Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania. Press, Springer Verlag

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Other titles Journal of medical toxicology (Online), Journal of medical toxicology
ISSN 1937-6995
OCLC 163567183
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal


  • No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Medical toxicologists are frequently called upon to treat patients who are addicted to alcohol, tobacco, or other substances across many care settings. Medical toxicologists provide service to their patients through the identification, treatment, and prevention of addiction and its co-morbidities, and practice opportunities are quite varied. Training in addiction medicine can be obtained during or after medical toxicology fellowship through resources offered by the American Society of Addiction Medicine. Additionally, the American Board of Addiction Medicine offers certification in the specialty of addiction medicine to candidates across a wide range of medical specialties.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Ethylene glycol (EG) is a common cause of toxic ingestions. Gas chromatography (GC)-based laboratory assays are the gold standard for diagnosing EG intoxication. However, GC requires specialized instrumentation and technical expertise that limits feasibility for many clinical laboratories. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the utility of incorporating a rapid EG assay for management of cases with suspected EG poisoning. The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics core clinical laboratory adapted a veterinary EG assay (Catachem, Inc.) for the Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 c502 analyzer and incorporated this assay in an osmolal gap-based algorithm for potential toxic alcohol/glycol ingestions. The main limitation is that high concentrations of propylene glycol (PG), while readily identifiable by reaction rate kinetics, can interfere with EG measurement. The clinical laboratory had the ability to perform GC for EG and PG, if needed. A total of 222 rapid EG and 24 EG/PG GC analyses were documented in 106 patient encounters. Of ten confirmed EG ingestions, eight cases were managed entirely with the rapid EG assay. PG interference was evident in 25 samples, leading to 8 GC analyses to rule out the presence of EG. Chart review of cases with negative rapid EG assay results showed no evidence of false negatives. The results of this study highlight the use of incorporating a rapid EG assay for the diagnosis and management of suspected EG toxicity by decreasing the reliance on GC. Future improvements would involve rapid EG assays that completely avoid interference by PG.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: The current understanding of addiction is based on a biopsychosocial model of illness. From a neurobiological perspective, addiction can be seen as the hijacking of the pleasure-reward pathways of the brain with a concomitant weakening of its executive function. The fundamental model has been expanded to include newer concepts such as multiple levels of severity of illness, motivational circuitry, and anti-reward pathways. These neurobiological concepts can explain some of the successes and failures of addiction treatment in the second half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. Psychosocial interventions (primarily cognitive behavior therapy, mutual help groups, and motivational interviewing) and pharmacological treatments (such as agonists, antagonists, and partial agonists) form the basis of addiction treatment today.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: "Boxed warnings" (BW), sometimes referred to as "black box warnings," are the most serious level of warning provided by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We aimed to assess physician awareness and knowledge of BW, and to gain a better understanding of where physicians obtain information about serious adverse drug reactions for commonly prescribed medications. A cross-sectional survey instrument was administered to emergency medicine (EM) and pediatrician (Peds) attending and resident physicians. The main outcome measures were physician performance in identifying medications with and without black box warnings and the content of the warnings. The survey response rate was 81/198 (41 %). Respondents correctly identified medications with BW only 36.3 % of the time, but were able to correctly identify medications without such warnings 83.8 % of the time. Attending physicians were better able to identify medications with or without BW when compared with residents (p < 0.05). Among residents, there was a statistically significant increase in the ability to identify medications with or without BW with increasing year of training (p < 0.01). Correct identification of the content of BW was low in both groups (13.3 %). Only 19/50 (37 %) EM physicians and 16/31 (52 %) Peds reported that they consider BW when prescribing medications. 23/81 (29 %) respondents indicated that they did not stay current or had no method of staying current with black box information. EM and Peds attending and resident physicians at a single institution had limited ability to identify medications containing BW or the content of such warnings. A significant number reported that they did not stay current or had no consistent method for staying current with BW.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Naltrexone is a semi-synthetic opioid with competitive antagonist activity at mu opioid receptors. Its efficacy has been demonstrated in the treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence, but adherence to daily dosing has been recognized as a factor limiting long-term effectiveness. Recently, a long-acting injectable formulation of naltrexone has received FDA-approval for treating alcohol and opioid dependence. This article reviews the pharmacology of naltrexone, the current evidence supporting the use of extended-release naltrexone, and the clinical challenges in the induction of patients to this medication.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Increasing rates of opioid abuse, particularly fentanyl, may lead to more presentations of unusual effects of opioid toxicity. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a rare complication of fentanyl overdose. Case details: A 45-year-old male presented in hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage requiring intubation. Comprehensive drug screening detected fentanyl without exposure to cocaine. Further history upon the patient's recovery revealed exposure to snorted fentanyl powder immediately prior to presentation. Discussion: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a potential, though rare, presentation of opioid intoxication. Conclusions: Recognition of less common complications of opioid abuse such as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is important in proper management of overdoses.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Despite decades of experience with acetaminophen (APAP) overdoses, it remains unclear whether elevated hepatic transaminases or coagulopathy develop first. Furthermore, comparison of the predictive value of these two variables in determining hepatic toxicity following APAP overdoses has been poorly elucidated. The primary objective of this study is to determine the test characteristics of the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the prothrombin time (PT) in patients with APAP toxicity. A retrospective chart review of APAP overdoses treated with IV N-acetylcysteine at a tertiary care referral center was performed. Of the 304 subjects included in the study, 246 with an initial AST less than 1000 were analyzed to determine predictors of hepatic injury, defined as an AST exceeding 1000 IU/L. The initial AST >50 was 79.5 % sensitive and 82.6 % specific for predicting hepatic injury. The corresponding negative and positive predictive values were 95.5 and 46.3 %, respectively. In contrast, an initial abnormal PT had a sensitivity of 82.1 % and a specificity of 63.6 %. The negative and positive predictive values for initial PT were 94.9 and 30.2 %, respectively. Although the two tests performed similarly for predicting a composite endpoint of death or liver transplant, neither was a useful predictor. Initial AST performed better than the initial PT for predicting hepatic injury in this series of patients with APAP overdose.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: There are limited data on modern intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) efficacy on salicylate elimination from topical poisoning. A 54-year-old male sought treatment for dyspnea but was then diagnosed with salicylate toxicity from topical application of Dencorub Extra Strength Heat GelĀ® for 1 week. Each tube contained 100 g with 26 % methylsalicylate (26 g). Laboratory workup was remarkable for an elevated anion gap of 30 and salicylate concentration of 78.7 mg/dL [5.7 mmol/L (N < 0.4 mmol/L)]. Treatment with urinary alkalinization was followed by hemodialysis for 5 h. Extraction ratios were 0.44 with clearance rates of 78.5 mL/min. Salicylate concentrations fell rapidly following initiation of hemodialysis with no rebound observed. Modern high flux IHD is an effective method of removing salicylates in the treatment of chronic topical poisoning.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to describe a case where methylene blue improved hemodynamics in a poisoned patient. This is a single case report where a poisoned patient developed vasodilatory shock following ingestion of atenolol, amlodipine, and valsartan. Shock persisted after multiple therapies including vasopressors, high-dose insulin, hemodialysis, and 20% intravenous fat emulsion. Methylene blue (2 mg/kg IV over 30 min) was administered in the ICU with temporal improvement as measured by pulmonary artery catheter hemodynamic data pre- and post-methylene blue administration. Within 1 h of methylene blue administration, systemic vascular resistance improved (240 dyn s/cm5 increased to 1204 dyn s/cm5), and vasopressor requirements decreased with maintenance of mean arterial pressure 60 mmHg. Methylene blue may improve hemodynamics in drug-induced vasodilatory shock and should be considered in critically ill patients poisoned with vasodilatory medications refractory to standard therapies.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Naloxone is commonly administered in emergency department (ED) to reverse opioid intoxication. Several naloxone dose recommendations exist for acute management of opioid intoxication based on limited published clinical data. A case series of ED patients with opioid-induced ventilatory depression that was reversed using a low-dose naloxone (0.04 mg with titration) is presented. ED patients with opioid-induced ventilatory depression requiring naloxone administration were identified through medical toxicology consultation. Retrospective review of medical records was performed. Collected data included history, and pre- and post-naloxone data, including respiratory rate (RR), pulse oximetry (pulse ox), end-tidal CO2 level (ET-CO2), and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS). Fifteen ED patients with moderate to severe opioid-induced ventilatory depression (median RR, 6 breaths/min) who were managed using low-dose naloxone strategy were identified. Twelve of 15 patients reported ingestion of methadone (range, 30 to 180 mg). The median naloxone dose of 0.08 mg (range, 0.04 to 0.12 mg) reversed opioid-induced ventilatory and CNS depression. Two patients experienced acute opioid withdrawal after receiving 0.08 mg. ED patients with moderate to severe opioid-induced ventilatory depression can be reversed using 0.04 mg IV naloxone with appropriate dose titration.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Many poisoned patients may only require a period of observation after their exposure. There are limited data describing the use of observation units for managing poisoned adult and pediatric patients. We performed a retrospective review of all patients reported to the ToxIC Case Registry between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013. Eligible patients included those who received a bedside consultation by a medical toxicologist and whose care was provided in an observation unit, or those who were admitted under the care of a medical toxicologist in an observation unit. A total of 15,562 poisonings were reported to the registry during the study period, of which 340 (2.2 %) involved patients who were cared for in an observation unit. Of these patients, 22.1 % were 18 years of age or younger, and the remaining 77.9 % were greater than 18 years of age. The most common reason for exposure was the intentional ingestion of a pharmaceutical agent in both adult (30.2 %) and pediatric patients (36.0 %). Alcohols (ethanol) (24.9 %), opioids (20.0 %), and sedative-hypnotics (17.7 %) were the most common agent classes involved in adult patient exposures. The most common agent classes involved in pediatric exposures were antidepressants (12.0 %), anticonvulsants (10.7 %), and envenomations (10.7 %). In adult patients, the most common signs and symptoms involved the nervous system (52.0 %), a toxidrome (17.0 %), or a major vital sign abnormality (14.7 %). In pediatric patients, the most common signs and symptoms involved the nervous system (53.3 %), a toxidrome (21.3 %), or a major vital sign abnormality (17.3 %). The results of this study demonstrate that a wide variety of poisoned patients have been cared for in an observation unit in consultation with a board-certified medical toxicologist. Patterns for the reasons for exposure, agents responsible for the exposure, and toxicological treatments will continue to evolve. Further study is needed to identify better those poisoned patients who can be appropriately managed in an observation unit.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology