Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Current impact factor: 1.80

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.802
2013 Impact Factor 2.341
2012 Impact Factor 2.22
2011 Impact Factor 1.765
2010 Impact Factor 2.23

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 2.20
Cited half-life 7.40
Immediacy index 0.31
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.52
ISSN 1944-0057

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sudan I, II, III, and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States (US) and European Union (EU) because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chili spices and palm oil to visually enhance their red color. From 2003-2005, the EU made a series of decisions requiring chili spices and palm oil imported to the EU to contain analytical reports declaring them free of sudan I-IV. In order for the FDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chili spices with unapproved color additives in the US, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for sudan dyes in chili spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chili spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chili spices was performed in the US, specifically in the Washington D.C. area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24,000 ng/mL. Low concentrations (<21 µg/kg) of sudan dyes were found in 11 out of 57 spices and are most likely a result of cross-contamination during preparation and storage and not intentional adulteration.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonise food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the United States corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the US and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from $52.1 million to $1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of lemon juice was detected by LC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two batches of freshly-squeezed lemon juices were adulterated by adding an aqueous solution containing 5% citric acid and 6% sucrose to pure lemon juices, to obtain 30%, 60%, and 100% lemon juice samples. Their total titratable acidities, degrees Brix, and pH values were measured and then all the lemon juice samples were subject to LC-MS analysis. Concentrations of hesperidin and eriocitrin, major phenolic components of lemon juice, were quantified. The PCA score plots for LC-MS data sets were used to preview the classification of pure and adulterated lemon juice samples. Results showed a large inherent variability in the chemical properties among 22 batches of 100% lemon juice samples. Measurement or quantitation of one or several chemical properties (targeted detection) was not effective in detecting lemon juice adulteration. However, by using the LC-MS data sets, including both chromatographic and mass spectrometric information, 100% lemon juice samples were successfully differentiated from adulterated samples containing 30% lemon juices in the principal component analysis score plot. LC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis can be a complement to existing methods for detecting juice adulteration.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: Since the UV ink photoinitiator isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) was discovered in packaged milk, studies of print contamination have focused primarily on photoinitiators (PIs) but have also included amine synergists. Many other substances are used or formed during the print process, yet their identity and set-off properties have yet to be catalogued in food packaging. Three different techniques: Direct Analysis in Real Time High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (DART-HRMS), Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography electrospray ionisation/HRMS (UHPLC/ESI-HRMS) were used to detect and identify print related molecules from the food-contact and print surfaces of 3 different packages with under-cured prints. This approach tentatively identified or confirmed 110 compounds, including 35 print related molecules. The majority of compounds identified on food-contact surfaces were packaging monomers/byproducts, solvents/plasticizers, antioxidants/degradants, or slip agents/lubricants. Of these, 28 showed evidence of set-off. The identity of 16 PIs, 7 known scission products, and 5 probable PI degradants were confirmed, most showing signs of set-off. Of the print related molecules, at least 5 are novel print contaminants such as 4-morpholin-4-yl-benzaldehyde or 3-phenyl-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: Charcoal grilling may lead to contamination of food with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the grilling process. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of charcoal preparation on 16 US EPA priority PAHs in the smoke produced during the grilling process. Firstly, mangrove charcoal was prepared at carbonization temperatures of 500, 750 and 1,000 °C. The charcoal were then pre-heated by burning at 650 °C. This pre-heating step is usually used to prepare hot charcoal for the grilling process in the food industry. In this study, charcoal was pre-heated at different burning times at 5, 20 min and 5 h at which time partial and whole charcoal glowed, and charcoal was completely burnt, respectively. Finally, PAHs in the smoke were collected and determined by GC/MS. The result showed that charcoal prepared at a carbonization temperature of 500°C had higher levels of PAHs released into the smoke. In contrast, charcoal produced at 750 and 1,000 °C had lower PAHs released for all burning times. In addition, PAHs released for 5, 20 min and 5 h of burning time were about 19.9, 1.2 and 0.7 µg g(-1) dry charcoal for charcoal produced at 500 °C, and about 0.9-1.4, 0.8-1.2 and 0.15-0.3 µg g(-1) dry charcoal for charcoal produced at 750 and 1,000 °C, respectively. Therefore, this research suggests that food grilled using charcoal carbonized at high temperature about 750 °C presents a lower risk of PAH contamination. In addition, in the pre-heating step, whole charcoal should fully glow in order to reduce the PAH content in charcoal before grilling.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymatic extraction methods were evaluated with classical extraction approaches for the determination of arsenic in food. The extraction efficiency for total arsenic was determined by analysing CRM materials DORM-3 fish protein, NIES rice flour and GBW10015 spinach. These were compared with total arsenic concentration determined using microwave assisted acid digestion and ICP-MS. The total arsenic concentrations in the CRM materials were in good agreements with the certified values. Enzymatic hydrolysis using trypsin has been successfully employed to extract arsenic species in DORM-3 and fish samples. Whilst this method of hydrolysing the proteins worked well for the fish samples, an alternative approach was required to facilitate the cellulose in plant materials. However, enzymatic extraction using cellulase was found to give unsatisfactory results for both the NIES and GBW10015 CRM materials. Dilute nitric acid (1% HNO3) was found to give a more efficient extraction for arsenic species in the same CRM materials and rice samples. The study was extended to evaluate a range of real samples. Total arsenic concentrations in 13 different types of fish tissue were determined following microwave assisted acid digestion using nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide, followed by measurement using HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. The results obtained for fish were in the range of 3.53-98.80 µg g(-1) As (dry weight). Similarly, the results of 17 rice samples were in the range of 0.054-0.823 µg g(-1). This study demonstrates the importance of selecting an appropriate extraction technique for the quantitative measurement of arsenic species in food.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: A multi-class, multi-residue analytical method based on LC-MS/MS detection was developed for the screening and confirmation of 28 veterinary drug and metabolite residues in flatfish, shrimp and eel. The chosen veterinary drugs are prohibited or unauthorised compounds in Korea, which were categorised into various chemical classes including nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, sulfones, quinolones, macrolides, phenothiazines, pyrethroids and others. To achieve fast and simultaneous extraction of various analytes, a simple and generic liquid extraction procedure using EDTA-ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile, without further clean-up steps, was applied to sample preparation. The final extracts were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The method was validated for each compound in each matrix at three different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 ng/g) in accordance with the Codex guidelines (CAC/GL 71-2009). For most compounds, the recoveries were in the range 60-110% and precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD), was in the range of 5-15%. The detection capabilities (CCβs) were below or equal to 5 ng/g, which indicates that the developed method is sufficient to detect illegal fishery products containing the target compounds above the residue limit (10 ng/g) of the new regulatory system (Positive list system, PLS).
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: Link for free reprint of the article: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/jqiZr53pVBa6IRuuTZf3/full Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to evaporation and incomplete combustion of fuels, use of consumer and personal care products, etc. and they can accumulate in foods. Some VOCs in foods can also be formed during food processing and preparation and migrate from food packaging. In this pilot study, a GC-MS method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was validated and used to analyse selected individual foods which can be consumed directly and 153 different total diet composite food samples for 13 VOCs. Vinyl chloride was not detected in any of the 153 composite food samples, while the other 12 VOCs were detected at various frequencies, with m-xylene being the most frequently detected (in 151 of the 153 samples), followed by toluene (145), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (140), ethylbenzene (139), styrene (133), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (122), benzene (96), p-dichlorobenzene (95), n-butylbenzene (55), chloroform (45), naphthalene (45) and trichloroethylene (31). Concentrations of the 12 VOCs in most of the food composite samples were low, with the 90th percentiles from 1.6 ng g(-1) for n-butylbenzene to 20 ng g(-1) for toluene. However, some VOCs were detected at higher levels with maxima, for example, of 948 ng g(-1) for m-xylene and 320 ng g(-1) for ethylbenzene in chewing gum, 207 ng g(-1) for styrene and 157 ng g(-1) for toluene in herbs and spices. VOCs were detected at higher levels in most of the individual food items than their corresponding composite samples, for example, the average chloroform concentration in the individual canned soft drinks was 20 ng g(-1) compared with 3.0 ng g(-1) in their composite, and the average toluene concentration in the individual canned citrus juice was 96 ng g(-1) compared with 0.68 ng g(-1) in their composite. Thus, for determination of VOCs in foods which can be consumed directly, their individual food items should be analysed whenever possible for accurate exposure assessment.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants, and a survey was conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel SPE column. Normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified to incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: Field experiments were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the efficacy of water dispersible granule (WDG) formulations of biocontrol strains of Aspergillus flavus in controlling aflatoxin contamination of corn. In 2011, when aflatoxin was present at very high levels, there was no WDG treatment which was able to provide significant protection against aflatoxin contamination. The following year a new WDG formulation was tested that resulted in 100% reduction in aflatoxin in one field experiment and ≥ 49% reduction in all five WDG treatments with biocontrol strain 21,882. Large sampling error, however limited the resolution of various treatment effects. Corn samples were also subjected to microbial analysis to better understand the mechanisms of successful biocontrol. In the samples examined here, the size of the A. flavus population on the grain was associated with the amount of aflatoxin, but the toxigenic status of that population was a poor predictor of aflatoxin concentration.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated acrylamide elution from roasted barley grain into mugicha and its formation during roasting of the grain. Mugicha is an infusion of roasted barley grains. Highly water-soluble acrylamide was easily extracted to mugicha from milled roasted barley grains in tea bags. On the other hand, the acrylamide concentration in mugicha prepared from loose grain increased with longer simmering and steeping times. During roasting in a drum roaster, the acrylamide concentration of the grain increased as the surface temperature rose, reaching a maximum at 180-240°C. Above this temperature, the acrylamide concentration decreased with continued roasting, exhibiting an inverted U-shaped curve. For most of the samples, the acrylamide concentration showed good correlation with the value of the colour space parameter L*. The dark-coloured roasted barley grains with lower L* values contained lower amounts of acrylamide as a result of deep roasting. The level of asparagine in barley grains was found to be a significant factor related to acrylamide formation in roasted barley products. Our data is an important contribution to the mitigation of acrylamide intake from mugicha.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: Semicarbazide (SEM) is a side-chain metabolite of the antibiotic drug nitrofurazone, which is employed as a conclusive marker for the use of banned nitrofurazone. Recent studies have shown that SEM in aquatic crustaceans can be derived natively or from other sources. In this publication the presence and distribution of endogenous SEM within aquatic crustaceans has been examined, and it was found that SEM content varies amongst muscle, shell and viscera of various prawn and crab species within the range of 0.35-26.62 ng/g. The effect of heating and hypochlorite treatment on SEM levels were examined. The results indicated that thermal processing introduced a more significant impact, resulting in a maximum SEM value of 15.48 ng/g in a sample of shell of Portunus trituberculatus crab, while SEM levels in muscle samples were not affected by the duration of heating. Though 6% active chlorine treatment led to SEM production ranging between 39.9 and 196.4 ng/g in muscle samples from various crustaceans, SEM is unlikely to originate from hypochlorite or chlorine in practice where limits actual chlorine in sanitation water and facilities. 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde (NF) was proposed as a selective marker to differentiate between endogenous SEM and NFZ derived SEM in seafood.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: The Evidence Investigator™ system (Randox, UK) is a biochip and semi- automated system. The microarray kit II (AM II) is capable of detecting several compounds belonging to different families of antibiotics: quinolones, ceftiofur, thiamphenicol, streptomycin, tylosin, and tetracyclines. The performance of this innovative system was evaluated for the detection of antibiotic residues in new matrices, in muscle of different animal species and in aquaculture products. The method was validated according to the European decision EC/2002/657 and to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods, which represents a complete initial validation. The false positive rate was equal to 0% in muscle and in aquaculture products. The detection capabilities CCβ for 12 validated antibiotics (enrofloxacin, difloxacin, ceftiofur, Desfuroyl Ceftiofur Cysteine Disulfide, thiamphenicol, florfenicol, tylosin, tilmicosin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, tetracycline, doxycycline) were all lower than the respective MRLs in muscle from different animal origins (bovine, ovine, porcine, poultry). No cross-reactions were observed with other antibiotics neither of the 6 detected families nor with other families of antibiotics. The AM II kit could be applied to aquaculture products but with higher detection capabilities from those in muscle. The detection capabilities CCβ in aquaculture products were respectively at ¼, 1/10 and ½ of the respective MRL in aquaculture products for enrofloxacin, tylosin and oxytetracycline. The performance of the AM II kit have been compared with other screening methods and with the performance characteristics previously determined in honey.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrite intake from consumption of cured meat and tap water was estimated for Finnish children of 1, 3 and 6 years as well as Finnish adults of 25 to 74 years. Nitrite content in the foods was measured by capillary electrophoresis, and was used together with individual food consumption data from FINDIET 2007 and DIPP studies in stochastic exposure assessment by Monte Carlo Risk Assessment program. Nitrite intake from additive sources and tap water was assessed, and more than every tenth child between the ages 3 and 6 was estimated to have nitrite intake exceeding the ADI of nitrite. The high exposure levels were caused by frequent consumption of large portions of sausages, up to 350 g/day or 750 g in 3 days, among the children. Median nitrite intake from cured meat was 0.016, 0.040, 0.033 and 0.005 mg/kg body weight/day for children of 1, 3 and 6 years and adults, respectively. Bayesian estimation was employed to determine safe consumption levels of sausages and cold cuts for children, and these results gave rise to new national food consumption advice.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment