Cortex (CORTEX)

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Cortex is an international journal devoted to the study of the inter-relations of the nervous system and behavior, particularly as these are reflected in the effects of brain lesions on cognitive functions. It was founded in 1964. Tra le riviste italiane con maggior impact factor, raccoglie selezionati lavori di ricerca sulle attività nervose superiori. Si rivolge essenzialmente a un pubblico di neurologi e psicologi, ma tratta argomenti di pertinenza anche per gli psichiatri e per quanti sono interessati ad analizzare il comportamento umano e le sue alterazioni in termini di strutture e meccanismi anatomo-fisiologici. Dal 2001 il comitato scientifico, rinnovato e potenziato, è diretto dall'Editor in Chief dott. Sergio Della Sala. In occasioni del 40° anniversario sono stati rinnovati formato e grafica della rivista ed è stato accresciuto il sito web, che mette a disposizione l'archivio e, per gli abbonati, l'ultimo numero e gli articoli che saranno pubblicati nei prossimi numeri.

Current impact factor: 5.13

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 5.128
2013 Impact Factor 6.042
2012 Impact Factor 6.161
2011 Impact Factor 6.08
2010 Impact Factor 7.251
2009 Impact Factor 4.058
2008 Impact Factor 2.749
2007 Impact Factor 3.123
2006 Impact Factor 3.724
2005 Impact Factor 3.584
2004 Impact Factor 2.472
2003 Impact Factor 2
2002 Impact Factor 0.942
2001 Impact Factor 1.204
2000 Impact Factor 1.382
1999 Impact Factor 1.31
1998 Impact Factor 1.594
1997 Impact Factor 1.378

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 5.01
Cited half-life 5.80
Immediacy index 0.97
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 1.62
Website Cortex website
Other titles Cortex
ISSN 1973-8102
OCLC 2116577
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Brain imaging methods have contributed to shed light on the possible mechanisms of recovery and cortical reorganization after early brain insult. The idea that a functional left hemisphere is crucial for achieving a normalized pattern of language development after left perinatal stroke is still under debate. We report the case of a 3.5-year-old boy born at term with a perinatal ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery, affecting mainly the supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal and insular cortex extending to the precentral and postcentral gyri. Neurocognitive development was assessed at 25 and 42 months of age. Language outcomes were more extensively evaluated at the latter age with measures on receptive vocabulary, phonological whole-word production and linguistic complexity in spontaneous speech. Word learning abilities were assessed using a fast-mapping task to assess immediate and delayed recall of newly mapped words. Functional and structural imaging data as well as a measure of intrinsic connectivity were also acquired. While cognitive, motor and language levels from the Bayley Scales fell within the average range at 25 months, language scores were below at 42 months. Receptive vocabulary fell within normal limits, whole word production was delayed and the child had limited spontaneous speech. Critically, the child showed clear difficulties in both the immediate and delayed recall of the novel words, significantly differing from an age-matched control group. Neuroimaging data revealed spared classical cortical language areas but an affected left dorsal white-matter pathways. We also found a right lateralized functional activations and a damaged left arcuate fasciculus. In the framework of the model for Social Communication and Language Development, these data confirm the important role of the left arcuate fasciculus in understanding and producing morpho-syntactic elements in sentences beyond two word combinations and, most importantly, in learning novel word-referent associations, a building block of language acquisition.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Cortex
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurologically normal individuals demonstrate a reliable bias to the left side of space, known as pseudoneglect. The magnitude of this attentional asymmetry varies, depending on factors such as location within the visual field. Prior research has shown that the presence of distractors in the upper visual field increase leftward biases. The current study investigated whether brief distractors in the periphery, which recruit exogenous attention influence the strength of pseudoneglect. In addition, to further investigate the interaction of vertical and horizontal attentional asymmetries, a vertical landmark task with horizontally presented distractors was also performed. Experiment 1 findings illustrated that single visual field distractors led to stronger leftward biases, when compared to dual visual field distractors. Results also indicated that upward biases for vertical lines were unchanged by horizontal distractors. A baseline landmark task was included in Experiment 2 to allow for participants to be separated into left- and right-responder groups. Results showed that upper space distractors increased the magnitude of asymmetries scores depending on the baseline direction. Left-responders showed increased leftward biases and right-responders showed increased rightward biases when distractors were presented in upper space. As in Experiment 1, horizontal distractors did not influence upward biases. Furthermore, horizontal and vertical asymmetries were not correlated in either experiment. The current results demonstrate a novel influence of distractors on individual differences in pseudoneglect, which is consistent with the suggestion that a subset of individuals show reliable rightward biases. This highlights the importance of accounting for baseline attentional asymmetries.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Cortex

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Cortex
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The feasibility to use functional MRI (fMRI) during natural sleep to assess low-frequency basal brain activity fluctuations in human neonates has been demonstrated, although its potential to characterise pathologies of prenatal origin has not yet been exploited. In the present study, we used intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) as a model of altered neurodevelopment due to prenatal condition to show the suitability of brain networks to characterise functional brain organisation at neonatal age. Particularly, we analysed resting-state fMRI signal of 20 neonates with IUGR and 13 controls, obtaining whole-brain functional networks based on correlations of BOLD signal in 90 grey matter regions of an anatomical atlas (AAL). Characterisation of the networks obtained with graph theoretical features showed increased network infrastructure and raw efficiencies but reduced efficiency after normalisation, demonstrating hyper-connected but sub-optimally organised IUGR functional brain networks. Significant association of network features with neurobehavioral scores was also found. Further assessment of spatiotemporal dynamics displayed alterations into features associated to frontal, cingulate and lingual cortices. These findings show the capacity of functional brain networks to characterise brain reorganisation from an early age, and their potential to develop biomarkers of altered neurodevelopment.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cortex
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The meaning of sensory objects is often behaviourally and biologically salient and decoding of semantic salience is potentially vulnerable in dementia. However, it remains unclear how sensory semantic processing is linked to physiological mechanisms for coding object salience and how that linkage is affected by neurodegenerative diseases. Here we addressed this issue using the paradigm of complex sounds. We used pupillometry to compare physiological responses to real versus synthetic nonverbal sounds in patients with canonical dementia syndromes (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD); progressive nonfluent aphasia; typical Alzheimer’s disease (AD)) relative to healthy older individuals. Nonverbal auditory semantic competence was assessed using a novel within-modality sound classification task and neuroanatomical associations of pupillary responses were assessed using voxel-based morphometry of patients’ brain MR images. After taking affective stimulus factors into account, patients with SD and AD showed significantly increased pupil responses to real versus synthetic sounds relative to healthy controls. The bvFTD, SD and AD groups had a nonverbal auditory semantic deficit relative to healthy controls and nonverbal auditory semantic performance was inversely correlated with the magnitude of the enhanced pupil response to real versus synthetic sounds across the patient cohort. A region of interest analysis demonstrated neuroanatomical associations of overall pupil reactivity and differential pupil reactivity to sound semantic content in superior colliculus and left anterior temporal cortex respectively. Our findings suggest that autonomic coding of auditory semantic ambiguity in the setting of a damaged semantic system may constitute a novel physiological signature of neurodegenerative diseases.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cortex
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Discrimination of facial identities is a fundamental function of the human brain that is challenging to examine with macroscopic measurements of neural activity, such as those obtained with functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography (EEG). Although visual adaptation or repetition suppression (RS) stimulation paradigms have been successfully implemented to this end with such recording techniques, objective evidence of an identity-specific discrimination response due to adaptation at the level of the visual representation is lacking. Here, we addressed this issue with fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) and EEG recording combined with a symmetry/asymmetry adaptation paradigm. Adaptation to one facial identity is induced through repeated presentation of that identity at a rate of 6 images per second (6 Hz) over 10 s. Subsequently, this identity is presented in alternation with another facial identity (i.e., its anti-face, both faces being equidistant from an average face), producing an identity repetition rate of 3 Hz over a 20 s testing sequence. A clear EEG response at 3 Hz is observed over the right occipito-temporal cortex, indexing discrimination between the two facial identities in the absence of an explicit behavioral discrimination measure. This face identity discrimination occurs immediately after adaptation and disappears rapidly within 20 seconds. Importantly, this 3 Hz response is not observed in a control condition without the single-identity 10 s adaptation period. These results indicate that visual adaptation to a given facial identity produces an objective (i.e., at a pre-defined stimulation frequency) electrophysiological index of visual discrimination between that identity and another, and provides a unique behavior-free quantification of the effect of visual adaptation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cortex
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a review of theoretical and empirical work on repetition suppression in the context of predictive coding. Predictive coding is a neurobiologically plausible scheme explaining how biological systems might perform perceptual inference and learning. From this perspective, repetition suppression is a manifestation of minimising prediction error through adaptive changes in predictions about the content and precision of sensory inputs. Simulations of artificial neural hierarchies provide a principled way of understanding how repetition suppression – at different time scales – can be explained in terms of inference and learning implemented under predictive coding. This formulation of repetition suppression is supported by results of numerous empirical studies of repetition suppression and its contextual determinants.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Cortex
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although medial frontal brain regions are implicated in valuation of rewards, evidence from focal lesions to these areas is scant, with many conflicting results regarding motivation and affect, and no human studies specifically examining incentivisation by reward. Here, 19 patients with isolated, focal damage in ventral and medial prefrontal cortex were selected from a database of 453 individuals with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Using a speeded saccadic task based on the oculomotor capture paradigm, we manipulated the maximum reward available on each trial using an auditory incentive cue. Modulation of behaviour by motivation permitted quantification of reward sensitivity. At the group level, medial frontal damage was overall associated with significantly reduced effects of reward on invigorating saccadic velocity and autonomic (pupil) responses compared to age-matched, healthy controls. Crucially, however, some individuals instead showed abnormally strong incentivisation effects for vigour. Increased sensitivity to rewards within the lesion group correlated with damage in subgenual vmPFC areas, which have recently become the target for deep brain stimulation in depression. Lesion correlations with clinical apathy suggested that the apathy associated with prefrontal damage is in fact reduced by damage at those coordinates. Reduced reward sensitivity showed a trend to correlate with damage near nucleus accumbens. Lesions did not, on the other hand, influence reward sensitivity of cognitive control, as measured by distractibility. Thus, although medial frontal lesions may generally reduce reward sensitivity, damage to key subregions paradoxically protect from this effect.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Cortex
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Corresponding author. 135 Rutledge Ave, MSC550, Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, S.C., 29425 5500.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cortex
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Facial expressions are described traditionally as monolithic entities. However, humans have the capacity to produce facial blends, in which the upper and lower face simultaneously display different emotional expressions. This, in turn, has led to the Component Theory of facial expressions. Recent neuroanatomical studies in monkeys have demonstrated that there are separate cortical motor areas for controlling the upper and lower face that, presumably, also occur in humans. The lower face is represented on the posterior ventrolateral surface of the frontal lobes in the primary motor and premotor cortices and the upper face is represented on the medial surface of the posterior frontal lobes in the supplementary motor and anterior cingulate cortices. Our laboratory has been engaged in a series of studies exploring the perception and production of facial blends. Using high-speed videography, we began measuring the temporal aspects of facial expressions to develop a more complete understanding of the neurophysiology underlying facial expressions and facial blends. The goal of the research presented here was to determine if spontaneous facial expressions in adults are predominantly monolithic or exhibit independent motor control of the upper and lower face. We found that spontaneous facial expressions are very complex and that the motor control of the upper and lower face is overwhelmingly independent, thus robustly supporting the Component Theory of facial expressions. Seemingly monolithic expressions, be they full facial or facial blends, are most likely the result of a timing coincident rather than a synchronous coordination between the ventrolateral and medial cortical motor areas responsible for controlling the lower and upper face, respectively. In addition, we found evidence that the right and left face may also exhibit independent motor control, thus supporting the concept that spontaneous facial expressions are organized predominantly across the horizontal facial axis and secondarily across the vertical axis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cortex
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (Her seminar stretches across the afternoon) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (Her backyard stretches across the desert) and literal motion (Her arm stretches across the table), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus. These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cortex