The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effect of pH modifiers and nucleation inhibitors on enhancing and sustaining the dissolution of AMG 009 tablet via supersaturation. Several bases and polymers were added as pH modifiers and nucleation inhibitors, respectively, to evaluate their impact on the dissolution of AMG 009 tablets. The results indicate that sodium carbonate, among the bases investigated, enhanced AMG 009 dissolution the most. HPMC E5 LV, among the nucleation inhibitors tested, was the most effective in sustaining AMG 009 supersaturation. The release of AMG 009 went from 4% for tablets which did not contain both sodium carbonate and HPMC E5 LV to 70% for the ones that did, resulting in a 17.5-fold increase in the extent of dissolution. The effect of compression force and disintegrant on the dissolution of tablets were also evaluated. The results indicate that compression force had no effect on AMG 009 release. The addition of disintegrating agents, on the other hand, decreased the dissolution of AMG 009.
Enhancing and sustaining AMG 009 dissolution from a matrix tablet via microenvironmental pH modulation and supersaturation, where poorly soluble acidic AMG 009 molecule was intimately mixed and compressed together with a basic pH modifier (e.g., sodium carbonate) and nucleation inhibitor hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100 LV (HPMC K100 LV), was demonstrated previously. However, not all acidic or basic drugs are compatible with basic or acidic pH modifiers either chemically or physically. The objective of this study is to investigate whether similar dissolution enhancement of AMG 009 can be achieved from a bilayer dosage form, where AMG 009 and sodium carbonate are placed in a separate layer with or without the addition of HPMC K100 LV in each layer. Study results indicate that HPMC K100 LV-containing bilayer dosage forms gained similar dissolution enhancement as matrix dosage forms did. Bilayer dosage forms without HPMC K100 LV benefitted the least from dissolution enhancement.
The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize beads of Gelucire 43/01 for floating delivery of metformin hydrochloride (MH). The beads were evaluated for particle size, surface morphology, percent drug entrapment, percent yield, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in vitro floating ability, and in vitro drug release. Aging effect on storage was evaluated using hot stage microscopy (HSM), DSC, scanning electron microscopy, and in vitro floating ability. The formed beads were sufficiently hard and spherical in shape. Photomicrographs show that the surface was porous in nature. The average particle diameter of beads was found to be in the size range of 3.85 to 3.95 mm, and percent entrapment was 83.07% to 86.13%. The beads demonstrated favorable in vitro floating ability. The analysis of DSC thermograms revealed no physical interaction between the lipid and the drug in the prepared beads. Prepared formulations showed better controlled release behavior when compared with its conventional dosage form and comparable release profile with marketed sustained release product. HSM photomicrograph showed presence of some unmelted portion even at 43 degrees C and completely melts on 51 degrees C in aged sample. It was found that there was no significant effect on floating ability of aged beads since it remains floats up to 8 h study period. Thus, it is concluded that beads of Gelucire 43/01 could be serve as an effective carrier for highly water-soluble antihyperglycemic drugs like MH for the controlled delivery.
The basic objective of this study was to explore the application of Gelucire 43/01 for the design of multi-unit floating systems of a highly water-soluble drug diltiazem HCl. Diltiazem HCl-Gelucire 43/01 granules were prepared by melt granulation technique. The granules were evaluated for in vitro and in vivo floating ability, surface topography, and in vitro drug release. Aging effect on storage was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, hot stage polarizing microscopy (HSPM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and in vitro drug release. Granules were retained in stomach at least for 6 hours. Approximately 65% to 80% drug was released over 6 hours with initial fast release from the surface. Surface topography, HSPM, DSC study of the aged samples showed phase transformation of Gelucire. The phase transformation also caused significant increase in drug release. In conclusion, hydrophobic lipid, Gelucire 43/01, can be considered as an effective carrier for design of a multi-unit floating drug delivery system of highly water-soluble drugs such as diltiazem HCl.
The purpose of this research was to develop and optimize a controlled-release multiunit floating system of a highly water soluble drug, ranitidine HCl, using Compritol, Gelucire 50/13, and Gelucire 43/01 as lipid carriers. Ranitidine HCl-lipid granules were prepared by the melt granulation technique and evaluated for in vitro floating and drug release. ethyl cellulose, methylcellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were evaluated as release rate modifiers. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization by taking the amounts of Gelucire 43/01 (X
1) and ethyl cellulose (X
2) as independent variables, and the percentage drug released in 1(Q1), 5(Q5), and 10 (Q10) hours as dependent variables. The results revealed that the moderate amount of Gelucire 43/01 and ethyl cellulose provides desired release of ranitidine hydrochloride from a floating system. Batch F4 was considered optimum since it contained less Gelucire and was more similar to the theoretically predicted dissolution profile (f2=62.43). The temperature sensitivity studies for the prepared formulations at 40°C/75% relative humidity for 3 months showed no significant change in in vitro drug release pattern. These studies indicate that the hydrophobic lipid Gelucire 43/01 can be considered an effective carrier for design of a multiunit floating drug delivery system for highly water soluble drugs such as ranitidine HCl.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term stability of the antiretroviral spermicide WHI-07 (5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-bromophenyl)-methoxyalaninyl phosphate) in a polymer-based microemulsion. The recovery and stability of WHI-07 in gel-microemulsion was examined by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The stability was examined over a period of 24 weeks at 3 controlled temperatures (4 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 40 degrees C). The recovery of the prodrug from 0.5% to 2.0% WHI-07-loaded gel-microemulsion was 99.8%. HPLC analysis revealed that a 2% WHI-07-loaded gel-microemulsion stored at room temperature and cold temperatures for 24 weeks retained >90% of the prodrug, whereas those stored at 40 degrees C maintained 90% of initial WHI-07 for at least 10 weeks. The observed stability of WHI-07 in gel-microemulsion is of great importance for its widespread utility in various climatological conditions.
The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of hydrocarbon chain length in 1,2-alkanediols on percutaneous absorption of metronidazole (MTZ). Twelve formulations (1,2-propanediol, 1,2-butanediol, 1,2-pentanediol, 1,2-hexanediol in 4% concentration, 1,2-hexanediol, and 1,2-heptanediol in 1% concentration, in the absence and presence of 1,4-cyclohexanediol, respectively) were studied in an in vitro hairless mouse skin model using Franz diffusion cell. Based on the flux values and retardation ratios (RR), a penetration retardation effect on percutaneous absorption of MTZ was observed for the formulations containing 1,2-diols having six- to seven-carbon chain in the presence of 1,4-cyclohexanediol (1,2-hexanediol with chain length of six hydrocarbons, RRs are 0.69 and 0.76 in the concentration of 4% and 1%, respectively; 1,2-heptanediol with chain length of seven hydrocarbons, RR is 0.78 in the concentration of 1%). On the other hand, no retardation effect was observed in formulations containing short alkyl chains (RRs of 1,2-propanediol, 1,2-butanediol, and 1,2-pentanediol are 0.99, 1.61, and 0.96, respectively). Instead, a penetration enhancement effect was observed for 1,2-diols having four and five carbons. In other words, effect of 1,2-alkanediols on percutaneous absorption of MTZ can be systematically modulated by simply varying number of –CH2 groups in the hydrocarbon chain—from being a penetration enhancer to retardant. These observations shed light on mechanism of the penetration enhancement and retardation effect and provide insight into rational design of penetration enhancers and retardants. Furthermore, the combination of 1,2-alkanediols and 1,4-cyclohexanediol could become a general vehicle for controlled release of pharmaceutical and cosmetic active ingredients.
1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (CPX) has been shown to stimulate in vitro CFTR activity in F508 cells. Data from a phase I study demonstrated erratic bioavailability and no measurable clinical response to oral CPX. One cause for its poor bioavailability may have been dissolution rate limited absorption, but there is little published physicochemical data on which to base an analysis. The objective of this study was to determine the solubility and solid-state characteristics of CPX. CPX is a weak acid with pKa of 9.83 and water solubility at pH 7.0 of 15.6 microM. Both laureth-23 and poloxamer 407 increased the apparent water solubility linearly with increasing concentrations. CPX exists in two crystal forms, one of which (form II) has been solved. Form II is a triclinic crystal with space group P1 and calculated density of 1.278 g/cm(3). X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry studies (DSC) indicated that CPX crystals prepared at room temperature were mixtures of forms I and II. DSC results indicated a melting point of approximately 195 degrees C for form I and 198 degrees C for form II. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated no solvent loss upon heating. Dynamic water vapor sorption data indicated no significant water uptake by CPX up to 90% RH. Analysis of the data indicates that CPX may not be amenable to traditional formulation approaches for oral delivery.
This study was designed to investigate the physical characteristics and crystalline structure of 2-hydroxy-N-[3(5)-pyrazolyl]-1,4-naphthoquinone-4-imine (PNQ), a new active compound against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis. Methods used included differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, hot stage microscopy, polarized light microscopy (PLM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction (HR-XRPD). According to PLM and HR-XRPD data, PNQ crystallized as red oolitic crystals (absolute methanol) or prisms (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]-water) with the same internal structure. The findings obtained with HR-XRPD data (applying molecular location methods) showed a monoclinic unit cell [a = 18.4437(1) A, b = 3.9968(2) A, c = 14.5304(1) A, alpha = 90 degrees , beta = 102.71(6) degrees , gamma = 90 degrees , V = 1044.9(1) A(3), Z = 4, space group P2(1)/c], and a crystal structure (excluding H-positions) described by parallel layers in the direction of the b-axis, with molecules held by homochemical (phenyl-phenyl and pyrazole-pyrazole) van der Waals interactions. In addition, FTIR spectra displayed the NH-pyrazole stretch overlapped with the OH absorption at 3222 cm(-1), typical of -NH and -OH groups associated through H-bondings; and a carbonyl stretching absorption at 1694 cm(-1), indicating a nonextensively H-bonded quinonic C=O, which was in accordance with the solved crystal structure of PNQ. The existence of such cohesive forces shed light on the thermoanalytical data, which revealed that PNQ is a stable solid, unaffected by oxygen that decomposed without melting above 260 degrees C.
In a previous study, a synergistic retardation effect of 1,4-cyclohexanediol and 1,2-hexanediol on percutaneous absorption and penetration of metronidazole (MTZ) was discovered. A complex formation between 1,4-cyclohexanediol and 1,2-hexanediol was proposed to be responsible for the observed effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the necessity of hydroxyl group and the ring structure in 1,4-cyclohexanediol on percutaneous absorption and penetration of MTZ. Eleven formulations were studied in an in vitro porcine skin model using glass vertical Frans Diffusion Cell. 1,4-Cyclohexanediol was changed into 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, trans (and cis)-1,2-cyclohexanediol and 1,6-hexanediol, respectively, to study if H-bonding or ring structure would influence the retardation effect. MTZ was applied at infinite dose (100 mg), which corresponded to 750 μg of MTZ. Based on modifier ratios (MR) calculated by the flux values, the retardation effect on percutaneous absorption and penetration of MTZ was found in the formulations containing 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid or cis-1,2-cyclohexanediol (MR values were 0.47 for which only contains 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 0.74 for the formulation containing both 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid and 1,2-hexanediol, and 0.90 for the formulation containing cis-1,2-cyclohexanediol and 1,2-hexanediol, respectively). The results showed that the hydroxyl group and structure of 1,4-cyclohexanediol played a significant role in retardation effects and provided valuable insight on the mechanisms of retardation effect through structure-activity relationships.
The purpose of the research was to study the purification and partial characterization of thermostable serine alkaline protease from a newly isolated Bacillus subtilis PE-11. The enzyme was purified in a 2-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sephadex G-200 gel permeation chromatography. The enzyme was shown to have a relative low molecular weight of 15 kd by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and was purified 21-fold with a yield of 7.5%. It was most active at 60 degrees C, pH 10, with casein as substrate. It was stable between pH 8 and 10. This enzyme was almost 100% stable at 60 degrees C even after 350 minutes of incubation. It was strongly activated by metal ions such as Ca+2, Mg+2, and Mn+2. Enzyme activity was inhibited strongly by phenylmethyl sulphonyl fluoride (PMSF) and diisopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP) but was not inhibited by ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), while a slight inhibition was observed with iodoacetate, p-chloromercuric benzoate (pCMB), and beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME). The compatibility of the enzyme was studied with commercial and local detergents in the presence of 10mM CaCl2 and 1M glycine. The addition of 10mM CaCl2 and 1M glycine, individually and in combination, was found to be very effective in improving the enzyme stability where it retained 52% activity even after 3 hours. This enzyme improved the cleansing power of various detergents. It removed blood stains completely when used with detergents in the presence of 10mM CaCl2 and 1M glycine.
The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of Bacillus subtilis PE-11 cells immobilized in various matrices, such as calcium alginate, k-Carrageenan, ployacrylamide, agar-agar, and gelatin, for the production of alkaline protease. Calcium alginate was found to be an effective and suitable matrix for higher alkaline protease productivity compared to the other matrices studied. All the matrices were selected for repeated batch fermentation. The average specific volumetric productivity with calcium alginate was 15.11 U/mL/hour, which was 79.03% higher production over the conventional free-cell fermentation. Similarly, the specific volumetric productivity by repeated batch fermentation was 13.68 U/mL/hour with k-Carrageenan, 12.44 U/mL/hour with agar-agar, 11.71 U/mL/hour with polyacrylamide, and 10.32 U/mL/hour with gelatin. In the repeated batch fermentations of the shake flasks, an optimum level of enzyme was maintained for 9 days using calcium alginate immobilized cells. From the results, it is concluded that the immobilized cells of B subtilis PE-11 in calcium alginate are more efficient for the production of alkaline protease with repeated batch fermentation. The alginate immobilized cells of B subtilis PE-11 can be proposed as an effective biocatalyst for repeated usage for maximum production of alkaline protease.
NPC 1161C is a novel antimalarial drug of interest because of its superior curative and prophylactic activity, and favorable toxicity profile against in vivo and in vitro models of malaria, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and leishmaniasis. The preformulation studies performed included determination of pKas, aqueous and pH solubility, cosolvent solubility, log P, pH stability, thermal analysis, and preliminary hygroscopicity studies. The mean pKa1, pKa2, and pKa3 were determined to be 10.12, 4.07, and 1.88, respectively. The aqueous solubility was found to be 2.4 × 10−4 M having a saturated solution pH of 4.3–5.0 and a low intrinsic solubility of 1.6 × 10−6 M. A mathematical model of the pH-solubility profile was derived from pH 2.2 to 8.0. An exponential decrease in solubility was observed with increasing pH. The excess solid phase in equilibrium with the solution in aqueous buffers was determined to be the free-base form of the drug. A significant increase in solubility was observed with all the cosolvents studied, in both unbuffered and buffered systems. Mean log P of the salt and the free base were estimated to be 2.18 and 3.70, respectively. The compound had poor stability at pH 7.0 at 37°C, with a t
90 of 3.58 days. Thermal analysis of the drug using DSC and TGA revealed that the drug is present as a semi-crystalline powder, which transformed into the amorphous state after melting. The drug was also found to sublime at higher temperatures. Determination of physicochemical properties of NPC 1161C provided useful information for the development of a dosage form and preclinical evaluation.
Solid dispersions (SDs) are an approach to increasing the water solubility and bioavailability of lipophilic drugs such as ursolic acid (UA), a triterpenoid with trypanocidal activity. In this work, Gelucire 50/13, a surfactant compound with permeability-enhancing properties, and silicon dioxide, a drying adjuvant, were employed to produce SDs with UA. SDs and physical mixtures (PMs) in different drug/carrier ratios were characterized and compared using differential scanning calorimetry, hot stage microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size, water solubility values, and dissolution profiles. Moreover, LLC-MK2 fibroblast cytotoxicity and trypanocidal activity evaluation were performed to determine the potential of SD as a strategy to improve UA efficacy against Chagas disease. The results demonstrated the conversion of UA from the crystalline to the amorphous state through XRD. FTIR experiments provided evidence of intermolecular interactions among the drug and carriers through carbonyl peak broadening in the SDs. These findings helped explain the enhancement of water solubility from 75.98 μg/mL in PMs to 293.43 μg/mL in SDs and the faster drug release into aqueous media compared with pure UA or PMs, which was maintained after 6 months at room temperature. Importantly, improved SD dissolution was accompanied by higher UA activity against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, but not against mammalian fibroblasts, enhancing the potential of UA for Chagas disease treatment.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the measurement and in vitro delivery implications of multimodal distributions, occurring near or in the respirable range, emitted from pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs). Particle size distributions of solution pMDIs containing hydrofluoroalkane-134a (HFA-134a) and ethanol were evaluated using 2 complementary particle-sizing methods: laser diffraction (LD) and cascade impaction (CI). Solution pMDIs were formulated from mixtures of HFA-134a (50%-97.5% wt/wt) and ethanol. A range of propellant concentrations was selected for a range of vapor pressures. The fluorescent probe, Rhodamine B, was included for chemical analysis. The complementary nature of LD and CI allowed identification of 2 dominant particle size modes at 1 and 10 micro m or greater. Increasing propellant concentrations resulted in increases in the proportion of the size distributions at the 1- micro m mode and also reduced the particle size of the larger droplet population. Despite significant spatial differences and time scales of measurement between the particle-sizing techniques, the fine particle fractions obtained from LD and CI were practically identical. This was consistent with LD experiments, which showed that particle sizes did not decrease with increasing measurement distance, and may be explained by the absence of significant evaporation/disintegration of larger droplets. The fine particle fractions (FPFs) emitted from HFA-134a/ethanol solution pMDI can be predicted on the basis of formulation parameters and is independent of measurement technique. These results highlight the importance of presenting particle size distribution data from complementary particle size techniques.
To develop an oral formulation for PG301029, a novel potent agent for the treatment of Hepatitis C virus infection, that not only has very low aqueous solubility but also degrades rapidly in water. The solubility of PG301029 was determined in water, various aqueous media, and several neat organic solvents. The stability of PG301029 was monitored at room temperature in buffers for 4 days, and in several neat organic solvents for up to 8 mo. Drug concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Based on solubility and stability data, Gelucire 44/14 and DMA (N,N-dimethylacetamide) at a weight ratio of 2 to 1 were chosen as the formulation vehicle. After the vehicle was prepared, it was maintained in liquid form at approximately 40 degrees C until the PG301029 was dissolved. The final formulation product was a semisolid at room temperature. The bioavailability of the formulation was tested on 4 female BALB/c mice. PG301029 is insoluble in all tested aqueous media, while its solubility is promising in DMA. This compound is unstable in aqueous media and some organic solvents; however, it is stable in DMA. This proposed formulation is able to hold up to 10 mg/mL of drug and is stable at 4 degrees C. The shelf life for this formulation stored at 4degreesC is extrapolated to be greater than 4 years. This formulation dramatically increases the bioavailability of PG301029. This nonaqueous formulation solves the stability, solubility, and bioavailability problems for PG301029. This semisolid formulation can easily be incorporated into soft elastic capsules.
In a systematic effort to develop a dual-function intravaginal spermicide as well as a drug delivery vehicle against sexually transmitted pathogens, a submicron particle size (30-80 nm), lipophilic and spermicidal gel-microemulsion (viz GM-144) containing the pharmaceutical excipients propylene glycol, Captex 300, Cremophor EL, Phospholipon 90G, Rhodigel, Pluronic F-68, and sodium benzoate was formulated. GM-144 completely immobilized sperm in human or rabbit semen in less than 30 seconds. Therefore, the in vivo contraceptive potency of intravaginally applied GM-144 was compared in the standard rabbit model to those of the detergent spermicide, nonoxynol-9 (N-9)-containing formulation. Eighty-four ovulated New Zealand White rabbits in subgroups of 28 were artificially inseminated with and without intravaginal administration of GM-144 or 2% N-9 (Gynol II) formulation and allowed to complete term pregnancy. GM-144 showed remarkable contraceptive activity in the rigorous rabbit model. When compared with control, intravaginal administration of GM-144 and Gynol II resulted in 75% and 70.8% inhibition of fertility (P <.0001 versus control, Fisher's exact test), respectively. Thus, GM-144 as a vaginal contraceptive was as effective as the commercially available N-9 gel. In the rabbit vaginal irritation test, none of the 6 rabbits given daily intravaginal application of spermicidal GM-144 for 10 days developed epithelial ulceration, edema, leukocyte influx, or vascular congestion characteristic of inflammation (total score = 5). Therefore, GM-144 has the potential to become a clinically useful safe vaginal contraceptive and a vehicle for formulating lipophilic drugs used in reducing the risk of heterosexual transmission of sexually transmitted diseases.
The utility of the nasal route for the systemic delivery of 17beta-estradiol was studied using watersoluble prodrugs of 17beta-estradiol. This delivery method was examined to determine if it will result in preferential delivery to the brain. Several alkyl prodrugs of 17beta-estradiol were prepared and their physicochemical properties were determined. In vitro hydrolysis rate constants in buffer, rat plasma, and rat brain homogenate were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In vivo nasal experiments were carried out on rats. Levels of 17beta-estradiol in plasma and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) were determined with radioimunoassay using a gamma counter. The study revealed that the aqueous solubilities of the prodrugs were several orders of magnitude greater than 17beta-estradiol with relatively fast in vitro conversion in rat plasma. Absorption was fast following nasal delivery of the prodrugs with high bioavailability. CSF 17beta-estradiol concentration was higher following nasal delivery of the prodrugs compared to an equivalent intravenous dose. It was determined that water-soluble prodrugs of 17beta-estradiol can be administered nasally. These prodrugs are capable of producing high levels of estradiol in the CSF and as a result may have a significant value in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
The effects of solvent [acetonitrile, methanol, and acetonitrile/water mixture (20:80, v/v)], buffer concentration (phosphate buffer, pH 7.5), ionic strength and commonly employed adjuvants on the photodegradation of betamethasone-17 valerate in cream and gel formulations have been studied on exposure to UV light (300-400 nm). A validated high-performance liquid chromatography method has been used to determine the parent compound and its photodegraded products. The photodegradation data in the studied solvents showed greater decomposition of the drug in solvents with a lower dielectric constant. A comparatively higher rate of photodegradation was observed in the cream formulation compared to that for the gel formulation. The kinetic treatment of the photodegradation data revealed that the degradation of the drug follows first-order kinetics and the apparent first-order rate constants for the photodegradation reactions, in the media studied, range from 1.62 to 11.30 × 10(-3) min(-1). The values of the rate constants decrease with increasing phosphate concentration and ionic strength which could be due to the deactivation of the excited state and radical quenching. The second-order rate constant (k') for the phosphate ion-inhibited reactions at pH 7.5 has been found to be 5.22 × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1). An effective photostabilization of the drug has been achieved in cream and gel formulations with titanium dioxide (33.5-42.5%), vanillin (21.6-28.7%), and butyl hydroxytoluene (18.2-21.6%).
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the variables that are suggested to influence the adsorption of the hydrophilic hyaluronic acid (HA) onto the surface of the hydrophobic betamethasone-17-valerate (BV) particles in order to formulate a nebulizable suspension. The adsorption of HA from aqueous solutions (0.04% to 0.16%, w/v) to a fixed BV concentration (0.04%, w/v) under different experimental conditions, was investigated. The method of preparation of HA-BV suspensions involved suspending BV particles either in the hydrated HA solution (method 1) or in water followed by addition of solid HA (method 2). Other variables like the time required for the adsorption to complete and temperature at which adsorption is carried out were studied. The nebulization of the suspensions was tested via an air jet nebulizer connected to a twin stage impinger. In order to improve the nebulization behavior of the optimized suspension, l-leucine or sodium taurocholate was incorporated in increasing concentrations (0.01–0.04%, w/v). The optimized suspension, having a nebulization efficiency of 33.75%, was achieved following the adsorption of HA (0.1%, w/v) onto BV particles adopting method 2 of preparation and extending for three days at 4 °C. Incorporation of either l-leucine or sodium taurocholate significantly decreased the aggregate size of the optimized suspension and consequently caused significant increases in the nebulization efficiency to reach 46.87% and 56.25%, respectively.
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the variables that are suggested to influence the adsorption of the hydrophilic hyaluronic acid (HA) onto the surface of the hydrophobic betamethasone-17-valerate (BV) particles in order to formulate a nebulizable suspension. The adsorption of HA from aqueous solutions (0.04% to 0.16%, w/v) to a fixed BV concentration (0.04%, w/v) under different experimental conditions, was investigated. The method of preparation of HA-BV suspensions involved suspending BV particles either in the hydrated HA solution (method 1) or in water followed by addition of solid HA (method 2). Other variables like the time required for the adsorption to complete and temperature at which adsorption is carried out were studied. The nebulization of the suspensions was tested via an air jet nebulizer connected to a twin stage impinger. In order to improve the nebulization behavior of the optimized suspension, L-leucine or sodium taurocholate was incorporated in increasing concentrations (0.01-0.04%, w/v). The optimized suspension, having a nebulization efficiency of 33.75%, was achieved following the adsorption of HA (0.1%, w/v) onto BV particles adopting method 2 of preparation and extending for three days at 4 degrees C. Incorporation of either l-leucine or sodium taurocholate significantly decreased the aggregate size of the optimized suspension and consequently caused significant increases in the nebulization efficiency to reach 46.87% and 56.25%, respectively.
The purpose of this research was to micronize beclomethasone-17,21-dipropionate (BDP), an anti-inflammatory inhaled corticosteroid commonly used to treat asthma, using the rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) technique. The RESS technique was chosen for its ability to produce both micron particles of high purity for inhalation, and submicron/nano particles as a powder handling aid for use in next generation dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Particle formation experiments were carried out with a capillary RESS system to determine the effect of experimental conditions on the particle size distribution (PSD). The results indicated that the RESS process conditions strongly influenced the particle size and morphology; with the BDP mean particle size decreasing to sub-micron and nanometer dimensions. An increase in the following parameters, i.e. nozzle diameter, BDP mol fraction, system pressure, and system temperature; led to larger particle sizes. Aerodynamic diameters were estimated from the SEM data using three separate relations, which showed that the RESS technique is promising to produce particles suitable for pulmonary delivery.
Solids dispersions (SDs) have been proposed as an alternative to improve the dissolution rate of low solubility drugs. SDs containing albendazole (ABZ; 5, 10, 25, and 50% w/w) and Pluronic 188 (P 188) as hydrophilic carrier were formulated. The obtained SDs were assessed in comparison to physical mixtures (PMs). Drug-polymer interactions in solid state were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. No chemical interaction was found between ABZ and poloxamer. The dissolution profiles indicated that ABZ incorporated in SDs and PMs was rapidly released, reaching rapidly the steady state. Increased dissolution rates are usually observed at the highest polymer proportions. However, an opposite effect for SDs as well as for PMs was observed in the assays described here. The systems with the lowest P 188 percentages (SD4, SD3; PM4, PM3) tended to be more effective in increasing the ABZ dissolution rate. Such a result can be attributed to the fact that concentrated aqueous solutions of Poloxamer may form thermo-reversible gels. The physical-mechanical properties indicated that SDs possess improved flow and compacting properties compared to PMs. Thus, ABZ SDs would be more convenient for solid dosage form design and manufacture.
The aim of the present study was to enhance the dissolution rate of meloxicam (MLX), a practically water-insoluble drug by preparation of solid dispersion using a hydrophilic polymer, poloxamer 188 (PXM). The kneading technique was used to prepare solid dispersions. A 32 full factorial design approach was used for optimization wherein the drug, polymer ratio (X
1), and the kneading time (X
2) were selected as independent variables and the dissolution efficiency at 60 min (%DE60) and yield percent were selected as the dependent variable. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that for obtaining higher dissolution of MLX from PXM solid dispersions, a high level of X
1 and a high level of X
2 were suitable. The use of a factorial design approach helped in optimization of the preparation and formulation of solid dispersion. The optimized formula was characterized by solubility studies, angle of repose, and contact angle; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction studies, and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that enhanced dissolution of MLX from solid dispersion might be due to a decrease in the crystallinity of MLX and PXM. Analysis of dissolution data of optimized formula indicated the best fitting with Korsemeyer–Peppas model and the drug release kinetics as Fickian diffusion. In conclusion, dissolution enhancement of MLX was obtained by preparing its solid dispersion with PXM using kneading technique.