Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

Journal description

Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design for the discovery of new Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of current topics in Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Medicinal Chemistry. Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments in Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents drug discovery. Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents (1568-0142).

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Website Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry website
Other titles Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy agents in medicinal chemistry
ISSN 1875-614X
OCLC 71284557
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Bentham Science Publishers

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of N-(4-substituted phenyl)glycine derivatives was designed and synthesized. The starting N-(4-acetylphenyl)glycine was converted into two intermediates: the chalcone analog 2 and the thiosemicarbazone derivative 8. Both 2 and 8 were derivatized and/or cyclized into different heterocyclic target derivatives (3-7 and 9-12). The target compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema assay. The results showed that compounds 6, 7, and 3 were the most active compounds at a 50 mg/kg dose level with % inhibition of edema of 51.82, 43.80, and 40.39, respectively.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Beta-lactam molecules are a family of drugs commonly used for their antibiotic properties; however, recent research has shown that several members of this group present a large number of other effects such as neuroprotective, antioxidant, analgesic or immunomodulatory capabilities. These properties have been used in both preclinical and clinical studies in different diseases such as hypoxic neuronal damage or acute and chronic pain. The present work briefly reviews the antibiotic effect of these molecules, and will then focus specially on the non-antibiotic effects of three beta-lactam subfamilies: penicillins, cephalosporins and beta lactamase inhibitors, each of which have different molecular structure and pharmacokinetics and therefore have several potential clinical applications. Methods: A thorough search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research was performed including only classic experiments or high quality reviews for the antibiotic mechanisms of beta-lactam molecules and only experimental research papers where included when the non-antibiotic properties of these molecules were searched. Only published articles from indexed journals were included. Quality of retrieved papers was assessed using standard tools. The characteristics of screened papers were described and findings of included studies were contextualized to either a mechanistic or a clinical framework. Results: Seventy-eight papers were included in the review; the majority (56) were relative to the non-antibiotic properties of beta-lactam molecules. The non-antibiotic effects reviewed were divided accordingly to the amount of information available for each one. Twelve papers outlined the epileptogenic effects induced by beta-lactam molecules administration; these included both clinical and basic research as well as probable mechanistic explanations. Eighteen papers described a potential neuroprotective effect, mostly in basic in vitro and in vivo experiments. Analgesic properties where identified in twelve papers and basic research was described alongside with both experimental and serendipic clinical findings. Seven papers described a down-regulation effect exerted by beta-lactam molecules administration in different addiction animal models. Finally other effects such as penile erection, dopamine release facilitation and anti-neoplasic effects where described from seven papers. Conclusion: The findings of this review show that beta-lactam molecules may induce several effects, which may be clinically relevant in a lot of different diseases. This paper is, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive review of the non-antibiotic effects shown by beta-lactam molecules and may help increase the interest in this field, which may result in a direct translation of this effects to a clinical context.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are clinically used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic agents but they have the drawbacks of causing gastric irritation and gastric ulceration. Recently, quinoline derivatives have shown significant anti-inflammatory and less ulcerogenic activity. The present study deals with the synthesis and pharmacological assessment of a series of novel quinoline derivatives bearing azetidinones scaffolds as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Methods: A series of newer 3-chloro-1-(substituted)-4-(tetrazolo [1,5-a]quinolin-4-yl)azetidin-2-one derivatives (6a-l) was synthesized starting with acetanilide (1). Initially, acetanilide (1) was allowed to react with Vilsmeier-Haack reagent (DMF + POCl3) to form 2-chloro-3-formyl quinoline (2). The 2-chloro-3-formyl quinoline (2) was further treated with p-toluenesulphonic acid and sodium azide which yielded Tetrazolo [1,5-1] quinoline-4-carbaldehyde (3). The reaction of formyl group with various substituted amines (4a-l) formed corresponding Schiff base intermediates (5a-l), which were further allowed to react with chloroacetyl chloride to produce 3-chloro-1-(substituted)-4-(tetrazolo [1,5-a]quinolin-4-yl) azetidin-2-one derivatives (6a-l). The structure of the final analogues (6a-l) has been confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity by using carrageenan induced rat paw model and Eddy's hot plate method respectively. Results: All the values of elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra were found to be prominent. The anti-inflammatory activity test revealed that 3-chloro-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(tetrazolo[1,5-a] quinolin-4-yl)azetidin-2-one (6b), 3-chloro-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-(tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinolin-4-yl)azetidin-2-one (6a) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that substitution at quinoline derivatives bearing azetidinones scaffolds showed potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Long term use of NSAIDS is mainly accompanied by major health implications such as gastrointestinal erosions, ulcerations and nephrotoxicity. These side effects arise from local irritation by the carboxylic acid moiety, that is common to most of NSAIDs (topical effect), in addition to decreased cytoprotective prostaglandin production. Therefore, in the medicinal chemistry research area, there is an ongoing need for the discovery of new, potent and safer anti-inflammatory lead compounds devoid of the irritant carboxylic acid moiety. Methods: A series of new 3-substituted-2-thioxo-thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized through reacting the starting 3-amino-2-thioxo-thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines with different aromatic aldehydes. The structure of all newly synthesized compounds was confirmed with spectral and elemental analyses. The synthesized thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines were investigated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, using the carrageenan induced paw edema test. The possible anti-inflammatory mechanism was also evaluated by determining the concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in blood serum using a rat specific PGE2 ELISA kit. Results: All test compounds could significantly reduce carrageenan induced paw edema comparable to diclofenac sodium as a potent anti-inflammatory drug. Moreover, they could decrease the concentration of PGE2 in blood serum. Interestingly, compound 4c exhibited the most potent in vivo anti-inflammatory activity with protection of 35%, 36% and 42% against carrageenan-induced paw edema after 1h, 2h and 3h, representing 92%, 86% and 88% respectively of diclofenac activity. It also decreased the concentration of PGE2 in blood serum to 19 pg/ mL which is comparable to diclofenac with PGE2 concentration of 12 pg/ mL. Moreover, Compounds 4f, 4a, 4i and 4e exerted significant anti-inflammatory activity after 4h, representing 71%, 69%, 63% and 61% respectively of diclofenac activity. Furthermore, they significantly decreased the concentration of PGE2 in blood serum. Conclusion: These thienopyrimidines may be used as good candidates for the search of promising, potent and safe anti-inflammatory leads for being free from acidic functions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benzylideneacetophenone is lead nucleus with various pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiulcer. These biological applications have motivated in searching novel derivatives with better results. The aim of the study is to present the important facets of the synthesis, structure activity relationship (SAR), and biological activities of benzylideneacetophenones.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare the ratings given by the caregivers regarding the health status of their rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to those recorded by the patients themselves and to assess the effect of caring for a patient with RA on the mental health of the caregiver. Methods: This is a non-interventional, cross-sectional, multi-center epidemiological study conducted at the outpatient clinics of two hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The patients included were diagnosed with RA, over 18 years of age with 1-5 years of disease duration, and all had an identifiable single caregiver who was willing to participate in the study. Results: 40 patients of whom 92.5% were women and the mean age of 44.6 years. The mean visual analogue scale (VAS) score was 4.98 for general health. The mean Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) for the patients according to themselves was 1.31 (±0.68), while that stated by caregivers was 1.40 (±0.69); thus, the mean scores given by the caregivers was 0.091 points higher than that provided by the patients themselves (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.167-0.014) (p=0.0214). Further, 43% of the caregivers gave higher HAQ scores to their related patients than the patients themselves, while 30% gave similar HAQ scores. The caregivers scored a mean of 21 points in the Zarit Burden Interview (±12.1), with 47.5% reporting mild to moderate burden, and 5% reporting moderate to severe burden. Conclusion: RA patients showed a tendency to understate their disease burden and as compared to that observed by caregivers who suffer from considerable level of burden.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives exhibit numerous biologic activities. Such activities have not previously been reported for 3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. In this study, ten derivatives of 3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid were synthesized and their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced mouse ear edema. Compound 7 showed a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect and the inhibition rate was 65.6% at a dose of 1.6mg/ear. This compound acted by reducing mRNA and protein synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins 1β and 6, and also by decreasing the levels of activated neutrophil infiltrates. Furthermore, compound 7 significantly suppressed arachidonic acid-induced edema as well. Cell-based assays showed that compound 7 inhibited the production of cyclooxygenase-2-catalyzed prostaglandin E2 from lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cells, and also inhibited 5-lipoxygenase production from A23187-treated RBL-1 cells, and consequently reduced leukotriene B4 production. Therefor, 3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, especially compound 7, represent potential value for anti-inflammatory drug development.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of novel 4-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)-2(1H)-phthalazinone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Six compounds, 2, 4, 5, 7a, 7b, and 8b showed significant anti-inflammatory activities at 4h compared to standard drug celecoxib. These compounds were assessed for their COX-1/COX-2 inhibitory activity in vitro and ulcerogenic profile in vivo. Compounds 4, 5, and 8b were the most potent and selective COX-2 inhibitors. Moreover, all the screened compounds demonstrated higher gastric safety profile compared to celecoxib particularly compound 8b displayed the highest safety profile. The interaction between the designated compounds and the binding site of COX-2 enzyme was anticipated by molecular docking analysis. Among the tested compounds, 8b displayed the best fitting score, the highest anti-inflammatory activity and COX-2 selectivity with minimal ulcer score.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present investigation was to synthesize, characterize and evaluate analgesic and anti- inflammatory activities of 2, 5-disubstituted 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole derivatives. The reaction of starting material 4-chloro-m-cresol with ethyl chloroacetate in dry acetone affords ethyl (4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy) acetate, which after reacting with the hydrazine hydrate in ethanol yields 2(4- chloro-3-methylphenoxy) acetohydrazide. When 2(4- chloro-3-methylphenoxy) acetohydrazide was treated with different aromatic aldehydes, aromatic acid and carbon disulfide in alcoholic solution, different3-acetyl-5-[(4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy) methyl]-2-aryl-2, 3-dihydro-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole and 2-[(4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy) methyl]-5-aryl-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole derivatives were obtained. Purity of the derivatives was confirmed by thin layer chromatography and melting point. Structure of these derivatives was set up by determining infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. Further, the synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. In animal studies, the derivatives 3-acetyl-5-[(4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy)methyl]-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole and 4-{5-[(4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy)methyl]-1, 3, 4-oxadiazol-2-yl}pyridine show more potent analgesic activity and the derivative 2-{3-acetyl-5-[(4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1, 3, 4-oxadiazol-2-yl}phenol and 3-acetyl-5-[(4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy)methyl]-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole exhibit more potent anti-inflammatory effect as compare to other derivatives. The results of the current study indicate that cyclization of acetohydrazide produces novel oxadiazole derivatives with potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterocyclic analogues and their derivatives have attracted strong interest in medicinal chemistry due to their biological and pharmacological properties. Benzothiazole is a class of heterocyclic compounds having 2 hetero atoms namely sulphur and nitrogen. The analogues of benzothiazoles and its derivatives have a significant role in research area especially in synthetic, medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry because of its biological and pharmacological activity. These compounds have special significance in the field of Medicinal chemistry due to their remarkable pharmacological potentialities. Benzothiazole is an organosulfur heterocyclic compound, weakly basic in nature. They are widely found in bioorganic and medicinal chemistry with application in drug discovery. Benzothiazoles are fused membered rings, which contain the heterocycles bearing thiazole. A large number of therapeutic agents are synthesized with the help of benzothiazoles nucleus. In addition, benzothiazoles act as core nucleus in various drugs due to their various activities e.g. pramipexole, probenazole, lubeluzole, zopolrestat, ethoxazolamide and bentaluron etc. and their derivatives have attracted a great deal of interest due to their wide range of biological activities such as anticancer, antimicrobial, antitubercular, anti-HIV, cardiovascular, local anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant and anti-diabetic. The high therapeutic properties of the heterocycles have encouraged the medicinal chemist to synthesize a large number of novel chemotherapeutic agents. This review is mainly an attempt to present the research work reported in the recent scientific literature on different biological activities of benzothiazoles compounds.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli and to initiate the healing process. Also, it has been reported to be associated with the onset of various cancers. An effective anti-inflammatory drug should be able to inhibit the development of inflammation without interfering in normal homeostasis. Current approaches to overcome the inflammation include the use of immune selective anti-inflammatory derivatives, selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist, resolvins and protectins, TNF inhibitors. A number of herbal drugs have been identified in the past that can target inflammatory cytokines. This review mainly focuses on the newer molecules to combat the inflammation and also emphasis on various studies carried out in the past. Thus, the high prevalence of inflammation obliges the development of new drugs; therefore, a safe and efficient drug molecule to confer protection against inflammation is urgently needed.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system. Pharmacological therapy of MS includes symptomatic drugs, treatment for relapses (corticosteroid and intravenous immunoglobulin) and disease modifying drugs (DMDs) defined as pharmacological agents that have an impact on relapse rate, disability accumulation and radiological outcomes. Two different therapeutic approaches are widely used in MS: escalation and induction therapy. Escalation therapy consists of an early start with first line DMDs (beta interferon, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate) and if DMDs are ineffective or partially effective, switching to second line drugs (mitoxantrone, natalizumab, fingolimod). Induction therapy consists of the early use of immunosuppressant drugs followed by long-term maintenance treatment, generally with immunomodulatory agents. While the use of natalizumab and fingolimod as first line drugs is indicated for aggressive forms of MS, the indication for mitoxantrone as an induction treatment arises from randomized studies demonstrating that induction therapy with mitoxantrone followed by DMD maintenance is more effective than monotherapy with beta interferon. However, the safety profile of induction drugs indicates this is not an acceptable therapeutic strategy for all MS patients in all phases of the disease. The coming challenge is to identify patients at high risk of disability development from their clinical characteristics, radiological findings or biomarkers. Furthermore, future studies to establish an individual safety profile stratification are needed.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop and characterize montelukast sodium loaded niosomal drug carrier systems. The vesicles were prepared by film hydration technique using different surfactants. The optimized formulation was selected on the basis of results obtained from drug entrapment, morphology and in vitro drug release studies, and further evaluated for possible drug-excipient interaction, thermal behavior and drug physical state, before and after formulation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis methods, respectively. The morphological characterization of vesicles was done using Transmission electron microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system was used for elemental and dimensional analysis of developed vesicles. The vesicle surface charge was determined using zeta potential measurements. The results suggested that the optimized formulation had small size (103±6.01 nm) and high drug entrapment (72.20±2.10%). No chemical interaction was observed between the drug and excipients. The study revealed that Span 60 is a good nonionic surfactant for vesicle formulation. After 3 months storage at 2-8°C, the optimized formulation preserved stability in terms of formulation colour, drug amount and percent drug release. After 3 months, flocculation occurs and hard cake was not formed on the settlement of vesicles. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the designed vesicles could enhance drug entrapment, reduce the initial burst release of drug and modulate the drug release.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Today it is well known about mechanisms of cell communication, how the cells that mediate immune response and tissue injury accumulate in tissues but the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is still unknown. This study was to evaluate immunomodulatory effects of crude Entamoeba histolytica (HM1 IMS strain) antigen in complete freund's adjuvant female wistar rats by studying the alterations in humoral and cell mediated immune responses and also the inflammatory effects by evaluating the changes in body weight, paw thickness, biochemical, serological, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and histopathology activities. Animals were randomly divided into six groups (n=6). CFA was induced in arthritic, drug and AA+CFA group whereas, 0.5ml amoebic antigen was induced subplantal in AA group while 0.5ml dose of amoebic antigen was given orally to AA+CFA group for 7-28th days. Indomethacin was used as a standard drug. Effects of amoebic antigen were associated with increased paw thickness and decreased body weight when compared to healthy control showed a significant difference. Oral administration of amoebic antigen has showed increased severe symptoms of arthritis in AA+CFA on comparison to healthy control rats. Significant increase in serum level of IL-6 and α TNF were found in AA group followed by AA+CFA group whereas, decrease in concentration of IL-10 was appear in AA+CFA group on comparison to arthritic and healthy control group (P<0.05). Histopathology of AA group showed severe signs of necrotic and degenerative changes on comparison to healthy control group. Thus the results demonstrated that E. histolytica alone or in combination with CFA increased bone damage, with alterations in antioxidant level in liver and kidney tissue homogenates as well as showed immunomodulatory arthritogenic properties which may contribute and raise joint inflammation.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents)