Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials

Publisher: Elsevier

Current impact factor: 3.77

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 3.769
2013 Impact Factor 4.16
2012 Impact Factor 3.773
2011 Impact Factor 3.135
2010 Impact Factor 2.92
2009 Impact Factor 2.882
2008 Impact Factor 2.941
2007 Impact Factor 2.99
2006 Impact Factor 2.381
2005 Impact Factor 2.056
2004 Impact Factor 2.057
2003 Impact Factor 2.064
2002 Impact Factor 1.912
2001 Impact Factor 1.441
2000 Impact Factor 1.016
1999 Impact Factor 0.884
1998 Impact Factor 1.434
1997 Impact Factor 1.34
1996 Impact Factor 1.241
1995 Impact Factor 1.362
1994 Impact Factor 1.601
1993 Impact Factor 1.055
1992 Impact Factor 0.938

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.43
Cited half-life 6.80
Immediacy index 0.51
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.94
ISSN 1879-0097

Publisher details


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  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Resin adhesives (RA) have been applied between resin composite (RC) increments, but there is no consensus on the impact of this technique on the properties of the final restoration. This study evaluated the effect of the presence of RA between RC layers on physical properties, translucency and long-term color stability of the restorative material. Methods: Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose (bond, 3M ESPE) and Adper™ Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE) were used as RA, and Filtek™ Z350 (3M ESPE) as RC. Specimens containing RA were prepared by applying 3 layers of the adhesive between 4 increments of RC; adhesive-free specimens were also used (control). Tests of water sorption and solubility, mechanical performance (microtensile cohesive strength, flexural strength, and flexural modulus, after immediate and long-term water storage), and translucency and color stability (after immediate and 1, 7, 90, and 180 days of water or wine storage) were performed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were also taken from the fractured specimens (flexural strength test). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). Results: Scotchbond (SBMP) showed lower water sorption and solubility than the control (p<0.001), and an overall similar (p≥0.198, immediate tests) or higher (p≤0.019, long-term tests) mechanical performance. SBMP exhibited a rougher cross-sectional surface compared to the other groups. Translucency remained unaltered after 180 days of storage (p≥0.313), except for single bond that had increased translucency with wine storage (p<0.045). After 180 days, all groups changed color (p≤0.002), although more intensively when immersed in wine. Significance: The presence of RA within RC increments increased the physical stability of the material, being this effect more evident by using the hydrophobic unfilled adhesive resin (SBMP). This study is the first to show positive results from the use of resin adhesives as modeler liquid of resin composite, which is common in clinical practice.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Adhesion on dentin is less reliable than on enamel, which could affect the durability of laminate veneers (LV). Immediate dentin sealing (IDS) is suggested instead of delayed dentin sealing (DDS) to overcome hypersensitivity and prevent debonding from dentin. This study evaluated the effect of IDS and DDS on the durability of Li2Si2O5 laminate veneers in vitro. Methods: Window preparations were made on the labial surfaces of sound maxillary central incisors (N=50). They were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1: Enamel only+H3PO4+Adhesive (control); Group 2: <1/4 dentin+H3PO4+DDS (2 weeks later); Group 3: Complete dentin+H3PO4+DDS (2 weeks later); Group 4: <1/4 dentin+H3PO4+IDS; Group 5: Complete dentin+H3PO4+IDS. Li2Si2O5 laminate veneers (e.max Press) were bonded to the labial surfaces of the teeth with adhesive resin cement (Variolink Veneer). IDS layers were silicacoated (CoJet System) and silanized (ESPE-Sil). The teeth with their bonded laminates were thermocycled (10.000× cycles) and then subjected to static loading (1mm/min). Failure type and location after debonding were classified. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (α=0.05). Two-parameter Weibull distribution values including the Weibull modulus, scale (m) and shape (0), values were calculated. Results: Mean fracture strength (N) per group in descending order was as follows: Group 5 (576±254), Group 4 (478±216), Group 1 (473±159), Group 2 (465±186), and Group 3 (314±137). The presence of complete dentin exposure sealed with DDS after 2 weeks on the bonded surface (Group 3) resulted in significantly lower fracture strength results than those in group 5 with IDS (p=0.034). Weibull distribution presented higher shape (0) for Group 1 (3.67), than those of other groups (2.51-2.89). Failure types were predominantly adhesive failure between the cement and the laminate veneer in Groups 1, 2, 4 whereas Group 3 presented more often complete adhesive failures between the cement and dentin. In Group 5, failures showed some IDS and cement with or without ceramic fracture attached on the tooth. Significance: When laminate veneers are bonded to a large dentin substrate, application of immediate dentin sealing improves adhesion and thereby, the fracture strength of Li2Si2O5 laminate veneers.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To use a compliance-variable instrument to simultaneously measure and compare the polymerization stress (PS) evolution, degree of conversion (DC), and exotherm of a bulk-fill flowable composite to a packable composite. Methods: A bulk-fill flowable composite (Filtek Bulk-fill, FBF) and a conventional packable composite (Filtek Z250, Z250) purchased from 3M ESPE were investigated. The composites were studied using a cantilever-beam based instrument equipped with an in situ near infrared (NIR) spectrometer and a microprobe thermocouple. The measurements were carried out under various instrumental compliances (ranging from 0.3327μm/N to 12.3215μm/N) that are comparable to the compliances of clinically prepared tooth cavities. Correlations between the PS and temperature change as well as the DC were interpreted. Results: The maximum PS of both composites at 10min after irradiation decreased with the increase in the compliance of the cantilever beam. The FBF composite generated a lower final stress than the Z250 sample under instrumental compliances less than ca. 4μm/N; however, both materials generated statistically similar PS values at higher compliances. The reaction exotherm and the DC of both materials were found to be independent of compliance. The DC of the FBF sample was slightly higher than that of the packable Z250 composite while the peak exotherm of FBF was almost double that of the Z250 composite. For FBF, a characteristic drop in the PS was observed during the early stage of polymerization for all compliances studied which was not observed in the Z250 sample. This drop was shown to relate to the greater exotherm of the less-filled FBF sample relative to the Z250 composite. Significance: While the composites with lower filler content (low viscosity) are generally considered to have lower PS than the conventional packable composites, a bulk-fill flowable composite was shown to produce lower PS under a lower compliance of constraint as would be experienced if the composite was used as the base material in clinical procedures.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: to evaluate influence of cyclic fatigue on two resin infiltrated ceramics and three all-ceramic crowns manufactured using CAD/CAM technology. Materials and methods: CAD/CAM anatomically shaped crowns were manufactured using two resin infiltrated ceramics (Lava Ultimate and Vita Enamic), two reinforced glass ceramic milling blocks ((IPS)Empress CAD and (IPS)e.max CAD) and a veneered zirconia core ((IPS)Zir CAD). (IPS)e.max CAD and (IPS)Zir CAD were milled into 0.5mm thick anatomically shaped core structure which received standardized press-on veneer ceramic. The manufactured crowns were cemented on standardized resin dies using a resin adhesive (Panavia F2.0). Initial fracture strength of half of the specimens was calculated using one cycle load to failure in a universal testing machine. The remaining crowns were subjected to 3.7 million chewing cycles (load range 50-200N at 3s interval) in a custom made pneumatic fatigue tester. Survival statistics were calculated and Weibull modulus was measured from fitted load-cycle-failure diagrams. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to fractographically analyze fractured surfaces. Data were analyzed using two way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc tests (α=0.05). Results: Dynamic fatigue resulted in significant reduction (F=7.54, P<0.005) of the initial fracture strength of the tested specimens. Zirconia showed the highest deterioration percent (34% reduction in strength) followed by (IPS)Empress (32.2%), (IPS)e.max (27.1%) while Lava Ultimate and Vita Enamic showed the lowest percent of reduction in strength. The two types of resin infiltrated ceramics and (IPS)Empress demonstrated the highest percent of fracture incidences under the influence of fatigue (35-45% splitting). None of the tested veneered zirconia restorations were fractured during testing, however, chipping of the veneer ceramics was observed in 6 crowns. The lowest percent of failure was observed for (IPS)e.max crowns manifested as 3 cases of minor chipping in addition to two complete fracture incidences. SEM images demonstrated the internal structure of the tested materials and detected location and size of the critical crack. Conclusion: The internal structure of the tested materials significantly influenced their fatigue behavior. Resin infiltrated ceramics were least influenced by fatigue while the characteristic strength of zirconia prevented core fracture but failure still occurred from the weaker veneer ceramic.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate thin-film bond strength between a bonding agent and human dentin, using a scratch test, and the characteristics and accuracy of measurement. Methods: One-step bonding agents (BeautiBond; Bond Force; Adper Easy Bond; Clearfil tri-S Bond) and two-step bonding agents (Cleafil SE Bond; FL-Bond II) were investigated in this study. Flat dentin surfaces were prepared for extracted human molars. The dentin surfaces were ground and bonding agents were applied and light cured. The thin-film bond strength test of the specimens was evaluated by the critical load at which the coated bonding agent failed and dentin appeared. The scratch mark sections were then observed under a scanning electron microscope. Indentation hardness was evaluated by the variation in depth under an applied load of 10gf. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA with the Scheffé's post hoc multiple comparison test (p<0.05). In addition, thin-film bond strength and indentation hardness were analyzed using analysis of correlation and covariance. Results: The thin-film bond strength of two-step bonding agents were found to be significantly higher than that of one-step bonding agents with small standard deviations. Scratch marks consistently showed adhesive failure in the vicinity of the bonding agent/dentin interface. The indentation hardness showed a trend that two-step bonding agents have greater hardness than one-step bonding agents. A moderately significant correlation (r(2)=0.31) was found between thin-film bond strength and indentation hardness. Significance: Thin-film bond strength test is a valid and reliable means of evaluating bond strength in the vicinity of the adhesive interface and is more accurate than other methods currently in use. Further, the thin-film bond strength is influenced by the hardness of the cued bonding agent.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The unique photo-catalytic activities (PCAs) of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) made them attractive in many potential applications in medical devices. The objective of this study is to optimize the benefits of PCAs of TiO2 NPs through varying chemical structures of dimethacrylate resins. Methods: TiO2 NPs were functionalized to improve the PCAs and bonding to the resins. The PCAs of TiO2 NPs were evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV-vis spectroscopy to determine the amount of the radicals generated and the energy required for their production, respectively. The beneficial effects of the radicals were assessed through: (1) the improvement of degree of vinyl conversion (DC) and (2) modification of resin hydrophilicity. One-way ANOVA with a 95% confidence interval was used to indicate the significant differences between the experimental groups. Results: EPR and UV-vis results clearly showed that the functionalization of TiO2 NPs enhanced PCAs in terms of generating radicals under visible light irradiation. The presence of hydroxyl and carboxylic acid functionalities played an important role in DC enhancement and hydrophilicity modification. The DC could be increased up to 22% by adding only 0.1wt% TiO2 NPs. Viscosity of the resins had minimal or no role in DC improvement through TiO2 NPs. In resins with abundant hydroxyl groups, radicals were more effective in making the resin more hydrophilic. Significance: Knowledge learned from this study will help formulating nano-composites with optimized use of TiO2 PCAs as co-initiators for photo-polymerization, additives for making super-hydrophilic materials and/or antibacterial agents.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of the present study was to understand the role played by composition on the elution of dental composites and the subsequent cytotoxicity, the sensitivity of different cell lines to eluates on a temporal basis and the correlation of the two parameters elution and cytotoxicity. Methods: LC-MS was done to analyze the eluates. MTT assay was done to assess cytotoxicity on two cell lines. Results: Eluates were found to have matrix monomers, photoinitiators and their degradation products. The short-term viability of other mammalian cell line was inferior to human cell line. However human cell line became more sensitive to long-term incubation with composites. There was a strong inverse correlation to elution of monomers and photoinitiators and cell viability for both cell lines. Bisphenol A elution did not correlate to cell viability. Significance: Other mammalian cell lines may be more sensitive to acute toxin build-up than human cell line while the latter may be more sensitive to prolonged toxin exposure. Dimethacrylate based composites elute more and exert strong cytotoxicity than Ormocer and Silorane based composites. Most of the eluates correlated linearly to cytotoxicity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To quantify the splitting resistance of monolithic zirconia, lithium disilicate and nanoparticle-composite dental crowns. Methods: Fracture experiments were conducted on anatomically-correct monolithic crown structures cemented to standard dental composite dies, by axial loading of a hard sphere placed between the cusps. The structures were observed in situ during fracture testing, and critical loads to split the structures were measured. Extended finite element modeling (XFEM), with provision for step-by-step extension of embedded cracks, was employed to simulate full failure evolution. Results: Experimental measurements and XFEM predictions were self-consistent within data scatter. In conjunction with a fracture mechanics equation for critical splitting load, the data were used to predict load-sustaining capacity for crowns on actual dentin substrates and for loading with a sphere of different size. Stages of crack propagation within the crown and support substrate were quantified. Zirconia crowns showed the highest fracture loads, lithium disilicate intermediate, and dental nanocomposite lowest. Dental nanocomposite crowns have comparable fracture resistance to natural enamel. Significance: The results confirm that monolithic crowns are able to sustain high bite forces. The analysis indicates what material and geometrical properties are important in optimizing crown performance and longevity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Acids, such as those used in adhesive dentistry, have been shown to solubilize bioactive molecules from dentin. These dentin matrix components (DMC) may promote cell proliferation and differentiation, and ultimately contribute to dentin regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for varying concentrations of DMC extracted from human dentin by phosphoric acid of a range of pHs to stimulate proliferation and mineralization of two different cultured pulp cell populations. Methods: DMC were solubilized from powdered human dentin (7 days - 4°C) by phosphoric acid of pH 1, 3, and 5 and also, EDTA. Extracts were dialyzed for 7 days against distilled water and lyophilized. Undifferentiated mouse dental pulp cells (OD-21) and cells of the odontoblast-like cell line (MDPC-23) were seeded in six-well plates (1×10(5)) and cultured for 24h in DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium) containing 10% (v/v) FBS (fetal bovine serum). The cells were washed with serum-free medium and then treated with different concentrations of DMC (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0μg/ml) daily in serum free medium for 7 days. After 3, 5 (MDPC-23 only), and 7 days of treatment, cell proliferation was measured using 10vol% Alamar blue solution, which was added to each well for 1h. Cell numbers were first measured by cell counting (Trypan blue; n=5) and Alamar blue fluorescence to validate the assay, which was then used for the subsequent assessments of proliferation. Mineralization was assessed by Alizarin Red S assay after 12 days exposure to DMC (n=5). Controls were media-only (DMEM) and dexamethasone (DEX; positive control). Results were analysed by ANOVA/Tukey's (p≤0.05). Results: There was a linear correlation between cell counts and Alamar blue fluorescence (R(2)>0.96 for both cell types) , verifying the validity of the Alamar blue assay for these cell types. In general, there was a dose-dependent trend for enhanced cell proliferation with higher concentration of DMC for both cell lines, especially at 10.0μg/ml. DEX exposure resulted in significantly higher mineralization, but did not affect cell proliferation. DMC exposure demonstrated significantly greater mineralization than media-only control for 10μg/ml for all extracts, and at lower concentrations for EDTA and pH 5 extracts. Significance: Human dentin matrix components solubilized by acids at pH levels found in commercial dentin adhesives enhanced cell proliferation and mineralization of mouse and rat undifferentiated dental pulp cells when presented in adequate concentration.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Bioactive glass forms a bone mineral apatite interface and can be engineered to promote optimal bone regeneration. Strontium (Sr(2+)) stimulates osteoblast and inhibits osteoclast activities in vitro, and is used clinically as a treatment for osteoporosis. Dental bone defect repair requires rapid bone formation for early osseointegration but, can be subject to infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic and antibacterial effects of strontium-substituted bioactive glasses in vitro. Methods: Strontium-substituted bioactive glasses were designed and produced. Then the osteogenic potential and antibacterial effects of bioactive glass particulates were explored. Results: Alkaline phosphatase activity, cell number, Type I collagen and mineral nodule formation of MC3T3-E1 cells were significantly promoted by the 5% strontium-substituted glass (5Sr). Furthermore, after incubation with 0.001g and 0.01g glass particulates, the growth of sub-gingival bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis was significantly inhibited; the antibacterial activity being dependent on the percentage of strontium in the glasses. Significance: These results show that strontium-substituted bioactive glasses significantly promote osteogenic responses of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and inhibit the growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To develop a customized CIELAB-based whiteness index for dentistry that accurately correlates to perception of tooth whiteness. Methods: Four psychophysical experiments (PE1-4) were conducted by three panels of observers (OP1-3) under diffuse/0° observation/measuring conditions and under typical clinical viewing conditions. Nine whiteness indices (WI, Z%, WIC, WIO, W31, W64, W, WLAB, W*), two yellowness indices (YID1925, YIE313) and tint of white in the CIELAB color system (T) were compared with regard to their ability to measure the perceived whiteness of human teeth. Determination coefficient (R(2)) and '% wrong decision' (%WD) method were used as direct measures of the quality of the indices for whiteness perception in dentistry. Results: CIELAB-based whiteness index (WID=0.511L* -2.324a* -1.100b*) was developed through optimization from the data obtained in PE1. The proposed WID performed better than all the CIELAB and CIE1931 XYZ-based indices under laboratory and clinical conditions (only WIO was comparable to WID in PE2 and PE4). Conclusion: The validation experiments under laboratory and typical clinical conditions revealed that the proposed index WID outperformed previous indices, being the only CIELAB-based index developed for evaluation of whiteness in dentistry.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials