Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

Current impact factor: 1.36

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.363
2013 Impact Factor 1.387
2012 Impact Factor 1.373
2011 Impact Factor 1.496
2010 Impact Factor 1.603
2009 Impact Factor 1.642

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 1.39
Cited half-life 4.20
Immediacy index 0.44
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.30
ISSN 1875-6638

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Bentham Science Publishers

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: To discover a novel antidepressant-like effect and anticonvulsant compound, seventeen new of 2-oxo-3-phenyliminoindolin-1-N-phenylacetamide compounds were synthesized and screened for the antidepressant activity and anticonvulsant effects. Method: 2-oxo-3-phenyliminoindolin- 1-N-phenylacetamide derivatives were synthesized by with indoline-2, 3-dione as the starting material, through a nucleophilic substitution reaction and a nucleophilic addition-elimination reaction. The target derivatives 2a-2q were evaluated the antidepressant-like activity using the FST, TST, and evaluated anticonvulsant effect by MES test. The main monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in mouse brain regions were also simultaneously determined by HPLC-ECD. Results: It was observed that 12 compounds showed significantly reductions in the immobility time in the FST at a concentration of 50 mg/kg. Compound 2b was found the most potent antidepressant activity in the FST and the TST for 30 min after treatment. Compound 2b significantly increased the concentrations of the main neurotransmitters 5-HT, NE and the metabolite (5-HIAA, suggesting that the effects of compound 2b may be mediated through these neurotransmitters. As assessed using maximal electroshock, 13 compounds showed the anticonvulsant effects administered at the concentration levels of 100 or 300 mg/kg. Compound 2b showed anticonvulsant effect. Compound 2b could potentially be used as adjuncts of the antidepressants to treat depression in patients with epilepsy. Conclusion: In conclusion, compound 2b produced significantly antidepressant-like activity and the mechanism of action may be due to increased 5-HT and NE in the mouse. Compound 2b showed more anticonvulsant effect. Compound 2b could potentially be used as adjuncts of the antidepressants to treat depression in patients with epilepsy.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A lead quinuclidine-based nicotinic ligand (EQA) served as the basis for the design of novel compounds. A new series of 3-substituted quinuclidines was designed, synthesized and evaluated as nicotinic ligands. Methods: The goal was to improve affinity for nicotinic receptors in the CNS. Interatomic distance calculations were performed on the proposed compounds as well as, known nicotinic ligands. The proposed compounds were then synthesized, characterized and evaluated in in vitro assays as nicotinic receptor ligands. Results: Compounds 9a and 9b were found to inhibit the specific binding of 3H-(S)-Nicotine with Ki values of 48 nM and 42 nM respectively, indicating high affinity interactions with the a4b2 subtype. Data suggest that several compounds act as partial agonists at CNS receptors with an efficacy between 28 and 40% and are potent partial activators of human muscle type receptors (a1b1gd; Emax= 80% that of 100 mM nicotine). Conclusions: Together these results indicate a partial agonism at muscle type receptors (ca. 40%) with no significant activation of rat ganglion-type receptors (a3b4*: asterisk indicates potential additional subunit that could partner to form the ganglionic receptor). The partial agonism inducing dopamine release from striatal synaptosomes (a4b2a6a4b2b3, and/or a6b2b3) suggest that these compounds may in addition be acting at the a4b2 and/or the a6b2b3* receptors. The partial agonists reported herein are interesting nicotinic ligands worthy of further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Background Synthesis, characterization and investigation of antibacterial activity of ten novel Schiff base derivatives of 4-formylbenzoic acid is presented. Their structures were determined using 1H and 13C NMR, EI(+)-MS and elemental analyses. Additionally, DFT calculations of interaction energies in complexes of the novel drugs and DNA bases are carried out Objective Design and synthesis of thiazole derivatives with benzoic acid scaffold to obtain compounds with an improved antibacterial activity. Method The examined compounds were screened in vitro for antibacterial activity using the broth microdilution method. Geometrical parameters of the investigated complexes were optimized within the Density Functional Theory (DFT) approximation using the B3LYP functional and the 6-311G** basis set. The docking simulations were performed using the FlexX docking module. Results Among the derivatives, compound 4b showed very strong bacterial activity against staphylococci, MIC 1.95-3.91 µg/ml, micrococci, MIC 0.98 µg/ml, and Bacillus spp., MIC 7.81-15.62 µg/ml. The compounds 4c, 4d, 4e and 4j also showed high bioactivity against staphylococci, MIC 3.91-31.25 µg/ml, and micrococci, MIC 0.98-15.62 µg/ml. Interaction energy values for investigated guanine complexes are about 2 kcal/mol lower than for the corresponding cytosine complexes. Molecular docking studies of all compounds on the active sites of bacterial enzymes indicated gyrase B as possible target. Conclusion To conclude, an efficient and economic method for the synthesis of thiazoles containing benzoic acid moiety has been developed. The results of antibacterial screenings reveal that some obtained compounds show high to very strong antibacterial activity. The DFT calculations showed that interaction of the obtained drugs with guanine is stronger than with cytosine. Molecular docking studies of all compounds on the active sites of bacterial enzymes indicated gyrase B as possible target.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: An efficient and eco-friendly synthetic methodology has been developed to synthesize two series of Schiff bases 3(a-j) and 5(a-j) in a very short reaction time and excellent yields in ionic solvent [bmim]Br. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory potential. Among them, 3j displayed higher inhibitory activities than reference drug, galanthamine, with IC50 values of 2.05 and 5.77 µM, for AChE and BChE, respectively. Interestingly, all the compounds except 3b displayed higher BChE inhibitions than galanthamine with IC50 values ranging from 5.77 to 18.52 µM. Molecular docking of compound 3j inside the TcAChE and hBChE completely coincided with the inhibitory activities observed. The compound forms strong hydrogen bonding at the peripheral anionic site of AChE whereas on BChE, it had hydrophobic and mild polar interactions.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: A series of novel 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives incorporating benzisoselenazolone scaffold were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activities against SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and A549 human cancer cell lines by CCK-8 assay. The preliminary bioassay results demonstrated that all tested compounds 4a-q showed potent antitumor activities, and some compounds exhibited better effects than positive control ethaselen and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) against various cancer cell lines. Furthermore, compounds 4b and 4m showed significant antitumor activities against SMMC-7721cells with IC50 values of 1.89 and 1.89 μM, respectively. Compounds 4c and 4n displayed highly effective biological activities against MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 2.88 and 2.28 μM, respectively. Compound 4i showed the best inhibitory effect against A549 cells with IC50 value of 1.76 μM. The pharmacological results suggest that the substituent groups of phenyl ring on the 1,3,4-thiadiazole are vital for modulating antitumor activities against various cancer cell lines.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Quinazoline and sulfonamide derivatives are considered to be important classes of drugs due to their wide range of biological activities especially anticancer. Methods: A novel series of sulfonamides incorporating benzo[g] quinazolinemoieties 2-19 and sulfonyl containing benzo[g] quinazolinemoieties 20, 21 were designed and synthesized starting from 4- chlorobenzo[g] quinazoline 1. In-vitro screening as anticancer agents was done for the synthesized compounds. Molecular docking study was also performed to explore the binding interactions of the synthesized compounds within the active site of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), which most commonly expressed in some types of cancer cells. Conclusion: The results indicated that the most potent compounds were 2 and 7 showing effectiveness on more than one cell line.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Synthesis of 7,7-linked bicoumarins, 3,3-linked bi(2-isopropyl)psoralens as well as 1H-1,2,3-triazole linked coumarin-2,3-dihydrofurocoumarin and furocoumarin-2,3-dihydrofurocoumarin hybrids was performed by two alternative pathways, either involving a catalyzed transformations of the ethynyl derivatives of plant coumarins - peucedanin or peuruthenicin. Objective and methods: The Sonogashira reaction of 7-ethynyl coumarins or 3-ethynyl-2-isopropylpsoralen with the subsequent coumarin triflates led to 7,7-linked bicoumarins or 3,3-linked bipsoralens. 1,2,3-Triazole linked coumarin-2,3-dihydrofurocoumarin or furocoumarin-2,3-dihydrofurocoumarin hybrids were synthesized by a regioselective Cu-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction of 2-azidooreoselone with 7-alkynylcoumarins or 3-ethynyl-2-isopropylpsoralen. Results: Pharmacological screening of synthesized bicoumarins for anticoagulant activity in vivo revealed that coumarin-dihydrofurocoumarin hybrids linked with a 1,2,3-triazole ring 20 and 22 were the most active compounds. The presented prothrombin time (PT) values comparable to the reference drug warfarin in a dose 100 mg/kg. Docking studies were undertaken to gain insight into the possible binding mode of these compounds with the coagulation factor Xa (FXa) binding site. Conclusion: The moderate toxicity of compounds 20, 22 (LD50 value was more than 3000 mg/kg) encouraged the further design of therapeutically relevant analogues based on this novel type of coumarin hybrids.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: The Bcl-2 family includes 26 proteins involved in apoptosis. Cancer cells can develop the ability to avoid apoptosis through the upregulation and/or down regulation of such proteins Bax, Bcl-xL or Mcl-1, especially during chemoresistance progress. These proteins engaged in a network of dynamic interactions that controls apoptosis triggering have become attractive therapeutic targets in cancers including melanoma. Among them, the Bax/Bcl-xL interaction appears critical in maintaining mitochondria integrity. Therefore a series of mixed polyphenol-heterocyclic molecules, was rationaly designed designed by molecular docking as Bax/Bcl-xL inhibitors. It has been screened against B16-F10 melanoma cancer cells for a preliminary investigation of their cytotoxicity. All these compounds exhibited a significant cytotoxicity against these cancer cells, in the 0.3-6 mM range. A pyrazole-type molecule, which had a submicromolar IC50 value with an excellent selectivity index (14), is the most promising derivative for further development.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Introducing new candidates for various biological targets is a prime characteristic of the present day medicinal research and development. Guanidines are the important bioactive compounds and are well recognized for their diverse biological activities, especially as anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Due to the favorable electronic properties of ferrocene like lipophilicity, redox activity, stability in solution state and its easy derivatization, have made ferrocenyl compounds very popular molecules for biological uses. Objectives: Keeping in sight, it is valuable to synthesize ferrocenyl guanidines to increase the binding potency with DNA, make them redox active and more lipophylic compounds. Methods: Six new ferrocenyl phenylguanidines (F1 - F6) have been synthesized via multi step protocol. The structures of F1 - F6 were established by using elemental analysis, UV-visible, multinuclear (1H and 13C) NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. Solution phase redox behavior, of the synthesized compounds, has been characterized by cyclic voltametery. Two compounds (F2 & F4) were characterized by single crystal XRD. Results: Due to the biological importance of guanidines; these ferrocenyl guanidiens were screened for the different biological activities like antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and DNA binding. DNA interaction study was done by using UV-visible spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry revealed good binding capacity of the test compounds. Conclusion: The results revealed that the ferrocene incorporation to guanidines enhances their DNA binding ability. A similar trend was found in antioxidant and antimicrobial studies. Being the bioactive molecules these compounds are potential drug candidates.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The frequent use of antibacterial agents and the exposure of the patients to lifesaving intervention processes are consistently associated with the increased chance of nosocomial infections and the emergence of multidrug resistant microorganisms in the hospital environment. Thus, new antimicrobial agents are of unmet need to treat the severe nosocomial infections caused by these putative pathogens resistant to currently available agents. Method: Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of analogues of nitazoxanide (NTZ), an FDA approved thiazolide antiparasitic, as new antimicrobial agents against nosocomial pathogens were described. The NTZ analogues were rationally explored on the basis of either increasing the electronic resonance effects at the nitrothiazolide moiety or improving the anionic form of the whole NTZ structure. Results: The MICs and MBCs values of these NTZ analogues against prevalent nosocomial pathogens were measured. The benzologous analogues 3a and 4a and p-chlorobenzenesulfonamides 8d and 9d exhibited tremendous antimicrobial activities, which were 100- to 2000-fold more potent than NTZ and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that delicate manipulation of the NTZ core structure could lead to promising antimicrobial agents against the nosocomial pathogens.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: With the aim of finding new chemical entities based on coumarin and chalcone scaffolds, new hybrid compounds 2-5 were designed and synthesized. The trypanocidal activity of these compounds was tested against the epimastigote, trypomastigote and amastigote stages of the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite. Cytotoxicity assays were also performed in RAW 264.7 and VERO cells. Compound 5 presented the highest trypanocidal activity of the series, with trypanocidal values higher than nifurtimox for the trypomastigote and epimastigote stages., but presenting cytotoxic effects in the mammalian cells. A SAR study suggested that methoxy substitution at positions 2 and 5 in the designed scaffold seemed to be a key feature for the trypanocidal activity. Therefore, the coumarin-chalcone scaffold can be taken into account for further lead optimization and design new and more effective trypanocidal compounds.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Two series of novel benzothiazole derivatives conjugated with semicarbazone scaffold were designed and synthesized through a structure-based molecular hybridization strategy. All the target compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro against three cancer cell lines (HT-29, MKN-45 and H460) by standard MTT assay. The pharmacological results indicated that seven compounds (17h-n) exhibited comparable or even better antiproliferative activity in comparison with reference drugs Sorafenib and PAC-1. Particularly, compound 17i displayed remarkable cytotoxicity against tested three cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 0.84, 0.06 and 0.52 μM, which were 4.3-, 36.6-, 4.2-folds more potent than Sorafenib and 1.2-, 13.7-, 6.9-times more active than PAC-1, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most widely prescribed drugs to manage pain and inflammatory conditions, but their long term use is associated with gastrointestinal toxicity. Objectives; The study aimed to synthesize an ester-based prodrug of a non steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, mefenamic acid in order to improve the therapeutic index vis a vis to overcome the side effects such as gastrointestinal irritation and bleeding associated with the use of mefenamic acid. Methods: The ester prodrug (MA-NH) was prepared by condensing mefenamic acid with N-hydroxymethylsuccinimide in the presence of Phosphorus oxychloride. The pharmacokinetic profile, including stability and release of mefenamic acid and N-hydroxymethylsuccinimide from the ester prodrug (MA-NH) was studied by RP- HPLC in acidic medium (pH 1.2), basic medium (pH 7.4), 80 % v/v human plasma, 10 % w/v rat intestinal homogenate and 10 % w/v rat liver homogenate (pH 7.4). Results: The chemical structure of the title compound was characterized by using modern spectroscopic techniques. The prodrug was found to be stable in acid medium, but it hydrolyzed and released sufficient quantities of the drug in alkaline medium. The prodrug produced a lesser number of ulcers and showed improved analgesic, anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of the parent drug. Conclusion: The results indicate that the synthesized prodrug (MA-NH) is better in terms of analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities and with less GIT toxicity than the parent drug.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Background Human SIRT1 is a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC) family protein. As the overexpression of hSIRT1 leads to cancer, inhibiting its HDAC function may be a better strategy for the treatment of cancer. Till now, only a few reported inhibitor compounds have reached the stage of animal studies; hence, identifying high efficacy inhibitors of hSIRT1 is essential. Objective The main objective of the study is to obtain a new class of inhibitor compounds of hSIRT1 by the rational structure-based method. Methodology We performed virtual screening using AutoDock Vina for the HDAC domain hSIRT1 against the DrugBank library containing 1,716 compounds. The recently determined crystal structure of the HDAC domain of hSIRT1 (PDB Id: 4KXQ) was used for docking studies. Subsequently, we performed molecular dynamics simulations and an in-vitro deacetylase assay for selected compounds. Results Virtual screening studies yielded seven compounds from two chemical classes, namely diphenyl and oxycoumarin derivatives. Molecular dynamic simulations confirmed that the predicted seven compounds bind well to their respective complex structures. Moreover, four commercially available drugs containing the predicted compounds (#3, #4, #5 and #7) showed significant inhibition of hSIRT1 deacetylase activity in comparison to the known hSIRT1 inhibitor (sirtinol). Conclusion Our results indicate that the compounds of the diphenyl and oxycoumarin series may serve as useful scaffolds in the development of new chemical libraries of hSIRT1 inhibitory activity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be attributed to altered composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids. We examined the relationships between the plasma ratios of docosahexaenoid acid (DHA)/arachidonic acid (AA) and eicopentaenoic acid (EPA)/AA, and biomarkers of AA-related signaling mediators, i.e., ceruloplasmin, transferrin and superoxide dismutase, with the behavioral symptoms of 30 individuals with ASD (mean age, 13.0 years old) and 20 age- and gender-matched normal controls (mean age, 13.6 years old). Behavioral symptoms were assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklists (ABC). The ASD group had significantly higher plasma DHA/AA and EPA/AA ratios, as well as ABC scores, compared to the control group. The plasma ceruloplasmin levels in the ASD group were significantly reduced compared to those in the control group. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that plasma DHA/AA ratio was fitting models for distinguishing the ASD group from the control group. These findings suggested that increased plasma DHA/AA ratio may be related to lower plasma levels of ceruloplasmin, which may contribute to the pathophysiology of behavioral symptoms in 30 individuals with ASD.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors (FGFRs) play a key role in tumor growth and angiogenesis. The present report describes our search for an extracellularly binding FGFR inhibitor using a combined molecular modeling and de novo design strategy. Methods: Based upon crystal structures of the receptor with its native ligand and knowledge of inhibiting peptides, we have developed a computational protocol that predicts the putative binding of a molecule to the extracellular domains of the receptor. This protocol, or scoring function, was used in combination with the de novo synthesis program 'SYNOPSIS' to generate high scoring and synthetically accessible compounds. Results: Eight compounds belonging to 3 separate chemical classes were synthesized. One of these, alofanib (RPT835), was found to be an effective inhibitor of the FGF/FGFR2 pathway. The preclinical in vitro data support an allosteric inhibition mechanism of RPT835. RPT835 potently inhibited growth of KATO III gastric cancer cells expressing FGFR2, with GI50 value of 10 nmol/L. Conclusion: These results provide strong rationale for evaluation of compound in advanced cancers.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Two new limonoids, named rubescins D-E (1-2) along with eight known compounds, including five havanensin type limonoids, TS1 (3), TS3 (4), rubescins A-C (5-7) and three known phytosterols, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and its 3β-O-glucopyranoside derivative were isolated from the roots and stem bark of Trichilia rubescens, collected from Cameroon. The structures of the new compounds were determined by detailed analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectra, in combination with high-resolution mass spectrometry data and by comparison with related data from literature. Anti-plasmodial activities of some of the isolated limonoids 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7 were evaluated against erythrocytic stages of strain 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum. Compounds 2 and 4 exhibited significant anti-plasmodial in vitro activity with IC50 values of 1.13 and 0.79 μM, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: A novel series of 2,4,6-trisubstituted 1,3,5-triazine derivatives bearing aryl hydrazone moiety were designed and synthesized under the guidance of scaffold hopping and bioisosterism from the autophagy inhibitor VLX600. The target compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against HT-29 by MTT assay with VLX600 as positive control. Then, ten potent target compounds (5c-5f, 5i-5r, 5s, 5t) were further evaluated against two cancer cell lines H460 and A549 and one normal cell line WI-38. Most of them exhibited significant cytotoxicity against one or more cell lines. Particularly, a promising compound 5f was identified, which exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity against HT-29, H460 and A549 cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 0.047 µM, 0.071 µM and 0.071 µM, respectively, which was 10- to 62-folds more potent than VLX600 (IC50 = 0.47 μM, 4.1 μM, 4.4 μM). The preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) of the compounds were also discussed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Mass spectrometry (LC-MS or LC-MS/MS) appears in all phases of drug discovery and drug development areas. Starting with the screening and identification of a therapeutic agents and further measuring in vivo and in vitro properties including: absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) and also pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) quantitative parameters of drug candidate. Mass spectrometry serves as a necessary tool also to confirm purity and stability of analyzed new chemical entities (NCEs)/new molecular entities (NMEs) as well as for the analysis of degradation products from the synthesis and following on every stages of drug discovery.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))
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    ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitors have multiple effects targeting the cancer cells and have become one of the promising cancer therapeutics with possibly broad applicability. Combination of HDAC inhibitors with the cytotoxic fluorouracil (5-FU) showed additive and synergistic effects both in vitro and in vivo. To explore the possibility in cancer therapy of a bivalent agent that combines two bioactive groups within a single molecular architecture, we designed and synthesized new dual-acting compounds by combining the bioactive fragment of MS-275, a clinical HDACs inhibitor, with cytotoxic agent 5-FU. The target compounds 9a and 9b showed comparable HDACs inhibition with MS-275 and moderate antiproliferative acitivities against six cancer cells lines.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates))