Journal of analytical toxicology (J ANAL TOXICOL)

Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

Journal description

Journal of Analytical Toxicology (JAT) is the international source for practical clinical/forensic applications for isolating, identifying and quantitating potentially toxic substances. The Journal of Analytical Toxicology (JAT) is an international publication devoted to the timely dissemination of scientific communications concerning the isolation, identification, and quantitation of drugs and other substances. Since its inception in 1977, JAT has striven to present state-of-the art techniques to address current issues in toxicology. The peer-review process provided by the distinguished members of the Editorial Advisory Board ensures the high quality and integrity of JAT articles. Timely presentation of the latest scientific developments is ensured through "Technical Notes", "Case Reports", and "Letters to the Editor". Worldwide readership of JAT includes toxicologists, pathologists, chemists, clinicians, researchers, and educators working in medical examiner and law enforcement laboratories, hospitals, university, and independent analytical laboratories, as well as the drug manufacturing industry. With an emphasis on practical application, JAT articles introduce improved and novel techniques for use in clinical, forensic, workplace, sports testing (doping), and other toxicology laboratories. Articles describe newly developed methods in immunoassay testing, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, solid- and liquid-phase extraction techniques, and other analytical approaches. The methods published in JAT describe the chemical analysis of therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, industrial chemicals, and environmental toxins. The methods are generally applicable to the fields of forensic science, therapeutic drug monitoring, drug abuse testing, clinical and forensic toxicology, industrial hygiene.

Current impact factor: 2.86

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 2.858
2013 Impact Factor 2.627
2012 Impact Factor 2.107
2011 Impact Factor 2.022
2010 Impact Factor 1.545
2009 Impact Factor 1.867
2008 Impact Factor 1.665
2007 Impact Factor 2.068
2006 Impact Factor 1.242
2005 Impact Factor 1.785
2004 Impact Factor 1.722
2003 Impact Factor 1.782
2002 Impact Factor 1.256
2001 Impact Factor 1.417
2000 Impact Factor 1.592
1999 Impact Factor 2.221
1998 Impact Factor 1.834
1997 Impact Factor 2.168

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.49
Cited half-life 8.60
Immediacy index 0.36
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.62
Website Journal of Analytical Toxicology (JAT) website
Other titles Journal of analytical toxicology, JAT
ISSN 1945-2403
OCLC 2942106
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Oxford University Press (OUP)

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  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the true enantiomeric composition of methamphetamine urine drug testing results, chiral separation of dextro (d) and levo (l) enantiomers is necessary. While enantiomeric separation of methamphetamine has traditionally been accomplished using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), chiral separation of d- and l-methamphetamine by chiral stationary phase (CSP) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) has proved more reliable. Chirally selective detection of methamphetamine by GC-MS is often performed using l-N-trifluoroacetyl-prolyl chloride (TPC). l-TPC, a chiral compound, is known to have impurities that can affect the chiral composition percentages of the methamphetamine sample, potentially leading to inaccurate patient results. The comparative analysis of the samples run by GC and LC methods showed preferential bias of the GC method for producing error rates, consistent with previous research, of 8-19%. The CSP-LC-MS-MS method produces percent deviation errors of <2%. Additionally, the GC method failed to produce results that were 100% d- or l-isomer even for enantiomerically pure standards. A higher rate of d- and l-methamphetamine isomer racemization is seen in samples when analyzed by GC-MS using l-TPC-derivatizing agent. This racemization is not seen when these samples are tested with CSP-LC-MS-MS. Thus, a more accurate method of enantiomeric analysis is provided by CSP-LC-MS-MS.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of analytical toxicology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of analytical toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Current methods of methadone analysis in untreated urine are traditionally limited to enzyme immunoassays (EIA) while confirmation techniques require specimen processing (i.e., sample clean-up) before analyzing by gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS or LC-MS-MS). EIA and traditional confirmation techniques can be costly and, at times inefficient. As an alternative approach, we present Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART™) coupled with both time-of-flight and triple quadrupole linear ion trap (Q-TRAP™) mass spectrometers for screening and confirming methadone in untreated urine specimens. These approaches require neither expensive kits nor sample clean-up for analysis. More importantly, the total combined analysis time for both screening and confirmation methods was <5 min per sample; in contrast to the 3-5 day process required by traditional EIA, GC-MS and LC-MS-MS techniques. To examine the fundamental protocol and its applicability for routine drug screening, studies were performed that included limits of detection, precision, selectivity and specificity, sample recovery and stability and method robustness. The methods described in this report were determined to be highly specific and selective; allowing for detection of methadone at 250 ng/mL, consistent with cutoffs for current EIA techniques (300 ng/mL). The results reported here demonstrate the DART™ MS platform provides rapid and selective methadone analysis and the potential for providing savings of both time and resources compared with current analysis procedures.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of analytical toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: A highly sensitive and fully validated method was developed for the quantification of baclofen in human plasma. After adjusting the pH of the plasma samples using a phosphate buffer solution (pH 4), baclofen was purified using mixed mode (C8/cation exchange) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Endogenous water-soluble compounds and lipids were removed from the cartridges before the samples were eluted and concentrated. The samples were analyzed using triple-quadrupole liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS) with triggered dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode for simultaneous quantification and confirmation. The assay was linear from 25 to 1,000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.999; n = 6). Intraday (n = 6) and interday (n = 15) imprecisions (% relative standard deviation) were <5%, and the average recovery was 30%. The limit of detection of the method was 5 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification was 25 ng/mL. Plasma samples from healthy male volunteers (n = 9, median age: 22) given two single oral doses of baclofen (10 and 60 mg) on nonconsecutive days were analyzed to demonstrate method applicability.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of analytical toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, we proposed a new restricted access molecularly imprinted polymer coated with bovine serum albumin (RAMIP-BSA) to be used in a multidimensional chromatographic system applied for the analysis of six selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) directly from untreated human plasma samples. Fluoxetine, methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were used as the template, functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. The imprinted polymer was covered with a bovine serum albumin (BSA) layer via the interconnections between the amine groups of the BSA using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The obtained RAMIP-BSA was able to extract the SSRIs directly from the human plasma, while ∼100% of the proteins were excluded from the sample. Selectivity coefficients were calculated for fluoxetine (template) in comparison with venlafaxine, duloxetine, citalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline, and the values were >1 in all cases, attesting to the presence of binding sites in the imprinted polymer. The method presented analytical ranges from 20 to 500 µg/L and correlation coefficients >0.99 for all of the SSRIs (fluoxetine, venlafaxine, duloxetine, citalopram, fluvoxamine and sertraline). Precision and accuracy presented variation coefficients and relative errors <14.5% and within the range of -19.18 to 3.8%, respectively. In all cases, the apparent recoveries were >85%. The proposed method was able to analyze three samples per hour, and each column was used at least 50 times without any significant changes in its performance.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of analytical toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectral behavior and analytical performance characteristics of efavirenz (EFV), emtricitabine (EMT) and tenofovir (TFV), i.e., individual components of Atripla®, were probed. This was followed by estimation of their analytical performance characteristics employing LC and a parallel direct infusion sample introduction procedure. Performance characteristics using both types of sample introduction procedures were compared. Using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS), linearities, i.e., correlation coefficients of the calibration curves of EFV, EMT and TFV, ranged between 0.9300 and 0.9990 in the full scan, selected ion monitoring and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS-MS) modes. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged between 0.5 and 11.6 µg/L. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) and the upper limits of quantification (ULOQs) were in the ranges of 0.9–23.2 and 1.6–38.7 µg/L, respectively. The LODs ranged between 0.8 and 114.7 µg/L. The LLOQs and the ULOQs were in the ranges of 1.6–29.4 and 2.7–49.0 µg/L, respectively. In the case of EMT, sodiated molecular ion at m/z 270 was used to adduce analytical performance characteristics from which lower detection limits were obtained compared with those in the literature where [M+H]+ at m/z 248 was used.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of analytical toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: The 22 amphetamine-derived synthetic drugs (ADSDs), mostly cathinones, were examined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry using two different derivatization methods with (i) heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA) and (ii) pentafluorobenzoyl chloride (PFBCl). Both developed derivatization approaches were evaluated and compared for urine and serum samples. Extraction procedures proved to give satisfactory results with regard to recoveries and extract purity, even though both derivatization methods reached acceptable sensitivity for the intended use. The derivatization with PFBCl showed better results with respect to retention and response stability, thus the PFBCl method was selected for validation. Calibration curves were linear over the tested concentration range of 20–1,000 ng/mL with the R2 values ranging from 0.994 to 0.998. Intra- and interday precisions and accuracies were within 20% for all concentrations in the linear range. The limit of detection was determined to be lower than 2 ng/mL for all 22 analytes. The method proved to be a useful analytical tool in the course of systematic toxicological analysis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of analytical toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, the abuse of synthetic cathinones has increased considerably. This study proposes a method, based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to analyze and quantify six synthetic cathinones in urine samples: mephedrone (4-MMC), methylone (bk-MDMA), butylone, ethylone, pentylone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). In our procedure, the urine samples undergo solid-phase extraction (SPE) and derivatization prior to injection into the GC-MS device. Separation is performed using a HP-5MS capillary column. The use of selective ion monitoring (SIM mode) makes it is good sensitivity in this method, and the entire analysis process is within 18 min. In addition, the proposed method maintains linearity in the calibration curve from 50 to 2,000 ng/mL (r(2) > 0.995). The limit of detection of this method is 5 ng/mL, with the exception of MDPV (20 ng/mL); the limit of quantification is 20 ng/mL, with the exception of MDPV (50 ng/mL). In testing, the extraction performance of SPE was between 82.34 and 104.46%. Precision and accuracy results were satisfactory <15%. The proposed method was applied to six real urine samples, one of which was found to contain 4-MMC and bk-MDMA. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method in the identification of synthetic cathinones in urine, with regard to the limits of detection and quantification. This method is highly repeatable and accurate.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of analytical toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last few years, NBOMe substances have been used either as a legal alternative to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) or sold surreptitiously as LSD to unknown users. These NBOMe substances have been detected in blotter papers, powders, capsules and liquids. We report the deaths of two teenage male subjects that were related to 25B-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe in Indiana during 2014. Samples were extracted via a solvent protein precipitation with acetonitrile and analyzed via ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. For these two cases, we describe the NBOMe instrumental analysis, toxicological results for postmortem heart blood and urine specimens and the relevant case history and pathological findings at autopsy. In the first case, 25B-NBOMe was detected in postmortem heart blood at 1.59 ng/mL; in the second case, 25I-NBOMe was detected in postmortem heart blood at 19.8 ng/mL. We also review relevant published casework from clinical toxicology and postmortem toxicology in which analytically confirmed 25B-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe were determined to be causative agents in intoxications or deaths.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of analytical toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression, obsessive–compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. While the use of paroxetine is considered relatively safe, negative side effects, including nausea, drowsiness, insomnia and dizziness, can adversely affect a pilot's ability to safely operate an aircraft. The use of paroxetine may increase suicidal behavior and suicidal ideation. When relying on postmortem specimens for toxicological evaluation, a general understanding of drug distribution throughout postmortem specimens is important. This laboratory has determined the distribution of paroxetine in postmortem tissues and fluids from nine aviation accident fatalities. Specimens were processed using an n-butyl chloride liquid/liquid extraction followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometeric analysis. Blood paroxetine concentrations obtained from these cases ranged from 0.019 to 0.865 µg/mL. The distribution of paroxetine, expressed as mean specimen/blood ratio, was 1.67 ± 1.16 urine (n = 4), 0.08 ± 0.04 vitreous humor (n = 6), 5.77 ± 1.37 liver (n = 8), 9.66 ± 2.58 lung (n = 9), 1.44 ± 0.57 kidney (n = 8), 3.80 ± 0.69 spleen (n = 8), 0.15 ± 0.04 muscle (n = 8), 4.27 ± 2.64 brain (n = 7) and 1.05 ± 0.43 heart (n = 8). The large standard deviations associated with the paroxetine distribution coefficients suggest that paroxetine can experience significant postmortem concentration changes.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of analytical toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Oral fluid (OF) is increasingly used for clinical, forensic and workplace drug testing as an alternative to urine. Uncertainties surrounding OF collection device performance, drug stability and testing reproducibility may be partially responsible for delays in the implementation of OF testing in regulated drug testing programs. Stability of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) fortified and authentic specimens was examined after routine collection, transport and laboratory testing. Acceptable recovery and stability were observed when THC-fortified OF (1.5 and 4.5 ng/mL) was applied to Oral-Eze devices. Neat OF samples collected with Oral-Eze, processed per the package insert, and fortified with THC (3 and 6 ng/mL) were stable (±20%) at room temperature (21-25°C), refrigerated (2-8°C) and frozen (-25 to -15°C) conditions up to 1 month, while samples collected with Intercept devices showed decreases at refrigerated and room temperatures. After long-term refrigerated or frozen storage, maximum reductions in THC concentrations were 42% for Oral-Eze and 69% for Intercept. After ≥1 year frozen storage, 80.7% of laboratory specimens positive for THC (3 ng/mL cut-off) by GC-MS were reconfirmed positive (within 25%), with an average THC decrease of 4.2%. Specimens (n = 47) processed with Oral-Eze (diluted) and tested via enzyme immunoassay were concordant with LC-MS-MS results and showed 100% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Paired specimens collected with Oral-Eze and Intercept exhibited 98% overall agreement between the immunoassay test systems. Collectively, these data demonstrate consistent and reproducible recovery and stability of THC in OF after collection, transport and laboratory testing using the Oral-Eze OF Collection System.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of analytical toxicology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of analytical toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabis intoxication in living and deceased drivers is an important medico-legal topic, but only a limited number of studies examine cannabinoids in living and deceased humans. This study compares cannabinoid concentrations (in ng/mL) in driving under the influence of drug (DUID) drivers with blood cannabinoids to those in drivers who died while driving with cannabinoids in their postmortem (PM) peripheral blood. From 2010 to 2013, there were 318 cannabis-positive DUID cases (mean, median THC: 4.9, 3); 88 had cannabis-only in their bloods (mean, median THC: 5.8, 4). In 23 DUID cases, Huestis' Predictive Models with 95% confidence intervals were applied and evaluated, demonstrating that the actual case time points in all 23 cases fell within the predicted time ranges. Among deceased drivers, 19 had cannabis-positive toxicology (mean, median THC: 11.7, 4.5) and 8 had cannabis-only (mean, median THC: 20.3, 19.5). Motorcyclists and bicyclists comprised the majority of deceased vehicle operators, with bicyclists averaging the highest mean and median THC concentrations overall. The analysis of variance between living and deceased drivers' cannabinoid concentrations showed that THC-OH and THC-COOH concentrations are not statistically different between the two groups, but that THC concentrations are statistically different, making it difficult to directly correlate PM with antemortem THC concentrations between living and deceased drivers.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of analytical toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: The North Carolina Office of the Chief Medical Examiner Toxicology Laboratory identified 61 cases from 2002 to 2014 where metaxalone was detected during routine postmortem drug screening in support of a determination of cause and manner of death. Decedents were divided into groups based on the manner of death with the goal of studying metaxalone concentrations in overdose and non-overdose situations (natural, accident, suicide and undetermined). Subgroups were established for cases in which metaxalone contributed to the cause of death (attributed) and cases in which it did not (unattributed). Attributed cases were divided into those where metaxalone additively combined with other drugs and cases in which the drug was present in sufficient amounts to be the primary cause of death, regardless of other drugs present and the concentrations of those drugs. The mean metaxalone concentration for the additive deaths was 14.2 mg/L with a median value of 11 mg/L (n = 18) and a mean metaxalone concentration of 36.7 mg/L with a median value of 32 mg/L (n = 9) for primary deaths. For unattributed metaxalone concentrations, the mean was 3.4 mg/L with a median value of 2.9 mg/L (n = 31). Of the 61 cases, 34% fall at or below a therapeutic concentration of ≤4 mg/L. The selected case studies offer valuable information regarding postmortem interpretation.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of analytical toxicology