Current Medicinal Chemistry (CURR MED CHEM)

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

Journal description

Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each bi-weekly issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.

Current impact factor: 3.85

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 3.853
2013 Impact Factor 3.715
2012 Impact Factor 4.07
2011 Impact Factor 4.859
2010 Impact Factor 4.63
2009 Impact Factor 4.708
2008 Impact Factor 4.823
2007 Impact Factor 4.944
2006 Impact Factor 5.207
2005 Impact Factor 4.904
2004 Impact Factor 4.382
2003 Impact Factor 4.409
2002 Impact Factor 4.966
2001 Impact Factor 5.76
2000 Impact Factor 4.909
1999 Impact Factor 3
1998 Impact Factor 1.522
1997 Impact Factor 2.269

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.12
Cited half-life 5.80
Immediacy index 0.85
Eigenfactor 0.03
Article influence 1.00
Website Current Medicinal Chemistry website
Other titles Current medicinal chemistry (Online)
ISSN 1875-533X
OCLC 55201153
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Bentham Science Publishers

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on author's personal website, institutional repository and open access repository
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website, institutional repository, open access repository, PubMed Central and arXiv
    • Non-Commercial
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal homepage with DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • Yang Zhang · Zhao-Peng Liu
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    ABSTRACT: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is almost exclusively expressed in the proximal renal tubules. It is responsible for about 90% of the glucose reabsorption from tubular fluid. Selective inhibition of SGLT2 is expected to favor in the normalization of plasma glucose levels in T2DM patients through the prevention of renal glucose reabsorption and the promotion of glucose excretion from urine. Selective SGLT2 inhibitors have the merits to minimize the gastrointestinal side effects associated with SGLT1 inhibition, and selective SGLT2 inhibition may have a low risk of hypoglycemia. Since the C-aryl glucosides are metabolically more stable than the O-glucosides, numerous efforts have been made in the development of potent and selective C-aryl glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors, and a number of them are now used as anti-diabetes drugs in clinic or at various stages of clinical developments. Based on their structural features, in this review, these SGLT2 inhibitors are classified as three types: the phenyl/arylmethylphenyl C-glucosides, with an emphasis on the modifications on the proximal and/or the distal phenyl ring, and the spacer; the heteroarylmethylphenyl C-glucosides, with a replacement of the distal phenyl ring by a heterocycle like pyridazine, pyrimidine, thiophene and benzothiophene, thiazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, and triazolopyridinone; and the glucose-modified C-aryl glucosides, including the glucose C-1 derived O-spiroketals, C-4 gem-difluoro analogues, C-5 and C-6 modified derivatives, dioxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane bridged ketals, the thioglucosides, and carbasugars. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) of each type along with their inhibitory potency against human SGLT2 and selectivity over human SGLT1 are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
  • Leilei Shi · Jianfeng Zhou · Jifeng Wu · Yuemao Shen · Xun Li
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor angiogenesis has always been a major gap for effective cancer therapy. Interruption of aberrant angiogenesis by specific inhibitors targeting receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has been of great interests to medicinal chemists. Among the factors that are involved in tumor angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is validated as the most closely related factor which can drive angiogenesis through binding with its natural ligand VEGF. The well-validated VEGF-driven VEGFR-2 signaling pathway can stimulates many endothelial responses, including increasing vessel permeability and enhancing endothelial cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Consequently, circumventing angiogenesis by VEGFR-2 inhibitors represents a promising strategy for counteracting various VEGFR-2-mediated disorders as well as drug resistance. Over the past decades, a considerable number of novel small molecular VEGFR-2 inhibitors have been exploited with diverse chemical scaffolds. Especially, recent frequently launched inhibitors have declared their research values and therapeutic potentials in oncology. Still, the antiangiogenesis based treatment remains an ongoing challenge. In this review, a comprehensive retrospective of newly emerged VEGFR-2 inhibitors have been summarized, with the emphasis on the structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigation, and also binding patterns of representative inhibitors with biotargets. On the basis of all of this information, varied strategies for developing potent VEGFR-2 inhibitors and the future prospect of the clinical application of antiangiogenic inhibitors are discussed hereby.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
  • Branislava Medić · Branislav Rovčanin · Katarina Savić Vujović · Danilo Obradović · Dušan Đurić · Milica Prostran
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the recent findings concerning pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies, the mortality rate in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) remains very high. Early detection of patients with impaired renal function may help to ensure more aggresive treatment and to improve clinical outcome. Serum creatinine is still gold standard of kidney injury, although it is well known as an insensitive and unreliable biomarker (for example, its concentration does not increase significantly until about half of the kidney function is lost). Considering these data, researches and clinicians are making great efforts in the past decade in order to discover and validate novel AKI biomarkers. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), Interleukin-18 (IL-18), Cystatin C (Cys-C) are some of new, promising markers of kidney damage which are currently in the focus of preclinical and clinical studies. Recent data suggest that some of these new biomarkers represent important parametars of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and reliable predictors of development and prognosis of AKI. Beside that, monitoring of these markers could have significant importance for early diagnosis and clinical course, not only in patients with various forms of AKI and other renal diseases, but also in patients with cardiorenal syndrome, heart failure, cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiothoracical surgical interventions, in the pediatric emergency setting etc. Aim of this review is to summarize the literature data concerning some new biomarkers, to evaluate their role as well as their limitations in the early diagnosis and prediction of clinical outcome of some renal diseases.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
  • Sonja Vučković · Katarina Savić Vujović · Branislava Medić · Dragana Srebro · Danka Mostić
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    ABSTRACT: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed for the treatment of pain, inflamation and fever. They are usually well tollerated in healthy persons, but in patients with risk factors (advanced age, renal impairment, heart failure, liver disease, concurrent medications with antihypertensive drugs), NSAIDs can induce serious renal adverse effects. They include sodium and water retention with edema, worsening of heart failure, hypertension, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, renal papillary necrosis and acute interstitial nephritis. The majority of these adverse effects are due to the inhibition of prostaglandins synthesis and they are dose and duration-dependent. Acute forms of kidney injuries are transient and often reversible upon drug withdrawal. Chronic use of NSAIDs in some patients may result in chronic kidney disease. It is recommended that patients at risk should have preventative strategies in place, including the use of the "lowest effective dose" of NSAID for the "shortest possible time" and monitoring renal function, fluid retention and electrolyte abnormalities. Patients who are taking antihypertensive medications should be monitored for high blood pressure and the doses of antihypertensive medications should be adjusted if needed. In general, the combination of NSAIDs and angiotensin inhibitors should be avoided. Some other preventive measures are dietary salt restriction, use of topical NSAIDs/non-pharmacological therapies and use of calcium channel blockers for treating hypertension.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
  • Marisa Cabeza · Araceli Sánchez-Márquez · Mariana Garrido · Aylín Silva · Eugene Bratoeff
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    ABSTRACT: This article summarizes the importance of different targets such as 5α-reductase, 17β-HSD, CYP17A, androgen receptor and protein kinase A for the treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. It is a well known fact that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is associated with the development of androgen-dependent afflictions. At the present time, several research groups are attempting to develop new steroidal and non-steroidal molecules with the purpose of inhibiting the synthesis and biological response of DHT. This review also discusses the most recent studies reported in the literature that describe the therapeutic potential of novel compounds, as well as the new drugs, principally inhibitors of 5α-reductase.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
  • Michele Tonelli · Elena Cichero
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    ABSTRACT: In this review we discuss drug design strategies directed to the development of potential anti- influenza A(H1N1) inhibitors of M2 ion channel, neuraminidase (NA), hemagglutinin (HA) and RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase complex (RdRp) major targets, following temporal chronology of their findings. Besides searching for new chemotypes, eventually active against new targets of FluA(H1N1), the design of optimized analogues of proven drugs is largely pursued, taking into account the emerging insight about the mechanisms of resistance to existing antivirals. Computational studies are also summarized, in order to highlight the structural requirements for further chemical optimizations.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
  • Rong Hu · Yuan-Jian Li · Xiao-Hui Li
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    ABSTRACT: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is extensively distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems and has been shown to be a 37 amino acid multifunctional neuropeptide involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Recently, there is increasing evidence suggesting that CGRP also exists in non-nerve cells, such as epithelial cells, endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and adipocytes. The existence of CGRP in non-neural tissue is of great importance to the regulation of multiple physiological and pathological processes via different pathways, especially through an autocrine/paracrine mode. This review integrates evidence from recent developments and aims to provide novel insights into non-neural sources of CGRP and its effects on physiological and pathological processes.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
  • Tatjana S Potpara · Vera Jokic · Nikolaos Dagres · Torben B Larsen · Deirdre A Lane · Gerhard Hindricks · Gregory Y H Lip
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are disorders with increasing prevalence. The presence of CKD increases the risk of incident AF and vice versa, and the presence of AF may accelerate CKD progression. Nearly a third of patients with established CKD also have AF, whilst half of AF patients may have some degree of renal dysfunction. Both AF and CKD are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, including significantly increased risk of stroke or systemic embolism. Oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC), either with vitamin K antagonists or with non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is essential to optimise prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in AF patients with one or more stroke risk factors, and NOACs are more convenient and generally safer than vitamin K antagonists mostly due to consistently reduced risk of intracranial bleeding. The use of OAC must be balanced against the risk of OAC-related bleeding, which depends on the presence of bleeding risk factors. Renal failure is a well-established bleeding risk factor and renal function should be routinely assessed in all patients presenting with AF. Since the risk of bleeding increases in parallel with CKD severity, the clinical decision to use OAC in AF patients with severe CKD may be challenging. In this review article we summarize the OAC agents currently used in clinical practice and discuss the role of NOACs for stroke prevention in patients with AF and CKD.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
  • F Tamay-Cach · M L Villa-Tanaca · J G Trujillo-Ferrara · D Alemán-González-Duhart · J C Quintana-Pérez · I A González-Ramírez · J Correa-Basurto
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    ABSTRACT: The present review summarizes the methods most used in drug search and design, which may help to keep pace with the growing antibiotic resistance among pathogens. The rate of reduction in the effectiveness of many anti-microbial medications, caused by this resistance, is faster than new drug development, thereby creating a worldwide public health threat. Among the scientific community, the urgency of finding new drugs is peaking interest in the use of in silico studies to explore the interaction of compounds with target receptors. With this approach, small molecules (designed or retrieved from data bases) are tested with computer-aided molecular simulation to explore their efficacy. That is, ligand-protein complexes are constructed and evaluated via virtual screening (VS), molecular dynamics (MD), and docking simulations with the data from the physical, chemical and pharmacological properties of such molecules. Additionally, the application of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), multi-target quantitative structure-activity relationship (mt-QSAR), and multi-tasking quantitative structure-biological effect (mtk-QSBER) can be enhanced by principal component analysis and systematic workflows. These types of studies aid in selecting a group of promising molecules with high potency and selectivity as well as low toxicity, thus making in vitro and in vivo (animal model) testing more efficient. Since knowledge of the receptor topography and receptor-ligand interactions has yielded promising compounds and effective drugs, there is now no doubt that the use of in silico tools can lead to more rapid validation of new potential drugs for preclinical studies and clinical trials.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
  • L Martín-Banderas · M.A. Holgado · M Durán-Lobato · J.J. Infante · J Álvarez-Fuentes · M Fernández-Arévalo
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    ABSTRACT: Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) comprise a group of rare inherited chronic syndromes that cause deficiency of specific native enzymes within the lysosomes. The macromolecular compounds that are usually catabolized by lysosomal enzymes are accumulated within these organelles, causing progressive damage to tissues, skeleton and organs and, in several cases, the central nervous system (CNS). The damage caused by substrate accumulation finally results in physical deterioration, functional impairment and potential death. Up to date, the most promising therapy for most LSDs is enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT), which provides patients with the corresponding active enzyme. However, these enzymes do not have enough stability in blood, the treatment must be therefore periodically administrated by i.v. infusion under medical supervision, and immunogenicity issues are frequent. In addition, affected areas within the CNS, where the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle, cannot be reached by the enzymes. Nanotechnology can provide useful carriers to successfully protect and preserve enzymes, and transport them through the BBB towards brain locations. Several strategies based on targeting specific receptors on the BBB have led to nanoparticles that successfully carry sensitive molecules to the brain. Then, the main LSDs are described and a thorough review of nanotechnology strategies for brain delivery studied up to date is presented.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated nuclear hormone receptor that functions as transcription factor and plays an important role in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitization. Recent studies have shown that PPARγ is over-expressed in many tumor types, including cancers of breast, lung, pancreas, colon, glioblastoma, prostate and thyroid differentiated/anaplastic cancers. These data suggest a role of PPARγ in tumor development and/or progression. PPARγ is emerging as a growth-limiting and differentiation-promoting factor, and it exerts a tumor suppressor role. Moreover, naturally-occurring and synthetic PPARγ agonists promote growth inhibition and apoptosis. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are synthetic agonists of PPARγ that were developed to treat type II diabetes. These compounds also display anticancer effects which appear mainly to be independent of their PPARγ agonist activity. Various preclinical and clinical studies strongly suggest a role for TZDs both alone and in combination with existing chemotherapeutic agents, for the treatment of cancer. Differentiation therapy involves the use of agents with the ability to induce differentiation in cells that have lost this ability, i.e. cancer cells, targeting pathways capable of re-activating blocked terminal differentiation programs. PPARγ agonists have been shown to induce differentiation in solid tumors such as thyroid differentiated/anaplastic cancers and sarcomas. However, emerging data suggest that chronic use of TZDs is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. The exploration of newer PPARγ agonists can help in unveiling the underlying mechanisms of these drugs, providing new molecules that are able to treat cancer, without increasing the cardiovascular risk of neoplastic patients.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Animal venoms are a mixture of bioactive compounds produced as weapons and used primarily to immobilize and kill preys. As a result of the high potency and specificity for various physiological targets, many toxins from animal venoms have emerged as possible drugs for the medication of diverse disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. Captopril, which inhibits the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), was the first successful venom-based drug and a notable example of rational drug design. Since captopril was developed, many studies have discovered novel bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) with actions on the cardiovascular system. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have also been found in animal venoms and used as template to design new drugs with applications in cardiovascular diseases. Among the anti-arrhythmic peptides, GsMTx-4 was discovered to be a toxin that selectively inhibits the stretch-activated cation channels (SACs), which are involved in atrial fibrillation. The present review describes the main components isolated from animal venoms that act on the cardiovascular system and presents a brief summary of venomous animals and their venom apparatuses.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are crucial for our health and wellbeing; therefore, they have been widely investigated for their roles in maintaining human health and in disease treatment. Most Western diets include significant amount of saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and insufficient quantity of omega-3; however, the balance between omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA, in particular, is essential for the formation of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipids to promote health and prevent disease. As our daily diet affects our health, this paper draws attention to unique representatives of the omega-3 fatty acid group: alpha-linolenic acid and its derivatives. Recently, this has been shown to be effective in treating and preventing various diseases. It has been confirmed that omega-3 PUFAs may act as therapeutic agents as well and their significant role against inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, has been described. Some of nutritional factors have been described as a significant modifiers, which can influence brain elasticity and thus, effect on central nervous system functioning. Therefore, appropriate dietary management appears to be a non-invasive and effective approach to counteract neurological and cognitive disorders.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The overproduction of cortisol is associated with many severe and life-threatening diseases, such as Cushing's syndrome (CS) and chronic wound healing. 11β-Hydroxylase (CYP11B1) is considered as an attractive target for treating these diseases, since it is a key enzyme responsible for the last step in cortisol biosynthesis. Nowadays, medical therapy has become increasingly important for CS patients, especially for those who are in need of surgery or suffer from surgery failure and those in early phases of radiation therapy. In clinic, steroidogenesis blockers including CYP11B1 inhibitors are utilized most frequently. Nevertheless, drugs that inhibit CYP11B1 are inevitably with side effects due to lack of selectivity over other steroidogenesis enzymes. Recent advances in the development of novel CYP11B1 inhibitors might overcome these limitations. In addition, the beneficial effects of down-regulation of cortisol levels to wound closure have been recently disclosed and have stimulated topical application of CYP11B1 inhibitors as a novel therapeutic strategy for curing chronic wounds. Herein, we provide a review of the current CYP11B1 inhibitors in clinic combating CS and the latest development of novel CYP11B1 inhibitors for treating CS and chronic wounds.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes are the most abundant neuron-supporting glial cells in the central nervous system. The neuroprotective role of astrocytes has been demonstrated in various neurological disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury, stroke and Parkinson's disease (PD). Astrocyte dysfunction or loss-of-astrocytes increases the susceptibility of neurons to cell death, while astrocyte transplantation in animal studies has therapeutic advantage. We reported recently that stimulation of serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptors on astrocytes promoted astrocyte proliferation and upregulated antioxidative molecules to act as a neuroprotectant in parkinsonian mice. PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with motor symptoms such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability, that are based on selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, and with non-motor symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension and constipation based on peripheral neurodegeneration. Although dopaminergic therapy for managing the motor disability associated with PD is being assessed at present, the main challenge remains the development of neuroprotective or disease-modifying treatments. Therefore, it is desirable to find treatments that can reduce the progression of dopaminergic cell death. In this article, we summarize first the neuroprotective properties of astrocytes targeting certain molecules related to PD. Next, we review neuroprotective effects induced by stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors on astrocytes. The review discusses new promising therapeutic strategies based on neuroprotection against oxidative stress and prevention of dopaminergic neurodegeneration.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Measurement of the oxidative stress-related end products may be performed, e.g. that of structural isomers of the physiological para-tyrosine, namely meta- and ortho-tyrosine, that are oxidized derivatives of phenylalanine. Recent data suggest that in sepsis, serum level of meta-tyrosine increases, which peaks on the 2nd and 3rd days (p<0.05 vs. controls), and the kinetics follows the intensity of the systemic inflammation correlating with serum procalcitonin levels. In a similar study subset, urinary meta-tyrosine excretion correlated with both need of daily insulin dose and the insulin-glucose product in non-diabetic septic cases (p<0.01 for both). Using linear regression model, meta-tyrosine excretion, urinary meta-tyrosine/para-tyrosine, urinary ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine and urinary (meta- + ortho-tyrosine)/para-tyrosine proved to be markers of carbohydrate homeostasis. In a chronic rodent model, we tried to compensate the abnormal tyrosine isomers using para-tyrosine, the physiological amino acid. Rats were fed a standard high cholesterol-diet, and were given para-tyrosine or vehicle orally. High-cholesterol feeding lead to a significant increase in aortic wall meta-tyrosine content and a decreased vasorelaxation of the aorta to insulin and the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, that both could be prevented by administration of para-tyrosine. Concluding, these data suggest that meta- and ortho-tyrosine are potential markers of oxidative stress in acute diseases related to oxidative stress, and may also interfere with insulin action in septic humans. Competition of meta- and ortho-tyrosine by supplementation of para-tyrosine may exert a protective role in oxidative stress-related diseases.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Protein post-translational modification (PTM) occurs following their biosynthesis and is a key cellular event that defines their ultimate functional properties. It is an important control mechanism for display of biological functions of proteins often in a profound manner. It may switch on or off a protein's function. Several studies have been conducted to understand their mechanisms, physiological pathways and functional properties. PTMs have been shown to alter structural, conformational and physicochemical properties of proteins. So far a variety of protein modifications have been detected in physiological systems. These involve covalent modifications of amino acids via their side chains, backbone peptide bonds and terminal moieties. Following PTM, proteins may become (a) pathologically toxic, (b) biologically active or inactive, (c) more or less susceptible to proteolytic processing, (d) increasingly/decreasingly bound to its partner protein/s, or (e) modified with altered protease activities. These changes may affect pathways linked to cell signaling/transduction, trafficking, storing, expression, binding and/or affinity. Any of these events may be linked to metabolic, growth and/or chronic dysfunctions with serious health consequences that may include cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, viral/bacterial/parasite infections, inflammation, thrombosis, diabetes; central nervous system related conditions. Some of the modifications are more prevalent physiologically and widely studied. However, in recent years additional PTMs have been described that are less common. These include glypiation, neddylayion, siderophorylation, sumoylation, AMPylation, Cholesteroylation and others which are also important. This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of these rare and unconventional types of protein modifications and their functional implications to health, metabolism and disease conditions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Kidney damage can be induced by ischemia, autoimmune diseases, hypertension, allograft rejection, metabolic or genetic disorders, infections or toxins. The influence of these factors could result in acute kidney injury (AKI) defined as an unexpected decrease in urine output or renal function, or encourage the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Biomarkers of renal function, measured in urine and serum, are in increasing use in order to estimate the severity and nature of kidney injury, and consequently apply appropriate therapy and improve patient management. The determined values of biomarkers can suggest the potential risk of kidney disease and the type of renal injury, predict the disease progression, as well as be helpful for assessing the response to an applied therapy. Although novel biomarkers are in practical use, serum creatinine, the indicator of glomerular filtration rate is still the most frequently used biomarker of renal function despite its known limitations. In recent decades, numerous studies resulted in discovering urinary and serum proteins that can serve as biomarkers for early and accurate detection of AKI and its development, as well as the identification of CKD. This review gives an overview of the most important renal biomarkers investigated in kidney diseases, classified in following types: functional biomarkers, up-regulated proteins, enzymes, and cycle arrest biomarkers. It describes their properties, physiological roles, and discusses the utility of these molecules in different clinical settings.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Current Medicinal Chemistry