International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies

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2018 RG Journal impactAvailable summer 2019
2015 RG Journal impact0.25

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  • Vocabulary knowledge is considered important in second and foreign language learning because learners’ insufficient vocabulary has been consistently reported as a significant problem in their achievement of second-language (L2) learning. Despite of numerous vocabulary studies, few of them have implemented a learner-centered and interactive approach. The current study attempted to implement an interactive explicit vocabulary instruction in an English-medium course in Taiwan. Students’ attitudes and perceptions on the implementation were explored. Data were collected using both quantitative and qualitative methods via questionnaires and interviews. Fifty-six students participated in this study. The results showed that students had positive attitudes toward this approach. In addition, students’ interview feedback demonstrated the most and least appreciated aspects of this approach. Educational and pedagogical suggestions for English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teachers were given.
  • The study aimed at investigating the attitudes of Jordanian undergraduate students towards using computer assisted -language learning (CALL) and its effectiveness in the process of learning the English language. In order to fulfill the study’s objective, the researchers used a questionnaire to collect data, followed-up with semi-structured interviews to investigate the students’ beliefs towards CALL. Twenty- one of Jordanian BA students majoring in English language and literature were selected according to simple random sampling. The results revealed positive attitudes towards CALL in facilitating the process of writing assignments, gaining information; making learning enjoyable; improving their creativity, productivity, academic achievement, critical thinking skills, and enhancing their knowledge about vocabulary grammar, and culture. Furthermore, they believed that computers can motivate them to learn English language and help them to communicate and interact with their teachers and colleagues. The researchers recommended conducting a research on the same topic, taking into consideration the variables of age, gender, experience in using computers, and computer skills.
  • Of the four English language skills, speaking enjoys a superior status. Accordingly, it should be given high priority while teaching. In spite of its importance, teaching English speaking skill to Arab EFL learners has always been an exacting task for Arab teachers of English because it is considered a foreign language, i.e. not widely spoken or used in everyday interactions. For such a reason, Arab teachers of English are required to persistently implement new teaching strategies to tackle the problems regarding speaking skills in the classroom. Although a number of studies have been carried out to investigate the difficulties related to teaching English language skills to the Arab students in the Arab World, the current study is regarded the first study which highlights the problems in learning and teaching English speaking skill in the Saudi School in Kuala Lumpur where English is actively spoken as a second language. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the common problems which affect the teaching of English speaking skills to the Arab learners in the Saudi School in Kuala Lumpur. Additionally, it aims at exploring the areas of difficulty that prevent the Arab students from learning to speak in the English classes. This research also scrutinises the role of Kuala Lumpur ESL context on the Arab students’ English language speaking skills. The current study adheres to qualitative method, and its data were collected via classroom observations and face-to-face interviews with four teachers of English and four students selected purposively. Findings included areas like learning and teaching difficulties. The study suggested some techniques to improve the teaching quality and enable the students to overcome their lack of speaking ability such as implementing communicative approach in the English classes.
  • The first year of teaching poses massive challenges that lead to attrition among novice teachers. School communities often fail to provide adequate support to novice teachers to help them adapt to their new professional environments. In Saudi Arabia, attrition among novice teachers is a significant problem that hinders the development of the educational system. This study was conducted to examine the challenges that Saudi Arabian EFL novice teachers face as they transit into their first teaching jobs, and to determine whether these teachers have adequate support or would benefit from a formal induction process. Two kinds of data collection methods were used in this study, namely quantitative and qualitative. In this mixed methods study, 150 novice teachers were surveyed and 5 teachers were selected for semi-structured interviews. The quantitative analysis of the data was accomplished using descriptive and inferential statistics to answer the research questions. The qualitative analysis of the data was accomplished by interpreting the responses provided to the interview questions. The findings indicated that the challenges surrounding novice teachers hinder them in their development as new teachers. The most conspicuous challenges reported by the study participants were dealing with low English proficiency students and managing the negative attitudes of students toward learning English. This report also determined additional perceptible challenges: adoption of various teaching methods and the establishment of a student-centered approach, student behavior management, course planning, dealing with individual differences, and communication with parents. This study showed that these teachers had left their pre-service training with a very limited knowledge and skills for dealing with the reality of teaching. Mentoring and observing veteran teachers were identified by novice teachers as the two most beneficial strategies for implementing a teacher induction program that could mitigate the challenges they face in their first few years.
  • This study aims to examine the EFL learners' perception and process of writing development through using a digital storytelling tool, called Storyjumper. To do so, 15 intermediate-level students were participants of the study. The participants’ writing development was frequently assessed through a series of repeated writing tests before and after the treatment during one term of study, and the significance of change was examined by Repeated measure ANOVA (rANOVA). The researcher also used paired sample t-test to compare mean difference between two sets of observations. In addition, to gain an in-depth picture of fluctuations of the process of writing development, learners' views were obtained through both semi-structured interviews and self-reported reflective journals which were also recorded and analyzed. The qualitative independent variable (stories produced via Storyjumper) was the within-subjects factor, and the dependent quantitative variable on which each participant was measured (repeated writing tests) was the between-subjects factor. The findings of both quantitative and qualitative data analyses show that there was a significant difference between EFL learners' writing development before and after receiving the treatment. Moreover, majority of the learners admitted that their experiences in using Storyjumper were positive. As a result, this study is contributory in its own rights as it underscores the significance of digital storytelling as a pedagogical tool for the EFL learners' writing enhancement.
  • Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) has potential to help language learners; however, it has received scant attention. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of NLP techniques on reading comprehension of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners at an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course. To achieve this goal, two intact classes of students were selected to form an experimental group (n=30) and a control group (n=30). A reading pretest (based on the course content) was given to all participants. The sensory learning styles of the participants were diagnosed using Reid's (1987) leaning style questionnaire, and the participants in the experimental group were familiarized with NLP techniques to be able to implement these techniques in their reading. In the control group, the conventional approach to teach ESP reading was used. Considering the analysis of posttest results through ANCOVA, it was found that implementation of NLP techniques can have significant effect on reading comprehension of Iranian undergraduate EFL learners. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
  • This study investigated the effect of dynamic Assessment (DA) on the acquisition of L2 grammar by EFL learners. The focus was on teaching Conditional Type II, or Unreal Conditional, which is a difficult structure for language learners to acquire. To this end, two intact classes of intermediate EFL learners, each consisting of 23 male students were assigned to control and experimental groups. They were pre-tested and post-tested (immediately and delayed post-test) using a written grammaticality judgment task. Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was run to analyze the data. The results revealed that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group (p<0.05) on both immediate and delayed post-tests. The findings point to the advantage of implementation of DA in L2 grammar instruction in classroom contexts.
  • Emotions are an indispensable part of second language learning. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the use of language learning strategies and positive emotions. The present study adopted a sequential mixed methods design. The participants were 300 Malaysian ESL undergraduates selected through stratified random sampling from 5 public universities in Malaysia. The quantitative data were collected through two sets of questionnaires: (a) Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), and (b) Fredrickson's (2009) modified Differential Emotional Scale (mDES). The qualitative data were gathered through semi-structured interviews. With regard to the quantitative data analysis, a series of t-tests and correlational analyses were used. The data from the interviews were analysed qualitatively. A positive significant correlation was found between positive emotions and overall language learning strategy use. Also, the qualitative results of the study indicated that the learners who experienced more positive emotions tended to use a greater variety of language learning strategies. The findings of the study emphasise the importance of students’ positive emotions in their use of language learning strategies. It might be suggested that teachers by designing the classroom settings and instructions which promote positive emotions can inspire learners to use language learning strategies more frequently and with a greater variety which in sequence relate to learners’ language learning proficiency.
  • It is important to determine whether the school attitude of secondary school students has an influence on the reading attitude. For this purpose, such a study was conducted at secondary school level. In addition, the extent to which such variables as mother tongue are determinative in this context has been examined.The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between the attitudes of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade secondary school students toward the school and reading. In addition, the study also examines whether the attitude towards reading and school differs according to gender, class, and mother tongue variables. A total of 513 students (235 females, 278 males) attending secondary school in the province of Van in Turkeyparticipated in the research. In the study, Attitude Scale toward Reading developed by Alıcı (2013) is used in order to measure the attitudes of the students towards the school. Additionally, Reading Attitude Scale for Elementary Second Grade Students developed by Özbay and Uyar (2009) isused to measure the students’ attitudes towards reading. According to the results, there is a moderate significant relation between students’ attitudes toward the school and attitudes toward reading. According to the findings obtained from the study,it is seen that the attitudes of female students toward the school are more positive than those of male students. It is concluded that the attitudes of 5th grade students toward the school are more positive than those of the other students. Furthermore, students whose mother tongue is Turkish have more positive reading attitudes than the students whose mother tongue is Kurdish or one of other languages (Arabic, Persian, and so on).
  • This study investigated certified teachers’ performance at SMPN 6 Luwuk of Banggai Regency, with a focus on the teachers’ performance in planning the lesson, implementing the lesson, and conducting the lesson evaluation. It lasted for nine months, from March to December 2011. Qualitative method was used. More specifically, the evaluation research method was followed which involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data for decision making. The evaluation system used in this study was based on the quality of the certified teachers’ performances. The real condition in the field is that many of the certified teachers are still unable to design lessons and implement them professionally as expected from certified teachers. Currently there are many teachers in need of trainings. This study showed that the quality of the performance of the certified teachers in SMPN 6 Luwuk in planning the lesson was low. This could indicate that the certification process has not yet resulted in an increase in the quality of performance of the certified teachers, particularly as long as the quality of their performance in planning lessons is concerned.
  • This review article attempts to review current studies related to Citizenship Education (CE) in order to shed light on the provisions of citizenship education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The review examines the significance of CE in the KSA. It also explores the history of CE in the KSA followed by its national identity, as this too, affects the nature of the CE offered in the country. Then the article identifies and explores the implementation of CE in the KSA. In addition, the article discusses the approaches of introducing Citizenship Education in the KSA, its content and implementation. It can be argued that Islam has played a crucial role in shaping Saudi citizens’ private and national identities and their national values. The study also found that CE in Saudi Arabia faces multiple challenges. It emphasizes citizens’ responsibilities, duties, identity formation, and obedience towards the system and how one can achieve them. It also appears that promoting freedom, equality, fairness, freedom of expression and participation in the decision making process is poorly addressed. Moreover, lack of teaching aids and lack of specialist teachers and training are some major challenges to implement CE in the KSA. The article ends by drawing some conclusions.
  • This study investigates the use of oral communication strategy instruction on English as a Second Language (ESL) learners’ oral communicative performance and their strategic competence. The treatment involved 12 weeks of training using oral communication strategies such as circumlocution, appeal for help, clarification request, fillers, comprehension check, confirmation checks, self-repair and topic avoidance. Strategies were integrated into the learners’ Communicative English 2 Course syllabus with Mechanical Engineering content. The study involved two intact control (n=34) and experimental groups (n=54). The control group only received the normal Communicative English course with no explicit focus on communication strategies (CS) while the experimental group received CS training designed with metacognitive strategies. Pre and posttest procedures were used to assess the effectiveness of the training and learners’ strategic competence. Five instruments were used to collect the data (oral proficiency test, oral communication test, transcripts of oral communication test, unstructured interview and self-report). The findings revealed that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group after the training and the learners’ self-reports also revealed positive results. The results also revealed that the learners frequently used literal translation from their first language in their communication.
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the existing practices and challenges of Integrated Functional Adult Literacy Program in eastern Ethiopia. To achieve this objective, the researchers used mixed research design. Questionnaires, interview and focus group discussions were used as viable instrument for data collection. The questionnaires were filed by 302 adult learners and 153 facilitators. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that since the introduction of adult education programs with an integrated manner, harmful traditional practices are reduced, community participation in environmental conservation are growing; societal life skills and usage of new agricultural technologies are improved. However, dysfunctional management structure, poor institutionalization, integration and coordination among the sectors, lack of financial package, trained personnel and low and inconsistent salary were the major bottlenecks in the implementation of the program. Therefore, collaborative efforts among government, NGOs and the community need to put in place to alleviate both human and non-human related problems for the effective realization of the program with pioneering structure, financing,organization and management to achieve transformational and sustainable development goals.
  • The use of Indonesian language by children who speak the Balinese language, especially for children who live in rural areas is quite difficult. This is because their Balinese language is much different from Indonesian language. If they speak Indonesian language, they have to fall back to the language first. That is, language transfer process will take place from Balinese language to Indonesian language. This research aims to describe two phenomena of the language transfer process, namely avoidance and overuse (excessive use). Qualitative data were obtained from one Balinese child, namely Gede. Gede’s daily conversations were recorded to be analyzed. The researcher also used field notes. The results show that there is indeed avoidance and overuse in the use of Indonesian language by Gede. The teachers must be aware of the student's avoidance and overuse of Indonesian language, then the teacher can choose a contextual teaching method that best fits their students’ need in order to enable them to cope with the avoidance and overuse in learning the second language. In conclusion, the Balinese child’s avoidance and overuse, displayed in his use of Indonesian Language, is a concequence of his prior knowledge of his first language (L1) as well as his cultural awareness. Teachers should facilitate their students’ second language (L2) learning by being aware of their L1 prior knowledge and culture.
  • The affordances of mobile technologies are being felt in many sectors of world’s economy including university education. By solving the limitations of fixed instructional technologies, mobile technologies have received ready acceptance in the education place. The purpose of the study was to investigate the student technological preferences, their levels of utilization as well as attitudes toward mobile technologies. The target population was 30,752 third year undergraduate students in Kenyan Universities. The participants (n = 375) were selected by systematic random sampling. They provided data using self-fill questionnaires. Results indicated that the smartphone was the most popular mobile device; Tecno was the most preferred handset brand; and Android was the most popular operating system. Safaricom was the dominant service provider amongst the student population. Regarding the levels of utilization of mobile technologies by students, it was concluded that though students use their mobile devices sufficiently, the use of the devices for accessing teaching and learning content was considerably low. On the attitude of students towards mobile technologies, it was observed that a sizeable number of students preferred to use the technologies over other existing instructional technologies. The findings of this study will be useful to instructional technologists, education policy makers, mobile handset manufacturers, mobile service providers and university managers as they partner to roll out digital learning infrastructure for Kenyan tertiary education.
  • This article is inspired by Howard Gardner's concept of linguistic intelligence and also from some authors' previous writings. All of them became the authors' reference in developing ideas on constructing a literary learning model based on linguistic intelligence. The writing of this article is not done by collecting data empirically, but by developing and constructing an existing concept, namely the concept of linguistic intelligence, which is disseminated into a literature-based learning of verbal-linguistic intelligence. The purpose of this paper is to answer the question of how to apply the literary learning model based on the verbal-linguistic intelligence. Then, regarding Gardner's concept, the author formulated a literary learning model based on the verbal-linguistic intelligence through a story-telling learning model with five steps namely arguing, discussing, interpreting, speaking, and writing about literary works. In short, the writer draw a conclusion that learning-based models of verbal-linguistic intelligence can be designed with attention into five components namely (1) definition, (2) characteristics, (3) teaching strategy, (4) final learning outcomes, and (5) figures.
  • In an attempt to help the students of the English Study Program in Universitas Sembilanbelas November improve their English proficiency, the researcher used computer-based learning multimedia. The objective of the treatment was to overcome the students’ low performance in English by creating an enjoyable atmosphere. To investigate how computer-based learning multimedia improve the students’ English students’performance at the English Study Program of Universitas Sembilanbelas November, the researcher adopted Plomp’s (1997) development method which consists of five steps; namely, preliminary investigation; planning; realization/construction; test, evaluation, and revision; and implementation. Based on the results of this research, it can be concluded that in order to improve the English ability of students, it will need to be presented in the form of activities that are more creative and innovative. One is through the use of computer-based learning multimedia. This has been done in order to provide a more attractive presentation of the material and relevant to the conditions and characteristics of the students.
  • The present study sought to examine the relationship between classroom environment and English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' academic self-efficacy. To this end, a sample of 200 advanced EFL learners (146 females and 54 males) completed the What is Happening In This Class? (WIHIC) which consists of seven scales including Student Cohesiveness, Teacher Support, Involvement, Investigation, Task Orientation, Cooperation, and Equity that help to measure classroom learning environment. The Self-Efficacy for Learning Form (SELF-A) was also administered to gauge the participants’ academic self-efficacy. In order to analyze the data, Spearman rank-order correlation was run. The results revealed that there was a significant relationship between EFL learners’ classroom environment and their self-efficacy (rho = .438). The findings reflected that the highest relationship was between task orientation and self-efficacy (rho = .433) followed by the relationship between student cohesiveness and self-efficacy (rho = .353). However, the lowest relationship was found for the relationship between cooperation and self-efficacy (rho = .199). Overall, the results highlight the relationship between classroom environment and academic self-efficacy.
  • Foreign language learning anxiety is one of the affective factors which influence language learning negatively. It has several sources and different types. The present study aimed at investigating the sources of foreign language speaking anxiety of Iranian EFL learners. To do so, 154 EFL learners participated in the study. They were required to fill out a foreign language anxiety questionnaire which was developed based on the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope (1986). The results of the study indicated that “fear of making mistakes”, “fear of negative evaluation”, and “lack of vocabulary knowledge” were the main factors which caused anxiety among students. Some strategies are recommended for the students to use in order to cope with the anxiety-provoking factors.
  • It is thoroughly agreed that English language textbooks stand amongst the foremost components in any language classrooms worldwide, being referred to as valid, beneficial and labor-saving tools to fulfill an extensive range of needs. An ELT textbook is not merely a set of sheets of paper fastened together to hinge at one side, but is the beating heart of any education system whereupon the whole learning revolves. Notwithstanding their interminable benefits, it is admitted that still the compiled textbooks, especially the ones prescribed in Educational systems have to be evaluated and assessed to confirm whether they fulfil the objectives they are meant for or not, as it is said no perfect textbook exists. Having dealt with evaluation in general, this research meticulously elaborates on textbook evaluation more specifically concluding that there is a dearth of inquiry on textbook selection and evaluation. Afterwards, this research introduces the most common approaches for evaluating ELT textbooks and materials. The paper culminates with concluding remarks and implications, hoping to shed light on how textbook evaluation is practiced worldwide.
  • English spelling has always been described by many language researchers and teachers as a daunting task especially for learners whose first language is not English. Accordingly, Arab ESL learners commit serious errors when they spell out English words. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the types as well as the causes of spelling errors made by Arab ESL secondary school students. In order to collect the data, a fifty-word standardised spelling test was administered to seventy Arab student participants. The students’ types of spelling errors were detected, analysed and then categorised according to Cook’s (1999) classification of errors namely substitution, omission, insertion and transposition. In total, 2,873 spelling errors of various categories were identified. The study findings revealed that errors of substitution constituted the highest percentage of the students’ type of errors. In addition, the study indicated that the main causes of the students’ spelling errors were possibly attributed to the anomalous nature of the English spelling system, the Arab students’ lack of awareness of English spelling rules as well as L1 interference. Despite being conducted in an ESL context, the study was almost consistent with the findings indicated by other studies which were carried out in many Arabic EFL context. The findings suggest that spelling instruction should be emphasised while teaching English and should also be integrated with the skills and subskills of reading, writing, pronunciation and vocabulary in order to develop the students’ spelling accuracy.
  • This study reports the findings of a research that was conducted on ten (10) Arab students, who were enrolled in a master of English applied linguistics program at Universiti Putra Malaysia. The research aimed at instrumentally analyzing the English stops produced by Arab learners, in terms of voice onset time (VOT); identifying the effect of their mother tongue on producing the English stops; and the extent Arabic speakers of English differentiate in terms of pronunciation between minimal pairs. The findings of the study showed that some of the subjects’ VOT values were similar to native speakers of English. It was also found that the subjects could differentiate in terms of aspiration or voicing between /p/ and /b/, which refutes the assumption that Arab learners have a problem in producing the /p/ sound with appropriate aspiration. However, they did not show significant difference in pronunciation between the /t/ and /d/ or between the /k/ and /g/. Moreover, there is a kind of limited effect of the L1 on producing some stops (e.g. /t/ and /g/). However, for the /b/ sound, it cannot be inferred that there is interference from the mother tongue because its VOT value is almost the same in English and Arabic. This research suggests that teachers need to enhance Arab learners’ pronunciation of some minimal pairs such as /t/ and /d/ or /k/ and /g/.
  • This study investigated the effects of morphological instructional packages as determinants of inferring word meanings in reading comprehension among secondary school students in Ekiti State. The study adopted pre-test, post-test and control quasi-experimental research using two experimental groups and one control group with a sample of 270 Senior Secondary II students selected from nine public senior secondary schools using multi-stage sampling procedure, stratified random sampling and purposive sampling. The selected schools were assigned into three major groups, with each group made up of three schools of 30 students per school (two experimental groups and one control group). Three instruments were adapted, validated and used for data collection for the study namely: Morphological Production Task on Students’ Academic Ability (r = 0.74), Morphological Analysis Task of Students’ Academic Ability (r = 0.83) and Achievement Test in Comprehension (0.75). Data collected were analysed using Mean, Standard Deviation, Analysis of Covariance, Scheffe post-hoc and Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA). The study showed that there was significant difference in the achievement mean score of students in reading English language comprehension between the experimental and control groups. It showed that students exposed to a combination of morphological instructional packages with Eclectic and Problem-Solving methods achieved more in inferring word meanings. It was recommended that teachers of English language should be encouraged to use morphological instructional packages combined with Problem-Solving and Eclectic methods should be given enough orientation through seminars and workshop on the importance of morphological instructional packages combined with eclectic and Problem-Solving methods towards the teaching of languages and reading comprehension in particular.
  • The effect of using tests in test preparation courses has been subject to debate. While some scholars such as Yang and Badger (2015) believe it is a cause of positive washback effect, others argue that this issue is tentative and context-bound (Green, 2007). Therefore, this study investigated the effect of using Mock tests in International English Language Testing System (IELTS) preparation courses on students’ overall IELTS scores. Fifty one IELTS students were selected non-randomly through the quota sampling approach out of 76 students at Mahan Language Institute in Birjand, Iran. These participants were distributed into Group 1 (n=25) and Group 2 (n=26). A complete IELTS test was administered to ensure that the Groups were homogeneous and to serve as pretest. After 10 sessions of intervention, a different IELTS test was administered as posttest. The results of between subject analysis through independent samples t-test revealed that using Mock tests in the IELTS preparation courses can positively affect the participants scores on IELTS exam. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
    Twenty-first century education has undoubtedly witnessed changes of the definition of literacy to cope with the economic, social, and intellectual trends. Technological advances, which include skills of communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration have become key in education, especially when dealing with literacy and reading motivation. As motivation hinges around two major theoretical approaches, intrinsic and extrinsic, numerous studies argue for the first to be more sustainable in enhancing reading motivation. Accordingly, many research-based interventional programs have emerged since the late nineties with increasing popularity to offer answers to the dwindling rates in reading among youth. This article discusses traits of 21st century education in light of trends and challenges as it probes the effectiveness of some interventional programs that are meant, and argued for, to enhance literacy skills and reading motivation.
  • The advent of problem-based assessment has opened the question of whether or not conventional approaches to assessment are truly a representative of students’ knowledge (Lampert, 2001). In an attempt to find out about the suitability of problem-based tests in evaluating student-teachers’ knowledge of teaching English, a problem-based test was designed and administered to 33 MA students who were selected through the quota approach at Payame Noor University. Comparison of the results of the problem-based test and conventional test through paired-samples t-test revealed that teacher-students gained higher scores in the conventional tests; however, the results of the semi-structured interview with the participants revealed that they considered problem-based test a true measure of their knowledge and favored it over conventional assessment due to its relevance to content and context of the course, its motivating nature, and its dynamic structure. This study can have pedagogical implications for language teachers and material developers.
  • In recent years attention has been accorded to language learners’ affective factors and learning styles. Two of the significant learning styles are impulsivity and reflectivity which have not been studied as much as other styles such as introversion and extroversion. This study endeavored to find out whether or not impulsivity and reflectivity have any effect on reading comprehension of Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Seventy two language learners were selected from 4 intact classes out of 112 learners. Nelson proficiency test was given to the participants as homogeneity test. Next, Barrat’s (1995) impulsiveness questionnaire was given to the participants. Based on the results of the questionnaire, the participants formed 3 different groups, i.e., a reflective group (n=25), impulsive group (n=25) and a control group (n=22). The control group consisted of less impulsive and less reflective learners based on Barrat’s scale. An IELTS reading test (general module) was administered to the participants. Based on the results of independent samples t-test, it was found that impulsivity and reflectivity do not have any effect on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
  • The last four decades have observed a renewed research interest in the area of error analysis. It has been the focus of attention, and subject of debate, among scholars particularly those of second-language acquisition. Scholars in this area of study hold the unanimous view that errors are an integral and unavoidable feature of second-language acquisition. The purpose of the present paper is to analyze and classify the persistent errors committed by Saudi Arabian students at Northern Border University, Rafha while composing a variety of written texts in English. In the investigation, an effort has been made to uncover the causes and sources of various errors of usage at different linguistic levels, viz.-a-viz., grammar, morphology, syntax, lexico-semantics, spelling etc. The study aims at investigating the frequency of production of these errors of usage, expressing the findings as percentage, mean and standard deviation, across the different levels of learning (levels 1 to 4). The entire population of the study consisted of 106 English students from the first two levels under investigation, registered in the first and second semesters of the 2016-2017. All of the students under investigation were male and had a homogenous pre-university and university background. Upon a cursory look at the data in terms of percentage, the subjects have been found to produce the highest number of errors in the subcategory “articles”, and a smaller number of errors in the subcategory ‘present progressive instead of past’. In the major linguistic category ‘morphological errors’, the learners have been found to produce the highest percentage of errors. In another major linguistic category of errors, ‘syntactic errors’, the subcategory ‘noun + adjective instead of adjective + noun’ received the highest number of errors, whereas the subcategory ‘overuse of conjunction ‘and’’ has been found to receive the least number of errors.
  • Language learners' productive role in teaching and learning processes has recently been the focus of attention. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of oral vs. written output-based instruction on English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' vocabulary learning with a focus on reflective vs. impulsive learning styles. To this end, 131 learners were chosen among 182 learners by taking Nelson vocabulary proficiency test. Next, the participants received a valid Persian version of reflective thinking (Kember et al., 2000) and Barratt, Patton and Stanford (1975) BIS (Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale) 11 impulsiveness questionnaires, based on which both experimental groups were divided into impulsive and reflective subgroups, but the control group consisted of both impulsive and reflective learners. After 15 sessions of intervention and based on the results through one-way ANOVA and independent t-test it was concluded that both oral output and written output had significant effect on vocabulary learning of reflective and impulsive EFL Learners. It was also observed that the effect of both oral output and written output on impulsive (oral group’s mean=21.04; written groups’ mean= 21.75) learners and reflective learners (oral groups’ mean=22.38; written group’s mean: 22.23) is not significantly different. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
  • The development of a literate society is a pre-requisite for the emergence of a knowledge economy. The thesis advanced in this paper is that, without massive investment and promotion of literacy education, development that is targeted at the 17-point sustainable development goals (SDGs) will be bereft of citizen’s empowerment, engagement, experiential values and evidential consequences in social change. Therefore, using a qualitative approach conceptual), this study explored the causal correlation that subsists between literacy education, emergence of knowledge economy and sustainable development. The study established that, literacy is basic in andragogical context for facilitating citizens’ values re-orientation attitudinal change for the acquisition of vocational or functional skills and operational knowledge that is beneficial to individual as well as the collective drive for a literate society for the reduction of vulnerability and increase in sustainability in development respectively as expected in the SDGs. Consequently, the resultant outcomes will be a knowledge driven economy which is essential for the attainment of the sustainable development goals as envisaged by the United Nations declaration of 25th of September, 2015.
  • One of the great problems of Ethiopia for the educational arena is retention. Averagely 8.07% of each year of the secondary education students is repeated due to lack of achievement in this country. The percentage of retention in a country shows what proportion of students is regularly repeated in the same grade and who are, therefore, committing different crimes and misbehaved behaviors. Grade retention predicts many negative student outcomes: the frustration and humiliation associated with repeating the curriculum, combined with one’s physical size, may result in an increase in aggression and oppositional behavior. The main purpose of this study was to investigate some of the causes that contribute to grade nine students’ grade retention in general secondary schools of Dabat district. It has attempted to identify the major factors under two headings: in-school and out-of-school factors to present separate area of intervention. In order to attain the objectives, the study was carried out in two general secondary schools which were selected using comprehensive sampling techniques. The study involved 264(M=106 & F=158) grade repeaters and 44 teachers and 2 principals. The data gathered were analyzed using percentage, mean, Spearmen rank order correlation coefficient and t-test. Based on the result of the analysis, among the in-school factors, the highest percentages were observed for difficulty of language of instruction, students’ failure to study hard, poor quality of teaching, lack of guidance and counseling and frequent absenteeism of students were in-school related. On the other hand, low level of family income, parent (pupils) health problem, lack of parents support and child labor were identified as the major out-of-school causes for grade retention in grade nine secondary schools. It was also found out that the combined effect of both in-school and out-of-school factors was important in explaining students’ grade retentions in the secondary schools of the district. The incidence of the problem is relatively higher among girls than among boys.
  • Gardener’s (1985) socio-cultural model shows that culture is among the variables that can affect learning languages. In addition, a series of studies were prompted by Dörnyie (2005) to gauge the effect of motivation on language learning. This correlational study endeavored to find out any possible interaction between these variables, i.e., cultural identity, intrinsic motivation, and pronunciation knowledge of Iranian EFL learners at intermediate level. To this end, 9 items from Mathews’ Cultural Identity Questionnaire (2007) (as cited in Bazrafshan, 2015) along with intrinsic/extrinsic motivation questionnaire developed by Noels, Pelletier, Clement, and Vallerand (2000) were given to the 49 intermediate Iranian EFL learners who were selected among 74 learners studying at Mahan Language Institute in Birjand. The participants’ pronunciation knowledge was also measured through an interview. The results of the data analysis through Pearson correlation revealed that cultural identity shows no relationship with pronunciation knowledge of the participants, whereas more intrinsically motivated language learners gained higher scores on the pronunciation test. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
  • Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is still groping its way into Algerian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom, where Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) are defined in terms of occasional use of computers and data projectors for material presentation in the classroom. Though major issues in the image of the lack of training and absence of facilities are clearly apparent, stakeholders’ attitudes are a decisive aspect that needs to be mapped out if we are to alter the current situation. Thus, the present work aims at investigating EFL university teachers’ attitudes towards CALL at Djilali Liabes University (western Algeria). The current work is a cross-sectional descriptive study that explores teachers’ attitudes across the three domains (affective, cognitive, and behavioural) and investigates other related aspects that may help indicate teachers’ likelihood to adopt CALL in the future. The results are promising as the investigated population not only demonstrated a clearly positive attitude towards CALL but also manifested a number of signs that indicate their likelihood to adopt CALL in the future if circumstances are favourable.
  • The study reported here thoroughly investigated the instruction of listening skill in academic English programs. This was researched through a semi-structured interview. In this regard, in order to obtain a picture of listening requirements across the academy, data were collected from two different state universities of Iran. To compile the data, five listening lecturers from these two universities were invited to participate in the study. Topics investigated through the interviews included; the importance and objectives of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) listening in university study, the nature of listening in academic English programs, quantity and type of listening prescribed on courses, the integration of listening with other skills, and the evolution of changes in students’ listening requirements and practices. The analysis of the interviews revealed the two types of the courses; academic English-oriented courses and general English-oriented courses, each of them having their own perspectives regarding the various aspects of the listening. Regarding the changes in students’ practices, two types of transformations were found; transformation of the processes from bottom-up to top-down and transformation of the materials from textbook-oriented to more internet-oriented perspectives. The findings of the present study suggest some practical implications for the EFL students and teachers. In this regard, students need to equip and accustom themselves with more interpretive skills of listening and internet-oriented materials in their classes. Teachers are also required to balance between different types of skills and course materials in their classes according to their students’ needs.
  • The major aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insecurity of school environment on the academic performance of secondary school students in Imo state, Nigeria. A total of 1000 made up of 500 each of male and female students responded to a self-structured validated questionnaire designed for the study. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Means and standard deviations were calculated to answer the research questions and independent samples t-tests were used for testing the hypotheses. Major findings revealed that insecurity of school environment significantly affects the academic performance of secondary school students while students’ gangsterism, smoking of Indian hemp, abusing other hard drugs, cult and related violent activities were some of the factors that constituted insecurity of the school environment which eventually cause boys to leave school and join trading while leading girls to drop out and settle for marriage. Based on the findings, it was recommended that owners of schools and other stakeholders in education should take bold steps to fence and protect school environments from intruders to ensure safety of the students.Keywords: Effect of insecurity, school environment, Academic performance, secondary school students and Imo state
  • A number of educational reform attempts, chief among which are pedagogy by objectives, competency-based approach, and pedagogy of integration, have been made to establish pedagogical reform in Moroccan public primary school. However, results have not been up to par. Failure of school reform has been largely rationalized in terms of technical problems associated with innovation delivery system. By adopting a “technicist” stance towards issues of pedagogical reform, decision makers and curriculum developers have paid a scant attention to the fact that pedagogical innovations are social constructions, and as such value-laden. The institutionalization of pedagogical frameworks import has so far failed to take into account the local sociocultural meanings. A close look into our classrooms shapes an understanding why prevailing traditional practices persist in spite of the progressive ideals advocated in reform packages. Pedagogy is more than techniques; it is deeply embedded in the sociocultural context. Upgrading pedagogical practice requires a sociocultural approach in which the nature of the cultural perspective of pedagogy is recognized and failure of pedagogical reform is also sought in the workings of the enveloping social structure. Such a cultural undertaking of pedagogy can be fulfilled by probing teachers’ cultural models of pedagogy. Without proper examination and understanding of teachers’ conceptualization of pedagogy and how it reflects on classroom practice, it will be difficult to determine an appropriate focus for pedagogical reform. Therefore, the study of teachers’ cultural models of pedagogy has the potential to provide reflective insight into many facets of teachers’ thinking and practice. Attentiveness to cultural models of pedagogy can lead and enlighten educational practice towards directions that current research has not explored yet.Keywords: Teacher, culture, pedagogy, reform, cultural models
  • In Nigeria, School-Based Management Committees (SBMCs) aim to provide an opportunity for all stakeholders, particularly the vulnerable groups in the school’s host communities such as young people and women to partake in school governance. Research on the experiences of youth voice in the committees is scant, however, as much of the existing literature on SBMCs focuses on program outcomes. Using qualitative research interviews, observations, and document analysis, this study addressed this gap by exploring how youth participate and express themselves in two SBMCs in Niger State, Nigeria. The findings, which were derived from 19 youth and adult participants, were drawn from SBMC members out of which 12 were youth between the ages 13 and 25, while 7 were adults aged 40 and above. The participants revealed that youth committee members expressed their voice in the committees through participating in a number of committee activities. Specifically, the youth participated in decision-making during meetings, aided in the construction of committee projects, undertook administrative/managerial functions and monitored the committee’s projects. They also participated in revenue generation, planning, school visits and supervision, advocacy, and sensitization campaigns.
  • Speaking is a crucial form of communication in language learning settings. Through speaking skill, ESL/EFL language learners can communicate and convey information. Pictorial aids have been deployed as efficacious mediatory tools in teaching various disciplines such as language teaching. Still, to the best of the researchers’ knowledge, a direct look at the impacts of pictorial aids on EFL intermediate learners’ speaking proficiency has been less addressed. Thus, the main concern of the present study was to investigate the role of pictorial aids in creating a favorable ground for teaching speaking and how it may affect learners’ speaking proficiency. To this end, 40 intermediate EFL learners were selected out of 70 from a private English language institute in Shiraz, Iran. The homogeneity of their proficiency level was established via the administration of Oxford Proficiency Test. Then they were randomly divided into two control and experimental groups. Three instruments were used to answer the research questions: Pre-test and post-test interviews, classroom observation, and a questionnaire. Subsequently, the participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=20) and a control (n=20) group. During 6 sessions, the experimental group received treatment while using pictorial aids. By contrast, the control group followed their routine instruction at the institution through traditional method, i.e. the tasks of Top notch 2. Then by the end of the study, an interview was held as a post test in order to monitor any effect the treatment might have on increasing speaking proficiency of the participants under the investigation. The results gained from a post-test were analyzed via t-test indicated that visual aids had a positive impact on the intermediate learners’ speaking proficiency in which experimental group outperformed control group.
  • This paper explores the causes and effects of a unique begging style involving children as guides in Dodoma Municipality, Tanzania. The rationale for Dodoma Municipality to be the study location is that the begging phenomenon using children as guides is rampant. The study sample involved 40 respondents, of whom 6 were young carers of visually impaired adult beggars, 6 visually impaired adult beggars, 6 young carers of visually impaired adult beggars’ family members and 22 influential community members. Purposeful sampling technique was used to obtain these respondents. Data collection methods entailed interviews and observations. Artifacts were also used to portray issues under investigation more vividly. The data were analyzed using content analysis in which themes and sub-themes were determined by organization, reduction and interpretation of the information collected. The study discovered that lack of education, sympathy attraction, lack of proper orientation, laziness and poverty were the major causes for the existence of begging involving children as guides. The study revealed that minor causes include parents’ negligence and alcoholism, Single Parenthood as well as drought and hunger. The begging style using children as guides resulted into notable limited basic education access among these vulnerable children hence a liability and not asset. The study recommends that young carers of visually impaired adult beggars should be enrolled to basic education and revitalize education for self-reliance.Keywords: Basic Education Access, Visually Impaired Adult Beggars, and Young Carers
  • First year students often experience a culture shock as certain literacy practices at the university level are different from their experiences in high schools. Some major challenges that students encounter include students’ ability to maintain academic integrity practices in their studies, to comprehend complex academic texts to outline key ideas, and to communicate confidently and effectively in diverse academic genres. As these challenges are common, often universities offer activities to assist students’ with their academic enculturation process. The three popular literacy teaching models currently in practice are the generic, embedded and literacies models. All the three models offer challenges in their effective practice. By evaluating the ethnographic data from the models used at UNSW Canberra Academic Language Learning Unit (ALL), this paper argues that in line with Lea and Street’s (2006) discussion, literacies is the most effective approach for developing students’ lifelong skills for effective communication, reading and critical thinking. Literary teaching should involve an advanced inquiry into writing practices in diverse disciplines helping students’ identifying and practicing using language devices and rhetorical structures in academic genres.
  • E-portfolio is a promising approach to develop teachers into reflective practitioners who show that they can adapt to new technologies, new criteria, and new environments. The current research explored the quality of EFL student teachers’ e-portfolios and their attitudes towards using them. The research was conducted on 30 EFL female student teachers at Princess Noura bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia. The participants were engaging in practical training at schools and reflecting their skills and experiences in their e-portfolios. This research posed further questions about the relationships between the quality of EFL student teachers’ e-portfolios, their attitudes towards using them and their teaching performance. In order to explore the possible answers, the participants’ teaching performance were observed, their e-portfolios were evaluated by a rubric, and a 24-item questionnaire was administered to them. The results proved high proficiency level of the EFL student teachers’ e-portfolios and positive attitudes towards using e-portfolios among EFL student teachers. Furthermore, the results denoted a statistically significant positive relationship between the quality of EFL student teachers’ e-portfolio and their teaching performance. The results of this study may encourage policy makers to integrate the idea of e-portfolio and reflection as an effective component in teacher education and development.Keywords: EFL student teachers, e-portfolio, teacher education and development, teachers’ attitudes
  • In the current research, we investigated how significantly the second grade high school female students’ educational, emotional, and spiritual intelligence were associated with their religious orientation. This research is descriptive (non- experimental) with a correlation design. The research population includes all of the second grade high school girl students, during the 2015-16 educational year in Sari, a city in the north of Iran. In this research, 260 samples were selected randomly. Research results showed that educational, emotional, and spiritual intelligence (independent variables) had positive and significant relationship with internal and external religious orientation (dependent variable). As the levels of educational, emotional, and spiritual intelligence increased, so did the level of religious orientation. Also the results of multiple regression analysis showed that educational, emotional, spiritual intelligence were anticipants of religious orientation and its dimensions (internal and external religious orientation).
  • The aim of the present study was to illuminate the differences between Persian and English in online headlines in terms of applying metadiscourse markers in the first two months of the year 2015. To fulfill this purpose, 100 Persian and English online headlines (each 50 headlines) were chosen randomly from English and Persian newscasts such as VOA, CNN, Bistosi (20:30), and Bashgahkhabarnegaran. The specific research areas of interest was whether online Persian and English headlines differed in making use of metadiscourse markers. The corpus was recorded and divided in two groups of Persian online headlines and English online headlines. According to Hyland’s (2005) model, interactive and interactional metadiscourse markers were identified in online headlines. Corpus analysis showed that according to descriptive statistics, Persian and English were not significantly different in using metadiscourse markers in online headlines. The findings can help to keep journalism students aware of this aspect of metadiscourse. Keywords: Metadiscourse, English headlines, Persian headlines, Field-specific
  • In an attempt to develop plans for making Education for All a reality, four agencies of the United Nations brought together over 150 governments in 1990 to Jomtien, Thailand, and also in 2000 in Dakar, Senegal, with the aim of making education equally accessible to all. Nigeria is one of the countries that signed the Jomtien declaration in 1990, and one of those with the highest number of out-of-school children in the world with about 10.5 million out-of-school children in 2010. This figure represents 42% of its primary age population and 3.6 million more children out of school than ten years ago. Nigeria is now committed towards bridging the gap especially with the attempt towards establishing open schools, but considering the numerous problems confronting the existing public primary and secondary schools and other educational programmes, there are certain barriers that may hinder the successful implementation and smooth running of the proposed open schooling system. This paper examines the anticipated barriers that includes; corruption, lack of consistency in programmes, problem of electricity, lack of access to Internet, lack of fund, inadequate manpower and problem of recognition. For open schooling system to see the light of the day, some recommendations were suggested which, if taken into consideration will be useful to policy makers towards the successful launching and smooth running of the open schools and other laudable educational programmes in Nigeria.
  • First year students often experience a culture shock as certain literacy practices at the university level are different from their experiences in high schools. Some major challenges that students encounter include students’ ability to maintain academic integrity practices in their studies, to comprehend complex academic texts to outline key ideas, and to communicate confidently and effectively in diverse academic genres. As these challenges are common, often universities offer activities to assist students’ with their academic enculturation process. The three popular literacy teaching models currently in practice are the generic, embedded and literacies models. All the three models offer challenges in their effective practice. By evaluating the ethnographic data from the models used at UNSW Canberra Academic Language Learning Unit (ALL), this paper argues that in line with Lea and Street’s (2006) discussion, literacies is the most effective approach for developing students’ lifelong skills for effective communication, reading and critical thinking. Literary teaching should involve an advanced inquiry into writing practices in diverse disciplines helping students’ identifying and practicing using language devices and rhetorical structures in academic genres.
  • E-portfolio is a promising approach to develop teachers into reflective practitioners who show that they can adapt to new technologies, new criteria, and new environments. The current research explored the quality of EFL student teachers’ e-portfolios and their attitudes towards using them. The research was conducted on 30 EFL female student teachers at Princess Noura bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia. The participants were engaging in practical training at schools and reflecting their skills and experiences in their e-portfolios. This research posed further questions about the relationships between the quality of EFL student teachers’ e-portfolios, their attitudes towards using them and their teaching performance. In order to explore the possible answers, the participants’ teaching performance were observed, their e-portfolios were evaluated by a rubric, and a 24-item questionnaire was administered to them. The results proved high proficiency level of the EFL student teachers’ e-portfolios and positive attitudes towards using e-portfolios among EFL student teachers. Furthermore, the results denoted a statistically significant positive relationship between the quality of EFL student teachers’ e-portfolio and their teaching performance. The results of this study may encourage policy makers to integrate the idea of e-portfolio and reflection as an effective component in teacher education and development.Keywords: EFL student teachers, e-portfolio, teacher education and development, teachers’ attitudes
  • A number of educational reform attempts, chief among which are pedagogy by objectives, competency-based approach, and pedagogy of integration, have been made to establish pedagogical reform in Moroccan public primary school. However, results have not been up to par. Failure of school reform has been largely rationalized in terms of technical problems associated with innovation delivery system. By adopting a “technicist” stance towards issues of pedagogical reform, decision makers and curriculum developers have paid a scant attention to the fact that pedagogical innovations are social constructions, and as such value-laden. The institutionalization of pedagogical frameworks import has so far failed to take into account the local sociocultural meanings. A close look into our classrooms shapes an understanding why prevailing traditional practices persist in spite of the progressive ideals advocated in reform packages. Pedagogy is more than techniques; it is deeply embedded in the sociocultural context. Upgrading pedagogical practice requires a sociocultural approach in which the nature of the cultural perspective of pedagogy is recognized and failure of pedagogical reform is also sought in the workings of the enveloping social structure. Such a cultural undertaking of pedagogy can be fulfilled by probing teachers’ cultural models of pedagogy. Without proper examination and understanding of teachers’ conceptualization of pedagogy and how it reflects on classroom practice, it will be difficult to determine an appropriate focus for pedagogical reform. Therefore, the study of teachers’ cultural models of pedagogy has the potential to provide reflective insight into many facets of teachers’ thinking and practice. Attentiveness to cultural models of pedagogy can lead and enlighten educational practice towards directions that current research has not explored yet.Keywords: Teacher, culture, pedagogy, reform, cultural models
  • In the current research, we investigated how significantly the second grade high school female students’ educational, emotional, and spiritual intelligence were associated with their religious orientation. This research is descriptive (non- experimental) with a correlation design. The research population includes all of the second grade high school girl students, during the 2015-16 educational year in Sari, a city in the north of Iran. In this research, 260 samples were selected randomly. Research results showed that educational, emotional, and spiritual intelligence (independent variables) had positive and significant relationship with internal and external religious orientation (dependent variable). As the levels of educational, emotional, and spiritual intelligence increased, so did the level of religious orientation. Also the results of multiple regression analysis showed that educational, emotional, spiritual intelligence were anticipants of religious orientation and its dimensions (internal and external religious orientation).
  • The aim of the present study was to illuminate the differences between Persian and English in online headlines in terms of applying metadiscourse markers in the first two months of the year 2015. To fulfill this purpose, 100 Persian and English online headlines (each 50 headlines) were chosen randomly from English and Persian newscasts such as VOA, CNN, Bistosi (20:30), and Bashgahkhabarnegaran. The specific research areas of interest was whether online Persian and English headlines differed in making use of metadiscourse markers. The corpus was recorded and divided in two groups of Persian online headlines and English online headlines. According to Hyland’s (2005) model, interactive and interactional metadiscourse markers were identified in online headlines. Corpus analysis showed that according to descriptive statistics, Persian and English were not significantly different in using metadiscourse markers in online headlines. The findings can help to keep journalism students aware of this aspect of metadiscourse. Keywords: Metadiscourse, English headlines, Persian headlines, Field-specific
  • The current study described the uses of smart boards in English as foreign language (EFL) classrooms. This study also investigated the role of smart boards in promoting student engagement, the benefits of smart boards for teachers, using smart boards for improving motivation, and smart boards in the service of linguistic and cultural elements. The review of previous studies revealed that smart boards are very innovative and powerful support for language acquisition. Moreover, they increased learning process.

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