African journal of business management (AFR J BUS MANAGE)

Publisher: Academic Journals

RG Journal Impact: 0.50 *

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2019Available summer 2020
20180.50
20170.46
20160.32
20150.22
20140.21
20130.23
20120.36
20111.31
20100.76
20090.58
20080.35

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact
RG Journal impact over timeGraph showing a linear path with a yearly representation of impact points of the journal

Additional details

Cited half-lifedata not available
Immediacy index0.07
Eigenfactor0.00
Article influence0.05
Website
Website description
ISSN1993-8233

Publications in this journal

A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons or entities that join to carry on a trade or business. Each one contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the business. This paper aims to describe some types of partnerships between governments, communities, new social movements and firms.
The paper is about application of evolutionary concept, particularly the application of natural selection process, to the study of movie industry. The importance of the application is that it allows for the heterogeneity and interdependency of market agents in analyzing the economic choice decision. This complexity always presents an obstacle to the study of market behavior, especially when one has to take into account the constant reinforcing effects among the variables, which often renders the problem elusive. The paper intends to explain the economic process, particularly the evolution of exhibition contract, taking into account this complexity through the use of evolutionary concept.
Since leadership is a critical factor for improving organizational performance, failure or success of an organization highly depends on the efficiency of leadership at all levels. Scholars elaborated that leadership is the ability of influencing one's attitudes, aptitudes and beliefs, in the way that it will lead to meet organizational objectives. The main purpose of this study is to consider two domains of efficient leadership and women’s leadership style, in order to determine and elaborate the dimensions of the new concept of “Women’s Efficient Leadership”. We intend to describe the characteristics of women’s efficient leadership in state organizations in Iran by means of offering a logical pattern, in order to be able to propose a favorable pattern, leading to increased efficiency in governmental organizations of the country. Innovation of this study can be divided into two parts: one is theoretical contribution and developing the knowledge of efficient leadership as well as women’s leadership style, and the second one is scientific contribution and proposing a pattern for women’s efficient leadership in state organizations, using compound approach. The outcomes of this study show that women’s efficient leadership in state organizations consists of 7 subjects, 17 dimensions, and 85 components, which represent various characteristics in different periods of time. The thesis that women’s efficient leadership has an evolving nature was approved and that it consists of a combination of factors such as capability of team making, having vision, cognitive and psychological capabilities, able to bring continuous improvement of organizational performance, mentoring and making effective relations. In this study, the influence of mentioned factors on women’s efficient leadership has been investigated by means of questionnaires and has been approved.
Providing efficient query to XML data for ebXML applications in e-commerce is crucial, as XML has become the most important technique to exchange data over the Internet. ebXML is a set of specifications for companies to exchange their data in e-commerce. Following the ebXML specifications, companies have a standard method to exchange business messages, communicate data, and business rules in e-commerce. Due to its tree-structure paradigm, XML is superior for its capability of storing and querying complex data for ebXML applications. Therefore, discovering frequent XML query patterns has become an interesting topic for XML data management in ebXML applications. In this paper, we present an efficient mining algorithm, namely ebXMiner, to discover the frequent XML query patterns for ebXML applications. Unlike the existing algorithms, we propose a new idea by collecting the equivalent XML queries and then enumerating the candidates from infrequent XML queries in our ebXMiner. Furthermore, our simulation results show that ebXMiner outperforms other algorithms in its execution time.
This paper evaluated the feasibility of optimum currency areas (OCAs) in East Asia by benchmarking the characteristics of 16 East Asian economies and India against those of the dollarized countries and the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), according to criteria that are most frequently studied in OCA literature, namely synchronization in real business cycle, volatility in real exchange rate, and synchronization in real interest rate cycle. Backed by literature, the U.S. dollar was set to be the reference currency. Data series were divided into different time periods to capture different economic circumstances. A ‘dynamic’ benchmarking technique was used to ensure robustness of results. Results suggested that the region as a whole does not constitute an OCA at the moment. Nonetheless, a subregional union of a high potential ‘Southeast Asian’ bloc was put forward. Results serve to be an important reference for both public and private policymakers on matters pertaining to regionalization and international business management.
Petrochemical industry as one of the largest and most important sectors is in need of the application of new managerial tools for strategic planning. There are different models and tools for strategic planning. The model of balanced scorecard (BSC) has been noticed by various organizations in recent years due to its special attention to intangible assets of organization like customer, internal processes, growth and learning in addition to financial indexes. Moreover, it is considered as one of the new methods of strategic planning. This research aims at developing a strategy for Mobin Petrochemical Company with a BSC attitude. The present research from the viewpoint of goal is an applied research and in respect of data collection, it uses a qualitative research method (focal group). For the purpose of learning about strategies of Mobin Petrochemical Company, while reviewing texts and literature related to strategic management, the views of senior petrochemical managers was used in the process of focus groups. During various focus meetings held in the presence of senior management body of the organization, the mission and vision of company were determined. Then identifying external opportunities and threats and determining internal weaknesses and strengths of organization and evaluating the IFE and EFE matrixes, the SWOT matrix was formed and strategies of Mobin Petrochemical Company were determined. The motifs of the company strategy were classified from the four main perspectives of BSC model. Afterwards, for determining the process of creation of value and cause and effect relation between strategic goals of organization, the strategy map of Mobin Petrochemical Company was drawn. Finally, the strategic pivots of Mobin Petrochemical Company were determined with regard to financial, customer, internal processes, growth and learning. In order to render strategies and determine objectives and performance measures in BSC system, various meeting were held in different units of the company. Reviewing the details of performance and method of implementation in each part, proper measures and their method of formation were determined. Having the confirmation of senior managerial body of Mobin Petrochemical Company, strategic plans and measures were adopted.
Most of the empirical works have focused on the causal relationship between exports and economic growth in the case of Pakistan, whereas terms of trade have been neglected. This paper investigates the nature of relationship between the exports, terms of trade and economic growth by using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach and rolling window regression method. The empirical findings indicate that long run relationship exist when real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and real exports are dependent variables
This paper is a theoretical exploration of the critical realist paradigm of Roy Bhasker in the light of project management. We present a case that the critical realist paradigm is a way forward and a mechanism to get closer to the reality in which projects are conceived and implemented. The “noumenal” world of Kant, which has previously been considered unattainable and therefore ignored from further debate, is repositioned as one that we can come close to understanding via a closer understanding of the “phenomenal” world if a critical realist stance is adopted. The paper then moves to explore the changing stance of project management research and heeding calls of the project management research community for explorations in the complexity, social process, value creation, broader conceptualization of projects, reflective practice and presents a case for how the critical realist philosophy and case study methodology can be helpful in achieving these goals.
Retaining employees remains a primary concern for many organizations during days of intellectual property, for intellectual capital has become a critical component of wealth creation. This paper provides a theoretical overview of the different periods of motives and domains or targets of employee retention/turnover and highlights the performing importance from the platform of social capital in research. The objective of this study is to present literature on the complex relationship between individual performance characters and withdraw tendency based on Social Capital Theory. It is generally revealed that in the traditional attitude turnover model the process of employees' volunteer turnover is the reversed transformation process of employees' retention psychology and behaviours, mainly consisting of four sectors (Lee and Mitchell, 1999): first is the quit process caused by job dissatisfaction; then, employees' search for substitutable jobs before turnover; is evaluation on such substitutable jobs; and result is occurrence of turnover behaviour. Finally, an integrative model of the relationship is proposed which argues that performance character may lead to withdraw tendency even turnover behavior through four different routes with the introduction of the Job-Coupling variable. The practical implication of the proposed model for practitioners and researchers encourage further discussion and suggestions.
This study aims at assessing the impact of government spending in various sectors of the economy on poverty reduction. Time series annual data for the period 1972 to 2008 has been used for analyzing the long-run impact of government spending in education, health, economic and community services, budget deficit and law and order on poverty reduction by using recent econometric development. The results show that government spending on education and law and order significantly contribute to poverty reduction while government spending on budget deficit and economic and community services appeared to be responsible for poverty in Pakistan. The study reveals that government spending in health sector does not have significant impact on poverty reduction. The study recommends that Government of Pakistan should allocate more resources towards education and health sector for the development of human capital. There is a need to reform government institutions like police, judiciary, civil services that may help in reducing poverty. Furthermore government should cut down its wasteful non-development expenditure financed through domestic and foreign borrowing and allocate more resources for developing education, health and infrastructure sectors of the economy.
This study investigates the impact of bank capital adequacy ratios, management and performance in the Nigerian commercial bank (1986 - 2006). The objectives of this paper are: to determine to what extent bank capital adequacy ratios impact on bank performance and also to investigate the extent to which operation expenses has impacted on the return on capital. The study captured their performance indicators and employed cross sectional and time series of bank data obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Annual Report and Financial statements of the sampled banks. The formulated models were estimated using ordinary least square regression method. The overall capital adequacy ratios of the study shows that Shareholders Fund/Total Assets (SHF/TA) which measures capital adequacy of banks (risk of default) have negative impact on ROA. The efficiency of management measured by operating expenses indice is negatively related to return on capital. The implication of this study, among others, is that adequate shareholders fund can serve as a veritable stimulant in strengthening the performance of Nigerian commercial banks and also heighten the confidence of customers especially in this era of global economic melt-down that has taken its toll in the Nigerian financial system. JEL CODE: G34 Key words: Buffer capital theory of capital adequacy, expense theory, capital adequacy ratios.
Market segmentation is an expanding focus in tourism scholarship. Only limited application of this concept has been undertaken to interpret hotel business development, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This article shows that in South Africa, one of Africa's leading tourism destinations, market segmentation has been a distinguishing feature of the country's hotel sector especially over the past 20 years. It is argued that as post-apartheid South Africa shed its international pariah status and emerged as a new destination in the international tourism economy, the national tourism industry experienced a phase of considerable restructuring. The growth and subsequent acceleration of market segmentation in South Africa's hotel industry is one outcome of the country's reintegration into the global tourism economy which facilitated a range of new upgrading opportunities for business development and property investment.
Based on of analysis of the impact mechanism of government financial expenditure for people’s livelihood on household consumption, the paper measures the Theil Index of urban-rural consumption gap, and establishes Panel Cointegration Model to analysis the effect of government financial expenditure for people’s livelihood on urban-rural consumption gap using the panel data (1995 to 2009) of 31 provinces. The results showed that there exists a long-term stable co-integration relationship between government financial expenditure for people’s livelihood and urban-rural residents’ consumption gap in the social transitional period of china; most provinces can narrow urban-rural residents’ consumption gap through increasing financial expenditure on education, social security and agriculture; a few provinces can narrow urban-rural residents’ consumption gap through increasing financial expenditure on health. The heterogeneity that exists in the impact shows that there are significant regional differences. Estimated PVECM indicates the same results from a short-term perspective. Finally, the paper puts forward policy recommendations that how to balance government financial expenditure for people’s livelihood to narrow urban-rural consumption disparity from the longterm and short-term perspective.
Changes in citation patterns and in the advertising reflect the evolution of the field itself. This study utilized author co-citation analysis, a bibliometric methodology and social network analysis methodology, to highlight the most influential authors, analyze citation relationships, reveal correlations among publications, and show trends and patterns in the advertising field over two consecutive time periods, 1998 to 2002 and 2003 to 2007. In addition, factor analysis was used to examine the breadth of the authors’ research areas. This study serves as a disciplinary review of the field of advertising research.
Based on the practice of transnational corporations (TNCs) and theories of new classical economics and new institutional economics, we demonstrated that the necessary condition for establishing TNCs is factor endowments dominance (FED) at the macro level, and the sufficient condition for establishing TNCs was enterprise individual characteristic at the micro level. On these grounds, an analysis framework of TNCs’ origin and formation was constructed, namely, in an imperfect competitive market, international business develops from the potential profits produced by bi-directional FED between host countries and home country. Corporations with enterprise individual characteristic could gain potential profits derived FED by establishing TNCs, when the transaction cost of establishing TNCs was lower than that of international trade. This paper adopted panel data of Chinese listed companies’ annual statement from 2001 to 2009. Then, we used interacting multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for the empirical study. It was concluded that the analysis framework was effective, advantage of operation scale was common feature of enterprise individual characteristic and different types of TNCs had their own special features.
This study empirically investigates the stochastic structure of time-varying Betas of three main sector indices in the Istanbul stock exchange (ISE). The sample consisted of daily observation closing prices of indices from January, 2001 through March, 2011, resulting in 2636 observations. The bivariate multivariate (MGARCH) model (BEKK model) is applied to create the time-varying Betas for the services, financials and industrials index of ISE. Results indicate that time-varying Betas are remarkably similar to standard market model estimations for all sectors. In addition, neither constant nor time-varying Beta estimations for sub-periods were stable overtime consistent with the existing literature. During the sample period, a statistically significant decline in the systematic risk of industrial and service sectors and a dramatic increase in financial sector are observed.
Pension plans and funds represent a substantial part of the welfare systems in both Europe and Spain. One of the most important factors in the choice of a plan or fund is its performance, since if high returns are obtained; the participant will receive higher payments when the contingency covered by the plan or fund occurs. The main objective of this paper is therefore to analyse the performance of individual pension plans. To this end, we apply a multi-index model based on an extension of Jensen’s alpha to a sample of data corresponding to 521 pension plans for the period between January 2006 and December 2010. The results obtained show that the performance of Spanish pension plan managers is, in general, close to zero. This suggests that in the Spanish pension plan market, the value added by active management does not compensate for its associated costs. Our analysis of whether the size and age of the plan might explain performance indicates that both factors are not related to risk-adjusted return. On the other hand, pension plan performance improves slightly when fees are not deducted, and positive risk-adjusted returns are obtained in some cases.
The economic recession that hit the world in 2007 to 2009 had a direct impact on the Islamic capital market in Malaysia. The data from the year 2007 to 2010 have shown that the Islamic stock market index has a higher volatility than conventional indexes, and this is what makes the return rate of Shariah index becomes unstable. The main aim of this study was to examine the volatility in the Islamic stock market. The instability of the market volatility returns may attract investors who prefer a risk stock market, because this market has the potential to provide a high return rate. On the other hand, the situation is to encourage Muslim investors that it is their duty to ignore speculation and invest, because rapid withdrawal from the markets will not be beneficial to many and may affect the goals to enhance Muslims’ economy.
A five year longitudinal study (2007 to 2011) was conducted among a panel of informal micro businesses in the informal sector of South Africa. The study was aimed at examining micro business survival and attrition. A life-cycle analysis confirmed the survival of only 43.2% of these businesses in an increasing competitive environment over a period of five years. By contrasting the profiles of surviving businesses with those that closed their doors, a second objective was also attained, namely the identification of principle reasons for micro business survival. According to a categorical regression model with business survival as dependent variable, the human factor and, especially the entrepreneurial endowment and small business management skills materialised as the strongest predictors of micro business sustainability. Micro business support strategies, especially in developing societies with limited resources, should be focused on businesses with embedded entrepreneurial acumen. Hence the inherent dynamics to create and exploit new innovative business opportunities.
Monetary and fiscal policies are the economic policies that are pursued in the solution of macroeconomic instabilities. Solutions to economic problems, to be produced by monetary policies, are built on the channels through which monetary policies could influence the economy. Especially time periods of financial crises are closely related to the healthy operation of monetary transmission channels. Monetary transmission channels played a significant role in the spread of the 2008 global financial crisis, which started in 2007 and peaked in 2008, since the crisis primarily affected financial markets. The aim of this study was to provide an assessment of monetary transmission channels and of how the 2008 global financial crisis became a global issue through these channels. It was concluded in the study that all transmission channels played active roles in the spread of the crisis. Key words: Monetary transmission channels, financial crisis, monetary policy strategy.
In the aforesaid paper, some pages are omitted reluctantly and are corrected thus. In this paper, the two-floor facility layout problem with unequal departmental areas in multi-bay environments is addressed. A mixed integer programming formulation is developed to find the optimal solution to the problem. This model determines position and number of elevators with consideration of conflicting objectives simultaneously. Objectives include to minimize material handling cost and to maximize closeness rating. A memetic algorithm (MA) is designed to solve the problem and it is compared with the corresponding genetic algorithm for large-sized test instances and with a commercial linear programming solver solution to small-sized test instances. Computational results proved the efficiency of solution procedure to the problem.
Emerging trends such as globalisation, customer power and sophistication, social responsibility and environmental sustainability consciousness are creating new business challenges and market demands for organisations. In order for the business world to realise growth and sustainable success in this environment, many organisations changed the strategy they followed in the last three decades. The new strategies moved from being predominately product-focused, using process management and cost reduction, which used to be core functions to quality management, to more risk mitigation, revenue generation and reputational focused drivers. Hence, in the last twenty years the world of business has changed significantly, whereas the field of quality has not correspondingly changed in thinking or form. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the supposition that quality has become out-dated over the last two decades. This paper will focus on the change that quality management as a discipline should undertake by proposing a quality stewardship and leadership (QSAL) framework for managing quality, under a new definition, namely, quality stewardship, into the future. In addition, this study will also include an empirical study which was undertaken to evaluate the support for the proposed framework.
Market segmentation is an expanding focus in tourism scholarship. Only limited application of this concept has been undertaken to interpret hotel business development, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This article shows that in South Africa, one of Africa's leading tourism destinations, market segmentation has been a distinguishing feature of the country's hotel sector especially over the past 20 years. It is argued that as post-apartheid South Africa shed its international pariah status and emerged as a new destination in the international tourism economy, the national tourism industry experienced a phase of considerable restructuring. The growth and subsequent acceleration of market segmentation in South Africa's hotel industry is one outcome of the country's reintegration into the global tourism economy which facilitated a range of new upgrading opportunities for business development and property investment.
Based on of analysis of the impact mechanism of government financial expenditure for people’s livelihood on household consumption, the paper measures the Theil Index of urban-rural consumption gap, and establishes Panel Cointegration Model to analysis the effect of government financial expenditure for people’s livelihood on urban-rural consumption gap using the panel data (1995 to 2009) of 31 provinces. The results showed that there exists a long-term stable co-integration relationship between government financial expenditure for people’s livelihood and urban-rural residents’ consumption gap in the social transitional period of china; most provinces can narrow urban-rural residents’ consumption gap through increasing financial expenditure on education, social security and agriculture; a few provinces can narrow urban-rural residents’ consumption gap through increasing financial expenditure on health. The heterogeneity that exists in the impact shows that there are significant regional differences. Estimated PVECM indicates the same results from a short-term perspective. Finally, the paper puts forward policy recommendations that how to balance government financial expenditure for people’s livelihood to narrow urban-rural consumption disparity from the longterm and short-term perspective.
Changes in citation patterns and in the advertising reflect the evolution of the field itself. This study utilized author co-citation analysis, a bibliometric methodology and social network analysis methodology, to highlight the most influential authors, analyze citation relationships, reveal correlations among publications, and show trends and patterns in the advertising field over two consecutive time periods, 1998 to 2002 and 2003 to 2007. In addition, factor analysis was used to examine the breadth of the authors’ research areas. This study serves as a disciplinary review of the field of advertising research.
This study empirically investigates the stochastic structure of time-varying Betas of three main sector indices in the Istanbul stock exchange (ISE). The sample consisted of daily observation closing prices of indices from January, 2001 through March, 2011, resulting in 2636 observations. The bivariate multivariate (MGARCH) model (BEKK model) is applied to create the time-varying Betas for the services, financials and industrials index of ISE. Results indicate that time-varying Betas are remarkably similar to standard market model estimations for all sectors. In addition, neither constant nor time-varying Beta estimations for sub-periods were stable overtime consistent with the existing literature. During the sample period, a statistically significant decline in the systematic risk of industrial and service sectors and a dramatic increase in financial sector are observed.
Based on the practice of transnational corporations (TNCs) and theories of new classical economics and new institutional economics, we demonstrated that the necessary condition for establishing TNCs is factor endowments dominance (FED) at the macro level, and the sufficient condition for establishing TNCs was enterprise individual characteristic at the micro level. On these grounds, an analysis framework of TNCs’ origin and formation was constructed, namely, in an imperfect competitive market, international business develops from the potential profits produced by bi-directional FED between host countries and home country. Corporations with enterprise individual characteristic could gain potential profits derived FED by establishing TNCs, when the transaction cost of establishing TNCs was lower than that of international trade. This paper adopted panel data of Chinese listed companies’ annual statement from 2001 to 2009. Then, we used interacting multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for the empirical study. It was concluded that the analysis framework was effective, advantage of operation scale was common feature of enterprise individual characteristic and different types of TNCs had their own special features.
Pension plans and funds represent a substantial part of the welfare systems in both Europe and Spain. One of the most important factors in the choice of a plan or fund is its performance, since if high returns are obtained; the participant will receive higher payments when the contingency covered by the plan or fund occurs. The main objective of this paper is therefore to analyse the performance of individual pension plans. To this end, we apply a multi-index model based on an extension of Jensen’s alpha to a sample of data corresponding to 521 pension plans for the period between January 2006 and December 2010. The results obtained show that the performance of Spanish pension plan managers is, in general, close to zero. This suggests that in the Spanish pension plan market, the value added by active management does not compensate for its associated costs. Our analysis of whether the size and age of the plan might explain performance indicates that both factors are not related to risk-adjusted return. On the other hand, pension plan performance improves slightly when fees are not deducted, and positive risk-adjusted returns are obtained in some cases.
The economic recession that hit the world in 2007 to 2009 had a direct impact on the Islamic capital market in Malaysia. The data from the year 2007 to 2010 have shown that the Islamic stock market index has a higher volatility than conventional indexes, and this is what makes the return rate of Shariah index becomes unstable. The main aim of this study was to examine the volatility in the Islamic stock market. The instability of the market volatility returns may attract investors who prefer a risk stock market, because this market has the potential to provide a high return rate. On the other hand, the situation is to encourage Muslim investors that it is their duty to ignore speculation and invest, because rapid withdrawal from the markets will not be beneficial to many and may affect the goals to enhance Muslims’ economy.
A five year longitudinal study (2007 to 2011) was conducted among a panel of informal micro businesses in the informal sector of South Africa. The study was aimed at examining micro business survival and attrition. A life-cycle analysis confirmed the survival of only 43.2% of these businesses in an increasing competitive environment over a period of five years. By contrasting the profiles of surviving businesses with those that closed their doors, a second objective was also attained, namely the identification of principle reasons for micro business survival. According to a categorical regression model with business survival as dependent variable, the human factor and, especially the entrepreneurial endowment and small business management skills materialised as the strongest predictors of micro business sustainability. Micro business support strategies, especially in developing societies with limited resources, should be focused on businesses with embedded entrepreneurial acumen. Hence the inherent dynamics to create and exploit new innovative business opportunities.
Monetary and fiscal policies are the economic policies that are pursued in the solution of macroeconomic instabilities. Solutions to economic problems, to be produced by monetary policies, are built on the channels through which monetary policies could influence the economy. Especially time periods of financial crises are closely related to the healthy operation of monetary transmission channels. Monetary transmission channels played a significant role in the spread of the 2008 global financial crisis, which started in 2007 and peaked in 2008, since the crisis primarily affected financial markets. The aim of this study was to provide an assessment of monetary transmission channels and of how the 2008 global financial crisis became a global issue through these channels. It was concluded in the study that all transmission channels played active roles in the spread of the crisis. Key words: Monetary transmission channels, financial crisis, monetary policy strategy.
In the aforesaid paper, some pages are omitted reluctantly and are corrected thus. In this paper, the two-floor facility layout problem with unequal departmental areas in multi-bay environments is addressed. A mixed integer programming formulation is developed to find the optimal solution to the problem. This model determines position and number of elevators with consideration of conflicting objectives simultaneously. Objectives include to minimize material handling cost and to maximize closeness rating. A memetic algorithm (MA) is designed to solve the problem and it is compared with the corresponding genetic algorithm for large-sized test instances and with a commercial linear programming solver solution to small-sized test instances. Computational results proved the efficiency of solution procedure to the problem.
Emerging trends such as globalisation, customer power and sophistication, social responsibility and environmental sustainability consciousness are creating new business challenges and market demands for organisations. In order for the business world to realise growth and sustainable success in this environment, many organisations changed the strategy they followed in the last three decades. The new strategies moved from being predominately product-focused, using process management and cost reduction, which used to be core functions to quality management, to more risk mitigation, revenue generation and reputational focused drivers. Hence, in the last twenty years the world of business has changed significantly, whereas the field of quality has not correspondingly changed in thinking or form. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the supposition that quality has become out-dated over the last two decades. This paper will focus on the change that quality management as a discipline should undertake by proposing a quality stewardship and leadership (QSAL) framework for managing quality, under a new definition, namely, quality stewardship, into the future. In addition, this study will also include an empirical study which was undertaken to evaluate the support for the proposed framework.
This paper aims to explore the differences between consumer decision-making styles (CDS) in the traditional and new-type 3C malls for cross regions (China, Taiwan) and consumers with different genders. The results indicated that the CDS of consumers purchasing 3C products varies between regions, types of malls and genders, and it shows both utilitarian and hedonic shopping styles. The practical management implications of our findings are important for the operation of 3C malls. The study not only combines theory and practice, but also feeds back findings to the management of the 3C malls in order to obtain management implications.

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