzymes and factors that may affect their activities in the ecosystem.
Phylogenetic relationship among Clarias species. 
Summary of specimen, sources and abbreviations. 
In a study of genetic characteristics of exotic Clarias gariepinus we obtained the animals from five hatcheries in Nigeria and sequenced 399 base pair of the cyt b gene. The results show that the exotic C. gariepinus clustered in two lineages: Clarias anguillaris (West Africa) and C. gariepinus (East Africa). First, this strain could be a hybrid between the two species since the original populations used for selection were from different sources including West Africa where both occur sympatrically. Alternatively, it has been contaminated via unwholesome practices.
Microorganisms are the nature's tools for cleaning the environment. Bioremediation using bacteria, fungi and algae is becoming an attractive option for the treatment of industrial effluents containing a wide spectrum of pollutants including dyes and heavy metal ions. In the current research work, the potential of a deuteromycete fungus, Alternaria solani for the removal of a dye, Acid Violet 19 from aqueous solution was studied. The fungus showed promising potential for the decolorization of the dye (88.6%) at a dye concentration of 30 mg/L within a relatively short period of time (four days). But with increase in the contact time, the % decolorization decreased showing that some of the adsorbed dye was desorbed especially in case of higher dye concentrations. The desorption of the dye from the fungal cells at long contact time and higher dye concentrations was considered to be due to higher molecular mass, structural complexity and the presence of inhibitory groups, SO3Na in the dye.
Map of Cross River State showing study area.
Biological assessment of Oreochromis niloticus was conducted monthly between January, 2004 and December, 2006 in 3 zones [(Zone I: upper Cross River (savanna wetlands) Zone II: middle Cross River (savanna/forest wetlands) and Zone III: lower Cross River (forest wetlands)] along 200 km length of the inland wetlands of Cross River, Nigeria. Major items in the diet of O. niloticus were algae and plant 38 and 20.4% (Zone I), 21.7 and 18.0% (Zone II), 20.2 and 26.9% (Zone III), respectively. Diet breadth ranged from 0.820 - 0.913. Food richness and Gut Repletion Index were 12 and 100%, respectively. Sex ratio was 1: 1 (Zone1), 1:0.78 (Zone II) and 1: 0.89 (Zone III). Mean allometric coefficients (b) of the length-weight relationship were 2.194 ± 0.215 (Zone I), 2.935 ± 0.333 (Zone II) and 3.03 ± 0.202 (Zone III). Fecundity varied from 70 eggs for fish (total length (TL) = 11.00cm and weight (W) = 37.9 g) to 502 eggs (TL = 25.8cm and W = 198.8g) in Zone I, 60 eggs (TL = 13.3cm and W = 19.8g) to 709 egg (TL = 26.5, W= 317.0) in Zone II and 110 eggs (TL = 13.7cm, W = 24.0g) to 811 eggs (TL = 22.8cm, W = 278.8g) in Zone III. Relationship exists between fecundity and body size. Mean condition index ranged from 0.770 ± 0.128 minimum for males at Zone I to 1.188 ± 0.157 maximum also for males at Zone III. Therefore, male O. niloticus were in better condition than females and the forest wetlands of Cross River (Zone III) offered more favourable living conditions for the species than the savanna wetlands (Zone I and II).
Impregnating a proteolytic substrate of specifity to viral envelope with a restriction enzyme cleaving the HIV genome could generate a novel line of microbicide. Web Cutter version 2.0 aimed at identifying which enzyme can cleave HIV-1 and 2 genomes in 10 or > cuts was employed. Computational analysis indicate that of 291, 17 (5.8%) enzymes had 10 or more cuts in the HIV- 1/SIVcpz genome as compared to 25 (8.9%) for HIV-2/SIVsmm with 6 enzymes (Eco-130I, EcoT141, ApoI, AcsI, BssTII, and StyI) having a mutual ability to cleave HIV-1 and 2 in 10 and more cuts. Although not a proteolytic enzyme, the surfactant Savvy/C31G (Cellegy) was identified as a safe and close candidate for our proteolytic substrate. With biochemical compound modeling, it is possible to stably impregnate the center of surfactant/detergent molecule with a natural product. The PREX Model may be explored to develop novel lines of microbicides aimed at preventing HIV and other viral STI transmission in humans.
Properties of 2,3,8-Tri-O-methylellagic acid isolated from the stem bark of Irvingia gabonensis.
2,3,8-Tri-O-methyl ellagic acid was isolated from the stem bark of Irvingia gabonensis. The acid showed significant antimicrobial activity on some pathogens.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains isolated worldwide have been classified into eight genomic groups deduced from genome comparisons and designated as genotypes A to H. In order to investigate the prevalence of HBV genotypes in Abidjan-Cote d'Ivoire, a total of 50 chronic hepatitis B patients from two teaching hospitals were enrolled. Patients who were HBs Ag positive in serum at least for 6 months, who had HBV- DNA in serum and elevation of ALT levels more than 1.5 times upper limits of normal, and who had percutaneous liver biopsy within 6 months were included and genotyped. Three genotypes (A, B and C) out of total eight reported genotypes so far were identified; genotype A was the most predominant in this collection appearing in 22 samples (55%). Mixed genotypes were seen in 12 (25.3 %) HBV isolates. Ten of these were infected with genotypes AB whereas one with genotypes BC. One patient was infected with 3 genotypes (A/B/C).
Data collected during the high-cell-density cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 2155 on glucose in a simulated five-phase feeding strategy of fed-batch process, executed on the Universal BIoprocess CONtrol (UBICON) system using 150L bioreactor over a period of 24h have been analysed. The consistency of the data set was checked using both the available electron and carbon balances. Estimates of the true energetic yields and cell maintenance requirements were obtained through the application of a multivariate statistical procedure known as covariate adjustment technique. A low value of maintenance coefficient, me = 0.004h-1, and a high average value of the true biomass energetic yield, ηmax = 0.745, were obtained for the bioreactor system, which showed that the organism was in no danger of ethanol produced during this cultivation. A simple model for estimating the distribution of substrate consumed between the fermentative and the respiratory pathways in the oxido-reductive process was developed based on the respiratory quotient (RQ) values. The fraction of substrate consumed for respiratory metabolic activities (qsresp/qs) was virtually 1.0 for the first three phases of the feeding strategy, which accounted for the first sixteen hours of the 24h operation. This was an indication that ethanol formation was avoided during this period.
Scientific inquiry thrives only in a society that fosters the free flow of ideas and information. The power of online (internet) publication in democratizing science and incorporating scientists from developing countries into the scientific community is profound. The desired and obvious properties of scientific publishing such as accessibility, economy, quality, innovation, and retrieval can be more readily achieved with electronic methods. Online publication is much cheaper and faster, and that is major reason Africa should embrace the open access model for research communication. An open access African journal (the African Journal of Biotechnology) is evaluated.
Using tomato heterologous probe, the ORF 2280 was located on the PstI 9.8 kb fragment in the inverted repeat A (IRA) and on the PstI 12.1 kb fragment in the inverted repeat B (IRB) on the physical map of squash chloroplast DNA. A fine map of the PstI 9.8 kb fragment was developed using SalI, BamHI and EcoRI restriction enzymes.Two transcripts of 1.4and 2.6 kbs of ORF 2280 of squash plastid DNA were detected in fruits but not in the leaves of Early Prolific cultivar using a heterologous PstI 1.2 kb tomato plastid DNA probe internal to ORF 2280.In Bicolor gourd fruits, 1.4 and 2.6 kb transcripts of ORF 2280 weredetected both in the fruits and in leaves.
Bacillus licheniformis SPT 27 is an isolate which produces extra cellular alpha (∝-) amylase exhibiting activity at a wide pH range and was relatively stable. The B. lichenformis isolate, however, produces low yields of the amylase. Our results show that the amylase production is higher in the presence of starch, with Amarantus peniculatus starch producing the highest amount of amylase. Amongst sugars, fructose supported maximum amylase production. Of the nitrogen sources tested, peptone and ammonium hydrogen phosphate where the best organic and inorganic sources respectively. The C:N ratio found to be the optimum was 1:1.
The electronic spectra of 3,4-diphenyl thiophene in polar and non polar solvents.
The spectra properties of Band II.
The UV/visible spectra of 3,4-diphenyl thiophene were obtained in various solvents (both polar and non polar). The wave number of transition energies, corresponding molar absorptivities and oscillation frequency were determined. Three bands were obtained in solvents such as cyclohexane, propan-2-ol, methanol and ether. Two bands are obtained in n-hexane and 1,2- dichloroethane, while 1,4-dioxane give a single band. Transitions are assigned to these bands according to their shift due to the effect of solvents.
A mutant strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on ethanol as single source of carbon and energy was used in optimization experiments at laboratory and micropilot scale, following the surface response methodology. The cultivation medium optimization was performed on the basis of maximization of dry cell weight and the process parameters optimization on the basis of substrate yield maximization.
Specific xylanase activity of Aspergillus niger ANL301 cultured at 30ºC in modified Czapek-Dox broth containing sawdust (-), sugarcane pulp (-), wheat bran (-) and oat spelt xylan (-) as sole carbon sources. (1 Unit of xylanase activity = 1 µmol Xylose min-1 ) 
Xylanase production by wild-type Aspergillus niger ANL301, newly isolated from wood-waste, was monitored at 24 h intervals for a period 168 h in media containing different carbon sources. The carbon sources were oat-spelt xylan (Fluka) and three agro-wastes (sawdust, sugarcane pulp and wheat bran). Highest xylanase activity of 6.47 units/mL was obtained at 96 h in media containing wheat bran as sole carbon source. Maximum activity value for the media containing sugarcane pulp was 0.95 units/mL obtained also at 96 h. Sawdust and oat spelt xylan gave the peak enzyme activities of 0.65 and 0.80 units/mL respectively at 120 h. High protein yield was obtained in media containing the agro-wastes, with wheat bran giving the highest value of 1.14 mg/mL at 96 h. The maximum specific xylanase activities were 3.86, 3.37, 5.69, and 9.36 units/ mg protein for sawdust, sugarcane pulp, wheat bran and oat spelt xylan, respectively. Out of the three agro-wastes used in this study, wheat bran holds greatest promise for low cost production of the xylanase enzyme.
Residual effects of treatments on soil chemical properties prior to second cropping. 
A two year field study was conducted in Institute of Agriculture Reasearch and Training experimental field at Ibadan, Nigeria to evaluate the effects of NEB-33 fertilizer additive on the growth and yield of chilli pepper (Capsium fruitscen). Treatments consisted of control, NPK, poultry manure (PM), organomineral fertilizer (OM), cow dung (CD) and their combinations with NEB-33. The organic fertilizers were applied at the rate of 5 t ha-1, while NPK 15:15:15 was applied at the rate of 90 kg N ha-1 and NEB-33 was applied at the rate of 5.6 kg ha-1. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used for the experiment and was replicated three times. Results show that treatments significantly (P>0.05) improved growth and yield of chilli pepper. Number of leaves, plant height, leaf area, stem girth, number of branches, number of fruits, and fruit yield ranged from 129 - 170, 30.4 - 44.2 cm, 20.7 - 35 cm2, 2.0 -2.7 cm2, 12 - 17, 392 - 682 and 1.01 - 3.08 t ha-1 respectively. Percentage increase in number of leaves, plant height, leaf area ranged from 5.4 - 70%, 17.8 - 48.7% and 3 - 73.4%, respectively, in treated plant over control. In terms of total number of fruit yield, percentage increases were 15, 7 , 13 and 27% respectively in NPK + NEB, CD + NEB, PM + NEB and OM + NEB whereas in case of fruit yield, percentage increases were 17, 9, 8 and 12%, respectively, for NPK + NEB, CD + NEB, PM + NEB and OM + NEB over their sole application.
Starch phosphorylase has been isolated from the seeds of millet ( Pennisetum typhoides ) variety KB560 and partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation. The partially purified enzyme was desalted using Sephadex G-25 chromatography. In the direction of polysaccharide synthesis, the enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 6.0 with two half pH optima at pH 5.4 and pH 7.0 whereas in the direction of glucose-1-phosphate formation, it showed optimum pH at pH 7.6 with half pH optima at pH 6.7 and 7.9. The optimum temperature for the enzyme activity has been found to be 37°C with two half temperature optima at 34 and 40°C. The partially purified enzyme has been immobilized using brick dust as solid support. The percentage retention of the enzyme on brick dust was nearly 80%. After immobilization, specific activity of the enzyme increased from 0.816 to 2.89. Upon immobilization, there was a slight alkaline shift in the optimum pH when assayed in both the directions. The immobilized enzyme also displayed increased optimum temperature and thermo-stability and could be reused number of times. The increase in thermo-stability and reusability of the immobilized enzyme has been exploited for the production of glucose-1-phosphate, a cytostatic compound used in cardio-therapy. The glucose-1-phosphate produced has been purified with nearly 95% purity after adsorption chromatography on norite and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose.
Initial phosphate content in various agriculture residues.
Effect of various concentration of rice bran on phytase production 
Phytase production at different glucose concentration using 1% rice bran.
The extracellular phytase production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 was evaluated in medium containing various agriculture residues under submerged fermentation conditions. Phytase production was affected by inorganic phosphate content of agriculture residues which ranged from 2.8 to 8 mg/g. The agriculture residues containing less than 4 mg/g inorganic phosphate supported phytase production with maximum activity of 68 IU/ml in medium containing 1% rice bran on 11th day of fermentation. Addition of glucose up to 5% in fermentation medium containing 1% rice bran, enhanced phytase production. Pretreatment of agriculture residues with water to remove excess inorganic phosphate has significantly enhanced the phytase activity in case of de-oiled rice bran, wheat bran, peanut cake (low and high oil) and coconut cake. Maximum increase of 20.3 times in phytase activity was observed in case of wheat bran as compared to de-oiled rice bran, coconut cake, peanut cake high and low oil in which the increase in phytase activity was 6.85, 6.1, 5.3 and 3.0 times, respectively. Maximum phytase activity of 68 IU/ml was produced on the 11th day of fermentation compared to earlier reported 41.47 IU/ml phytase activity on the 15th day of submerged fermentation using 5% dextrin and 2.5% glucose, thus increasing productivity.
Result of protein purification in SDSPAGE. Lane 1. Protein size marker (66 kDa, 45 kDa, 36 kDa, 24 kDa). Lane 2. Purified 60 kDa proteins from purple fluid of A. dactylomela. 
Results of cytotoxicity of precipitated crude proteins and purified 60 kDa protein on NB4 cell line. 
Sea hares have greatly attracted the interest of all those investigating chemical defense substances. Most of these substances are low molecular weight compounds derived from algal diets. in vitro anticancer effect of a 60 kDa protein isolated from the purple fluid of Aplysia dactylomela on four human cancer cell lines was investigated in this study. A 60 kDa protein was purified from secreted purple fluid of A. dactylomela, a sea hare from Persian Gulf. The protein purification procedure consisted basically of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography using DEAE–Sepharose and ultra-filtration method. in vitro antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of the protein of interest were evaluated on L929, K562, HL60 and NB4 human cancer cell lines. The antiproliferative and cytotxic effects of 60 kDa protein on human cancer cell lines were measured by MTT assay. Results showed that the 60 kDa protein of the purple fluid of A. dactylomela exhibited the antiproliferative effect on human cancer cell lines, especially on NB4 cell line. It was maximally active at 0.5 – 1.5 μg/ml on NB4 cell line. Interestingly, the protein did not show significant cytotoxic effects.
Root length of six ecotypes of pearl millet during drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. 
Seeds of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.)from six provenances of Tunisia were subjected to germination and shoot and root length tests on filter paper treated with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) solutions made up to provide osmotic potentials of 0, -1 and -2 MPa. Mean germination percent for all provenances decreased about 73% in -2 MPa compared to control (0 MPa) treatment. Osmotic potential of -1.0 MPa improves the rate of germination but not significantly compared to the control. There were significant differences among the relative germination percent of the provenances in different treatments. Decreases in the external osmotic potential induced decreased shoot growth while a slight increase in root length associate with the -1 MPa treatments was observed for some ecotypes. This reflects an adaptive response involving an increase in root length to reach deeper water in the soil.It was also notified that the elongation of the radicle is more sensitive to the osmotic constraint than the coleoptile.
Casein and gelatin hydrolysis by Bacillus firmus MTCC 7728 
The morphological, physiological and Biochemical tests as given by IMTECH, Chandigarh. Test Bacillus firmus Colony morphology
Extracellular alkaline protease producing Bacillus firmus MTCC 7728 was isolated from the soil samples taken from the leather factories in Nacharam industrial area, Hyderabad. Maximum activity was found after 48 h of fermentation. Optimum pH and temperature for maximum enzyme activity were 9 and 40°C, respectively. The potential of mesophilic alkaline protease produced by Bacillus firmus MTCC 7728 in various industries is yet to be exploited.
The elution profile of P3-1 from evaporated culture filtrate Streptomyces sp. No. 87 after purification through fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) with a superdex 30 column. The antimicrobial activity peaks from gel filtration chromatography were diluted with buffer A (25 mM pH 8.1 Tris-HCl buffer) (1:5, v/v). The diluent was filtrated through a 0.45 m filter membrane and fractionated by FPLC with a sephadex 30 column. The pooled fractions which peaked at 280 nm were concentrated by evaporator. 
Inhibition zone against B. cereus ATCC 11778 of P3-1 after treatment with high temperatures compared with untreated protein. The antimicrobial activity of P3-1 against B. cereus ATCC 11778 was tested after treating P1 at high temperatures of 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 o C for 60 min and 121 o C for 30 min. The clear zones of inhibition were measured for their diameter. Values represent the mean ± SD for three replicates.
An antimicrobial substance produced by Streptomyces sp. No. 87 was partially purified and studied for its antibacterial characteristics using the swab paper disc technique. The cell-free culture filtrate showed antibacterial activity against several species of pathogens including Gram-positive bacteria, i.e. Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, B. subtilis TISTR 008, B. megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus , S. aureus ATCC 25923, and S. epidermidis and Gram-negative bacteria, i.e Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 27736, K. pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi ATCC 5784, Vibrio cholerae and Xanthomonas sp. 60% ammonium sulfate precipitation of the culture supernatant shows markedly antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 11778. Then supernatant was purified by gel filtration chromatography with sephadex G-25 resin. Five peaks namely P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 were obtained. Results indicate that P3 is the only peak possessing the antibacterial activity, therefore, the final purification of P3 was conducted using FPLC with a superdex 30 column. Only one peak, namely P3-1 retained the antibacterial activity. P3-1 showed that its activity was insensitive to proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin, pepsin and proteinase K. In addition, the activity of P3-1 could be observed temperatures of 50 -121°C and no protein or polypeptide band was seen when P3-1 was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. These results suggest that P3-1 might not be proteinacious in nature. Key words: Antibacterial substance, characterization, purification, Streptomyces.
Effect of a chayote extract on the labeling of blood cells and plasma with 99mTc.
Effect of a chayotte extract on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc.
Effect of a chayotte extract on the labeling of plasma proteins with 99mTc.
Natural products have been widely used by human beings. However, sometimes the biological effects of these products are not fully known. Chayotte ( Sechium edule ) is a vegetable used in the folk medicine. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have several clinical applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of an extract of chayotte on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc using stannous chloride (SnCl2) in the concentrations like to 1.2, 0.006, 0.0005 and 0.0006 mg/ml. The extract of chayote was incubated in various concentrations for 1hour with blood which was withdrawn from Wistar rats. After that SnCl2 was added and the incubation continued for more 1 h. Elapsed this time 99mTc as sodium pertechnetate (NaTcO4) was toted. The blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and RBC were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA, 5%) and soluble (S) and insoluble (I) fractions (F) of plasma and cells (C) were determined. The radioactivity (ATI%) was rated in RBC, IF-P and IF-C. The results have showed that extract was able to reduce the radiolabeling using SnCl2 (0.006, 0.0005 and 0.0006 μg/ml). We can speculate that this effect may be on account of the products with oxidant proprieties.
The ability of horse antivenoms, consisting of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and its fragments F(ab')2 and Fab were comparatively studied in mice to neutralize several effects of Cerastes cerastes venom. The three antivenoms were produced from the same batch of hyperimmune horse plasma. Neutralization was only partial when antivenins were administered intravenously at various time intervals after envenomation. No significant differences were observed among IgG, Fab, and F(ab')2 antivenoms concerning neutralization of hemorrhagic effects. Fab fragments were slightly more effective in neutralizing edema while IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms were better in neutralizing myonecrosis in experiments involving independent injection of venom and antivenom.Thus these results disagree with the theory that "Fab" fragments are more effective than whole IgG and F(ab')2 in the neutralization of local symptoms accompanying C. Cerastes venom.
Results of the physico-chemical parameters of effluent from bodija abattoir.
Comparison of abattoir effluent data from present study with data from previous studies as well as national standards.
The problem of getting quality drinking water is increasing as untreated effluents are discharged into surface water bodies. The impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir, the biggest abattoir in Ibadan, western Nigeria on the physico-chemical parameters of Oshunkaye stream was investigated. The qualities of effluent and stream water (before and after mixing with effluent) were studied using the basic water quality parameters. The ranges of the physico-chemical parameters studied were as follows: pH 6.92 – 8.18, temperature 31 – 34°C, total solids 7726 – 47 630 mg/l, total suspended solids 1498 – 6803 mg/l, chemical oxygen demand 947 - 2566 mg/l, oil and grease 2500 –12590 mg/l, nitrate 62 – 159 mg/l, phosphate 142 - 180 mg/l, chloride 1052 – 1727 mg/l, lead 0.08 – 0.2 mg/l, nickel 0.18 – 0.49 mg/l, copper not detected – 0.14 mg/l, zinc 0.67 – 6.08 mg/l and cadmium (not detected). Using Prati’s et al classification of surface water quality, Oshunkaye stream fell in the class of grossly polluted water after mixing with effluent from the abattoir. While before mixing, it fell in class of slightly polluted. Hence the abattoir effluent needs to be treated before discharge into the receiving stream to reduce health hazard.
Primers sequences, location, PCR product and annealing temperature of chicken ApoVLDL-II gene.
Effect of breed and ApoVLDL-II gene polymorphisms on body weight and fat weight.
To investigate the association of avian apoVLDL-II gene polymorphism with body weight and fat, exactly 120 genetically fat (Anka) and lean (Rugao) chicken reared under the same environment and management were selected. Blood samples from the respective populations were taken for DNA extraction, and then slaughter for fat determination. Polymorphism was detected by PCR-RFLP and PCR-SSCP techniques. Gene frequency was non significantly different between population at VLDL6 and VLDL10 loci. However, in VLDL9 and VLDL17 loci the gene frequency was differed significantly (P<0.01) between populations. Polymorphism in apoVLDL-II gene was significantly (P<0.05) associated with body weight and fat weight at VLDL9 and VLDL17 loci in lean chicken. In addition, polymorphism of apoVLDL-II gene at VLDL6, VLDL9 and VLDL10 loci was significantly (P<0.05) associated with body weight and fat weight.
Phosphorus concentrations (%) in leaves of maize, okra and cowpea.
Effects of treatments on grain yield (t/ha) of maize, okra and cowpea.
Field trial was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 to assess the effect of Ogun rock phosphate (ORP) amended with cow dung (CD) manure on the growth and yields of maize and okra in intercrop relayed with cowpea on an Aquic Arenic Haplustalf. Significant treatment effects were observed in plant height and leaf area of maize and okra whereas stem girth was not significantly affected in either crop. The percentage leaf P concentration of maize, okra and cowpea were significantly (p<0.05) affected by treatment application. The percentage ranged from 0.18-0.48 and 0.24-0.45 in maize, 0.20-0.39 and 0.21-0.40% in okra and 0.16-0.40 and 0.18-0.42% in cowpea in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Increase in available P in amended ORP over sole ORP ranged from 44-71, 40-71 and 50-67% in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th sampling period. The ORP + 4 t ha 1 CD gave the highest P content of leaf in all the crops and in both years. The complementary use of Ogun rock phosphate with 3 t ha 1 cow dung manure produced the highest yields of maize (3.2 and 2.3 t ha 1), okra (1.6 and 2.5 t ha 1) and cowpea (1.8 and 1.9 t ha 1) in 2002 and 2003, respectively.
In order to assess the level of polio virus with natural recombinant genome and wild polio virus circulating in the environment of healthy children aged 0 to 5 years in Abidjan, 130 polio viruses made up of 26 polio type 1, 55 type 2 and 49 type 3 were identified by neutralisation test with monoclonal antibodies and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) targeting the VP1 and 3D1 gene. Four wild non Sabin-like (NSL) strains (3.1%): one type 2 and three type 3 were identified in non vaccinated children. One hundred and six (81.5%) isolates were Sabin-like, 20 (15.4%) were recombinant with the following polio virus profiles: 2 Sabin-like type 1/type 2, 3 Sabin-like type 3/type 1, 11 Sabin-like type 3/type 2 and one polio virus type 3 NSL/Sabin-like type 3. Intertypic vaccine/vaccine or vaccine/wild strain recombinant polio virus circulating among healthy children rate was high and suggested the need for a molecular surveillance of vaccine strains. Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) strains are well-known to revert to pathogenicity in vaccines. Therefore, the long term excretion of pathogenic OPV derived strains by some vaccinees needs to be considered quite seriously. It therefore suggested that all polio virus isolated from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) be analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing of the viral genome.
In vitro susceptibilities and prevalence of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum from Abidjan.
The in vitro activities of artemisinin, dihydroartemisinin (the biologically active metabolite of artemisinin derivatives), chloroquine and pyronaridine were assessed in 32 isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from Abobo in the northern of Abidjan district (Côte d'Ivoire) using a test based on the standard microtechnique recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The parasites densities were ranged between 8,000 and 540,000 rings/µl of blood. The geometric means 50% inhibitory concentration (GMIC50) values for chloroquine, pyronaridine and artemisinin were 145.5 nM (95% confidence interval (CI) =65-226 nM), 17.69 nM (95% CI=9.1-26.3 nM) and 5.72 nM (95% CI=2.3-9.1 nM), respectively. Dihydroartemisinin was the most potent drug against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant isolates with a geometric mean of 2.72 nM. There was no correlation between the parasite densities and the responses to chloroquine (r2=0.01, p<0.5), pyronaridine (r2=0.13, p<0.05), artemisinin (r2=0.13, p<0.05) and dihydroartemisinin (r2=0.07, p<0.1).
Phosphatases are widely found in plants having intracellular and extracellular activities. Phosphatases are believed to be important for phosphorous scavenging and remobilization in plants, but its role in adaptation to abiotic stresses and growth hormones at germination level has not been critically evaluated. To address this issue, the effect of ABA, GA3, NaCl and drought on germination, growth, acid and alkaline phosphatases in sorghum embryos and endosperm was investigated. Germination decreased markedly under ABA, NaCl and drought treatments. Subsequently, a remarkable decrease in fresh weight and dry weight was observed in embryos under ABA and NaCl treatments, whereas a significant decrease in endosperm fresh weight was observed only under drought stress. However, no significant change in endosperm dry weight was observed under other any treatment. Furthermore, a considerable increase in acid phosphatse activity was observed in embryos under bicolor and NaCl treatments, however, alkaline phosphatase activity was substantially higher under all treatments. In endosperm, a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity was observed under ABA and NaCl treatments. Alkaline phosphatse activity was apparently higher under GA3. However, no substantial changes in acid or alkaline phosphatase activities were observed after drought treatments. These findings suggest that changes in the phosphatase enzymes might play important roles in adaptation of germinating seeds, to changing environmental conditions. Based upon these results, a possible physiological role of phosphatases in germinating sorghum seeds is discussed.
RAPD amplification products generated by different random primers (P1 to P15) Lane M: ΦX174 DNA marker (bp). The two lanes of each primers are: normal male (lane 1) and abnormal male (lane 2). 
The sequences of the fifteen primers used to amplify the chicken DNA. 
RAPD technique was used in this study to detect DNA band variations between both normal and abnormal male of broiler chicken based on RAPD marker. DNA polymorphisms between normal and mutant birds were detected using fifteen oligonucleiotide primers. Using these primers, DNA band loss ranged from 25 to 75%. Data demonstrated that RAPD marker could detect DNA alterations.
Phenotypic distribution and gene frequencies of haemoglobin variants for the years 1995 -2000 in Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
The distribution and gene frequencies of ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups and haemoglobin variants for samples of the Nigerian population at Ogbomoso was determined. Data consisting of records of blood groups and haemoglobin types of different ages ranging from infants to adults for a period of 4 to 6 years (1995 - 2000) was collected from Baptist Medical Centre (BMC), Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Health Centre (LAUTHC) and Oyo State General Hospital (OSGH), all in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Overall, a total number of 7653, 7053 and 14,845 individuals were typed for ABO and Rh blood groups, and haemoglobin genotypes, respectively. 3824 (50%) were blood group O, 1750 (22.9%) were blood group A, 1629 (21.3%) were blood group B and 450 (5.9%) were blood group AB. This distribution differs significantly (P<0.05) from those expected under the Hardy Weinberg law. The proportion of the individuals belonging to the various ABO blood groups also varied significantly (P<0.05) over the period of the study. Overall gene frequencies for the A, B and O alleles were 0.15, 0.15 and 0.70, respectively. For the Rh blood group 6823 (96.7%) were Rhpositive (DD and Dd) while 230 (3.3%) were Rh - negative (dd). The distribution and proportion of individuals belonging to each group did not differ significantly from those expected under the Hardy Weinberg law (P>0.05). The gene frequencies of D and d alleles were 0.82 and 0.18, respectively. Six haemoglobin genotypes were recorded in the order of AA (68.1%) > AS (21.0%) > AC (5.7%) >SS (3.0%) >SC (2.0%) >CC (0.3%). The gene frequencies were 0.81, 0.14 and 0.04 for A, S and C alleles, respectively. Our results are representative of the distribution of these genetic variants in Nigeria.
Ozone-autohemotherapy (O3-AHT) has recently gained interest as a form of alternative and complementary medicine. There is, however, some concern regarding its toxicity and effectiveness. Ozone is a powerful oxidant and when introduced into biological fluids react with most cellular components including proteins, lipids and DNA. We assessed the effect of O3-AHT on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) viability, apoptosis and mitochondrial function in the presence and absence of plasma antioxidants. Exposure to ozone increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and caspase 3/7 activity in PBMC. A decrease in mitochondrial function was measured as a decrease in ATP levels and an increase in NADH/ NAD+ ratio. Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) of the respiratory chain was almost completely inhibited by ozone. These results indicated that the death of PBMC was probably through apoptosis. These effects were more evident in the absence of plasma antioxidants. Therefore, high concentrations of ozone were damaging to the cells, but this effect was diminished by antioxidants present in plasma. It is not certain if the in vitro damage will be propagated when ozonated blood is injected back into individuals. One must bear in mind that only a fraction of the total blood volume is ozonated.
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Hilary Odo Edeoga
Blessing Mbaebie Oyedemi
  • University College London
Anthony I Okoh
  • University of Sharjah
Anthony Jide Afolayan
  • Fort Hare University
Alfred Traore
  • University of Ouagadougou