Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists

Publisher: Elsevier

Current impact factor: 0.76

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 0.76
2013 Impact Factor 0.952
2012 Impact Factor 1.009
2011 Impact Factor 1
2010 Impact Factor 0.941
2009 Impact Factor 1.256
2008 Impact Factor 2.324
2007 Impact Factor 2.167

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 0.83
Cited half-life 6.50
Immediacy index 0.08
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.27
ISSN 1873-4022

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification
    green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy with ion beams like proton and carbon has been used for treatment of eye uveal melanoma for many years. In this research, we have developed a new phantom of human eye for Monte Carlo simulation of tumors treatment to use in GEANT4 toolkit. Total depth−dose profiles for the proton, alpha, and carbon incident beams with the same ranges have been calculated in the phantom. Moreover, the deposited energy of the secondary particles for each of the primary beams is calculated. The dose curves are compared for 47.8 MeV proton, 190.1 MeV alpha, and 1060 MeV carbon ions that have the same range in the target region reaching to the center of tumor. The passively scattered spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) for each incident beam as well as the flux curves of the secondary particles including neutron, gamma, and positron has been calculated and compared for the primary beams. The high sharpness of carbon beam׳s Bragg peak with low lateral broadening is the benefit of this beam in hadrontherapy but it has disadvantages of dose leakage in the tail after its Bragg peak and high intensity of neutron production. However, proton beam, which has a good conformation with tumor shape owing to the beam broadening caused by scattering, can be a good choice for the large-size tumors.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare the roles of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric- modulated arc therapy (VMAT) therapy as compared to simple and complex 3-dimensional chemoradiotherpy (3DCRT) planning for resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. In all, 12 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy (8) or neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (4) were evaluated retrospectively. Radiotherapy planning was performed for 4 treatment techniques: simple 4-field box, complex 5-field 3DCRT, 5 to 6-field IMRT, and single-arc VMAT. All volumes were approved by a single observer in accordance with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Pancreas Contouring Atlas. Plans included tumor/tumor bed and regional lymph nodes to 45 Gy; with tumor/tumor bed boosted to 50.4 Gy, at least 95% of planning target volume (PTV) received the prescription dose. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) for multiple end points, treatment planning, and delivery time were assessed. Complex 3DCRT, IMRT, and VMAT plans significantly (p < 0.05) decreased mean kidney dose, mean liver dose, liver (V30, V35), stomach (D10%), stomach (V45), mean right kidney dose, and right kidney (V15) as compared with the simple 4-field plans that are most commonly reported in the literature. IMRT plans resulted in decreased mean liver dose, liver (V35), and left kidney (V15, V18, V20). VMAT plans decreased small bowel (D10%, D15%), small bowel (V35, V45), stomach (D10%, D15%), stomach (V35, V45), mean liver dose, liver (V35), left kidney (V15, V18, V20), and right kidney (V18, V20). VMAT plans significantly decreased small bowel (D10%, D15%), left kidney (V20), and stomach (V45) as compared with IMRT plans. Treatment planning and delivery times were most efficient for simple 4-field box and VMAT. Excluding patient setup and imaging, average treatment delivery was within 10 minutes for simple and complex 3DCRT, IMRT, and VMAT treatments. This article shows significant improvements in 3D plan performance with complex planning over the more frequently compared 3- or 4-field simple 3D planning techniques. VMAT plans continue to demonstrate potential for the most organ sparing. However, further studies are required to identify if dosimetric benefits associated with inverse optimized planning can be translated into clinical benefits and if these treatment techniques are value-added therapies for this group of patients with cancer.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to investigate the fetal doses of pregnant patients undergoing conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for breast cancers. An Alderson Rando phantom was chosen to simulate a pregnant patient with breast cancer who is receiving radiation therapy. This phantom was irradiated using the Varian Clinac DBX 600 system (Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, CA) linear accelerator, according to the standard treatment plans of both three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-D CRT) and IMRT techniques. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure the irradiated phantom׳s virtually designated uterus area. Thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements (in the phantom) revealed that the mean cumulative fetal dose for 3-D CRT is 1.39 cGy and for IMRT it is 8.48 cGy, for a pregnant breast cancer woman who received radiation treatment of 50 Gy. The fetal dose was confirmed to increase by 70% for 3-D CRT and 40% for IMRT, if it is closer to the irradiated field by 5 cm. The mean fetal dose from 3-D CRT is 1.39 cGy and IMRT is 8.48 cGy, consistent with theoretic calculations. The IMRT technique causes the fetal dose to be 5 times more than that of 3-D CRT. Theoretic knowledge concerning the increase in the peripheral doses as the measurements approached the beam was also practically proven.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the feasibility of planning stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for large central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer with a tri-cobalt-60 (tri-60Co) system equipped with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, as compared to linear accelerator (LINAC)-based SBRT. In all, 20 patients with large central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer who were treated between 2010 and 2015 with LINAC-based SBRT were replanned using a tri-60Co system for a prescription dose of 50Gy in 4 fractions. Doses to organs at risk were evaluated based on established MD Anderson constraints for central lung SBRT. R 100 values were calculated as the total tissue volume receiving 100% of the dose (V 100) divided by the planning target volume and compared to assess dose conformity. Dosimetric comparisons between LINAC-based and tri-60Co SBRT plans were performed using Student's t-test and Wilcoxon Ranks test. Blinded reviews by radiation oncologists were performed to assess the suitability of both plans for clinical delivery. The mean planning target volume was 48.3cc (range: 12.1 to 139.4cc). Of the tri-60Co SBRT plans, a mean 97.4% of dosimetric parameters per patient met MD Anderson dose constraints, whereas a mean 98.8% of dosimetric parameters per patient were met with LINAC-based SBRT planning (p = 0.056). R 100 values were similar between both plans (1.20 vs 1.21, p = 0.79). Upon blinded review by 4 radiation oncologists, an average of 90% of the tri-60Co SBRT plans were considered acceptable for clinical delivery compared with 100% of the corresponding LINAC-based SBRT plans (p = 0.17). SBRT planning using the tri-60Co system with built-in MRI is feasible and achieves clinically acceptable plans for most central lung patients, with similar target dose conformity and organ at risk dosimetry. The added benefit of real-time MRI-guided therapy may further optimize tumor targeting while improving normal tissue sparing, which warrants further investigation in a prospective feasibility clinical trial.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this work was to determine, by measurement and independent monitor unit (MU) check, the optimum method for determining collimator scatter for an Elekta Synergy linac with an Agility multileaf collimator (MLC) within Radcalc, a commercial MU calculation software package. Methods: The collimator scatter factors were measured for 13 field shapes defined by an Elekta Agility MLC on a Synergy linac with 6MV photons. The value of the collimator scatter associated with each field was also calculated according to the equation Sc=Sc(mlc)+Sc(corr)(Sc(open)-Sc(mlc)) with Sc(corr) varied between 0 and 1, where Sc(open) is the value of collimator scatter calculated from the rectangular collimator-defined field and Sc(mlc) the value using only the MLC-defined field shape by applying sector integration. From this the optimum value of the correction was determined as that which gives the minimum difference between measured and calculated Sc. Single (simple fluence modulation) and dual-arc (complex fluence modulation) treatment plans were generated on the Monaco system for prostate volumetric modulated-arc therapy (VMAT) delivery. The planned MUs were verified by absolute dose measurement in phantom and by an independent MU calculation. The MU calculations were repeated with values of Sc(corr) between 0 and 1. The values of the correction yielding the minimum MU difference between treatment planning system (TPS) and check MU were established. Results: The empirically derived value of Sc(corr) giving the best fit to the measured collimator scatter factors was 0.49. This figure however was not found to be optimal for either the single- or dual-arc prostate VMAT plans, which required 0.80 and 0.34, respectively, to minimize the differences between the TPS and independent-check MU. Point dose measurement of the VMAT plans demonstrated that the TPS MUs were appropriate for the delivered dose. Conclusions: Although the value of Sc(corr) may be obtained by direct comparison of calculation with measurement, the efficacy of the value determined for VMAT-MU calculations are very much dependent on the complexity of the MLC delivery.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: If a prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan has protocol violations, it is often a challenge knowing whether this is due to unfavorable anatomy or suboptimal planning. This study aimed to create a model to predict protocol violations based on patient anatomical variables and their potential relationship to target and organ at risk (OAR) end points in the setting of definitive, dose-escalated IMRT/VMAT prostate planning. Radiotherapy plans from 200 consecutive patients treated with definitive radiation for prostate cancer using IMRT or VMAT were analyzed. The first 100 patient plans (hypothesis-generating cohort) were examined to identify anatomical variables that predict for dosimetric outcome, in particular OAR end points. Variables that scored significance were further assessed for their ability to predict protocol violations using a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis. These results were then validated in a second group of 100 patients (validation cohort). In the initial analysis of the hypothesis-generating cohort, percentage of rectum overlap in the planning target volume (PTV) (%OR) and percentage of bladder overlap in the PTV (%OB) were highlighted as significant predictors of rectal and bladder dosimetry. Lymph node treatment was also significant for bladder outcomes. For the validation cohort, CART analysis showed that %OR of < 6%, 6% to 9% and > 9% predicted a 13%, 63%, and 100% rate of rectal protocol violations respectively. For the bladder, %OB of < 9% vs > 9% is associated with 13% vs 88% rate of bladder constraint violations when lymph nodes were not treated. If nodal irradiation was delivered, plans with a %OB of < 9% had a 59% risk of violations. Percentage of rectum and bladder within the PTV can be used to identify individual plan potential to achieve dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraints. A model based on these factors could be used to reduce planning time, improve work flow, and strengthen plan quality and consistency.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Radiation treatment requires high accuracy to protect healthy organs and destroy the tumor. However, tumors located near the diaphragm constantly move during treatment. Respiration-gated radiotherapy has significant potential for the improvement of the irradiation of tumor sites affected by respiratory motion, such as lung and liver tumors. To measure and minimize the effects of respiratory motion, a realistic deformable phantom is required for use as a gold standard. The purpose of this study was to develop and study the characteristics of a deformable moving lung (DML) phantom, such as simulation, tissue equivalence, and rate of deformation. The rate of change of the lung volume, target deformation, and respiratory signals were measured in this study; they were accurately measured using a realistic deformable phantom. The measured volume difference was 31%, which closely corresponds to the average difference in human respiration, and the target movement was − 30 to + 32 mm. The measured signals accurately described human respiratory signals. This DML phantom would be useful for the estimation of deformable image registration and in respiration-gated radiotherapy. This study shows that the developed DML phantom can exactly simulate the patient׳s respiratory signal and it acts as a deformable 4-dimensional simulation of a patient׳s lung with sufficient volume change.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the dosimetric advantages and disadvantages of standard anteroposterior-posteroanterior (S-AP/PAAAA), inverse-planned AP/PA (IP-AP/PA) and volumetry-modulated arc (VMAT) radiotherapies in the treatment of children undergoing whole-lung irradiation. Each technique was evaluated by means of target coverage and normal tissue sparing, including data regarding low doses. A historical approach with and without tissue heterogeneity corrections is also demonstrated. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 10 children scanned from the neck to the reproductive organs were used. For each scan, 6 plans were created: (1) S-AP/PAAAA using the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), (2) IP-AP/PA, (3) VMAT, (4) S-AP/PANONE without heterogeneity corrections, (5) S-AP/PAPB using the Pencil-Beam algorithm and enforcing monitor units from technique 4, and (6) S-AP/PAAAA[FM] using AAA and forcing fixed monitor units. The first 3 plans compare modern methods and were evaluated based on target coverage and normal tissue sparing. Body maximum and lower body doses (50% and 30%) were also analyzed. Plans 4 to 6 provide a historic view on the progression of heterogeneity algorithms and elucidate what was actually delivered in the past. Averages of each comparison parameter were calculated for all techniques. The S-AP/PAAAA technique resulted in superior target coverage but had the highest maximum dose to every normal tissue structure. The IP-AP/PA technique provided the lowest dose to the esophagus, stomach, and lower body doses. VMAT excelled at body maximum dose and maximum doses to the heart, spine, and spleen, but resulted in the highest dose in the 30% body range. It was, however, superior to the S-AP/PAAAA approach in the 50% range. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses thus associated. Techniques may be selected on a case-by-case basis and by physician preference of target coverage vs normal tissue sparing.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student׳s previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant׳s undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Conventional parallel-opposed radiotherapy (PORT) is the established standard technique for early-stage glottic carcinoma. However, case reports have reported the utility of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with or without image guidance (image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT) in select patients. The proposed advantages of IMRT/VMAT include sparing of the carotid artery, thyroid gland, and the remaining functional larynx, although these benefits remain unclear. The following case study presents a patient with multiple vascular comorbidities treated with VMAT for early-stage glottic carcinoma. A detailed explanation of the corresponding treatment details, dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis, and a review of the relevant literature are provided. Conventional PORT remains the standard of care for early-stage glottic carcinoma. IMRT or VMAT may be beneficial for select patients, although great care is necessary to avoid a geographical miss. Clinical data supporting the benefit of CRT are lacking. Therefore, these techniques should be used with caution and only in selected patients.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Residual position errors of the lymph node (LN) surrogates and humeral head (HH) were determined for 2 different arm fixation devices in radiotherapy (RT) of breast cancer: a standard wrist-hold (WH) and a house-made rod-hold (RH). The effect of arm position correction (APC) based on setup images was also investigated. A total of 113 consecutive patients with early-stage breast cancer with LN irradiation were retrospectively analyzed (53 and 60 using the WH and RH, respectively). Residual position errors of the LN surrogates (Th1-2 and clavicle) and the HH were investigated to compare the 2 fixation devices. The position errors and setup margins were determined before and after the APC to investigate the efficacy of the APC in the treatment situation. A threshold of 5mm was used for the residual errors of the clavicle and Th1-2 to perform the APC, and a threshold of 7mm was used for the HH. The setup margins were calculated with the van Herk formula. Irradiated volumes of the HH were determined from RT treatment plans. With the WH and the RH, setup margins up to 8.1 and 6.7mm should be used for the LN surrogates, and margins up to 4.6 and 3.6mm should be used to spare the HH, respectively, without the APC. After the APC, the margins of the LN surrogates were equal to or less than 7.5/6.0mm with the WH/RH, but margins up to 4.2/2.9mm were required for the HH. The APC was needed at least once with both the devices for approximately 60% of the patients. With the RH, irradiated volume of the HH was approximately 2 times more than with the WH, without any dose constraints. Use of the RH together with the APC resulted in minimal residual position errors and setup margins for all the investigated bony landmarks. Based on the obtained results, we prefer the house-made RH. However, more attention should be given to minimize the irradiation of the HH with the RH than with the WH.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article is aimed to compare the dosimetric differences between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for Stage I-II nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NNKTL). Ten patients with Stage I-II NNKTL treated with IMRT were replanned with VMAT (2 arcs). The prescribed dose of the planning target volume (PTV) was 50Gy in 25 fractions. The VMAT plans with the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (Version 8.6.15) were based on an Eclipse treatment planning system; the monitor units (MUs) and treatment time (T) were scored to measure the expected treatment efficiency. All the 10 patients under the study were subject to comparisons regarding the quality of target coverage, the efficiency of delivery, and the exposure of normal adjacent organs at risk (OARs). The study shows that VMAT was associated with a better conformal index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) (both p < 0.05) but slightly higher dose to OARs than IMRT. The MUs with VMAT (650.80 ± 24.59) were fewer than with IMRT (1300.10 ± 57.12) (relative reduction of 49.94%, p = 0.00) when using 2-Gy dose fractions. The treatment time with VMAT (3.20 ± 0.02 minutes) was shorter than with IMRT (7.38 ± 0.18 minutes) (relative reduction of 56.64%, p = 0.00). We found that VMAT and IMRT both provide satisfactory target dosimetric coverage and OARs sparing clinically. Likely to deliver a bit higher dose to OARs, VMAT in comparison with IMRT, is still a better choice for treatment of patients with Stage I-II NNKTL, thanks to better dose distribution, fewer MUs, and shorter delivery time.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of breathing motion on the delivered dose in esophageal cancer 3-dimensional (3D)-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). We assessed 16 patients with esophageal cancer. All patients underwent 4D-computed tomography (4D-CT) for treatment planning. For each of the analyzed patients, 1 3D-CRT, 1 IMRT, and 1 VMAT (RapidArc-RA) plan were calculated. Each of the 3 initial plans was recalculated on the 4D-CT (for the maximum free inspiration and maximum free expiration) to assess the effect of breathing motion. We assessed the minimum dose (Dmin) and mean dose (Dmean) to the esophagus within the planning target volume, the volume changes of the lungs, the Dmean and the total lung volume receiving at least 40Gy (V40), and the V30, V20, V10, and V5. For the heart we assessed the Dmean and the V25. Over all techniques and all patients the change in Dmean as compared with the planned Dmean (planning CT [PCT]) to the esophagus was 0.48% in maximum free inspiration (CT_insp) and 0.55% in maximum free expiration (CT_exp). The Dmin CT_insp change was 0.86% and CT_exp change was 0.89%. The Dmean change of the lungs (heart) was in CT_insp 1.95% (2.89%) and 3.88% (2.38%) in CT_exp. In all, 4 patients had a clinically relevant change of the dose (≥ 5% Dmean to the heart and the lungs) between inspiration and expiration. These patients had a very cranially or caudally situated tumor. There are no relevant differences in the delivered dose to the regions of interest among the 3 techniques. Breathing motion management could be considered to achieve a better sparing of the lungs or heart in patients with cranially or caudally situated tumors.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study is to demonstrate the importance and a method of properly modeling the treatment couch for dose calculation in patient treatment using arc therapy. The 2 treatment couch tops-Aktina AK550 and Elekta iBEAM evo-of Elekta LINACs were scanned using Philips Brilliance Big Bore CT Simulator. Various parts of the couch tops were contoured, and their densities were measured and recorded on the Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) using the established computed tomography density table. These contours were saved as organ models to be placed beneath the patient during planning. Relative attenuation measurements were performed following procedures outlined by TG-176 as well as absolute dose comparison of static fields of 10 × 10 cm(2) that were delivered through the couch tops with that calculated in the TPS with the couch models. A total of 10 random arc therapy treatment plans (5 volumetric-modulated arc therapy [VMAT] and 5 stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT]), using 24 beams, were selected for this study. All selected plans were calculated with and without couch modeling. Each beam was evaluated using the Delta(4) dosimetry system (Delta(4)). The Student t-test was used to determine statistical significance. Independent reviews were exploited as per the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core head and neck credentialing phantom. The selected plans were calculated on the actual patient anatomies with and without couch modeling to determine potential clinical effects. Large relative beam attenuations were noted dependent on which part of the couch top beams were passing through. Substantial improvements were also noted for static fields both calculated with the TPS and delivered physically when the couch models were included in the calculation. A statistically significant increase in agreement was noted for dose difference, distance to agreement, and γ-analysis with the Delta(4) on VMAT and SBRT plans. A credentialing review showed improvement in treatment delivery after couch modeling with both thermoluminescent dosimeter doses and film analysis. Furthermore, analysis of treatment plans with and without using the couch model showed a statistically significant reduction in planning target volume coverage and increase in skin dose. In conclusion, ignoring the treatment couch, a common practice when generating a patient treatment plan, can overestimate the dose delivered especially for arc therapy. This work shows that explicitly modeling the couch during planning can meaningfully improve the agreement between calculated and measured dose distributions. Because of this project, we have implemented the couch models clinically across all treatment plans. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trials of adjuvant radiation after cystectomy are under development. There are no studies comparing radiation techniques to inform trial design. This study assesses the effect on bowel and rectal dose of 3 different modalities treating 2 proposed alternative clinical target volumes (CTVs). Contours of the bowel, rectum, CTV-pelvic sidewall (common/internal/external iliac and obturator nodes), and CTV-comprehensive (CTV-pelvic sidewall plus cystectomy bed and presacral regions) were drawn on simulation images of 7 post-cystectomy patients. We optimized 3-dimensional conformal radiation (3-D), intensity-modulated radiation (IMRT), and single-field uniform dose (SFUD) scanning proton plans for each CTV. Mixed models regression was used to compare plans for bowel and rectal volumes exposed to 35% (V35%), 65% (V65%), and 95% (V95%) of the prescribed dose. For any given treatment modality, treating the larger CTV-comprehensive volume compared with treating only the CTV-pelvic sidewall nodes significantly increased rectal dose (V35% rectum, V65% rectum, and V95% rectum; p < 0.001 for all comparisons), but it did not produce significant differences in bowel dose (V95% bowel, V65% bowel, or V35% bowel). The 3-D plans, compared with both the IMRT and the SFUD plans, had a significantly greater V65% bowel and V95% bowel for each proposed CTV (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). The effect of treatment modality on rectal dosimetry differed by CTV, but it generally favored the IMRT and the SFUD plans over the 3-D plans. Comparison of the IMRT plan vs the SFUD plan yielded mixed results with no consistent advantage for the SFUD plan over the IMRT plan. Targeting a CTV that spares the cystectomy bed and presacral region may marginally improve rectal toxicity but would not be expected to improve the bowel toxicity associated with any given modality of adjuvant radiation. Using the IMRT or the SFUD plans instead of the 3-D conformal plan may improve both bowel and rectal toxicity.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hippocampus is responsible for memory and cognitive function. An ongoing phase II clinical trial suggests that sparing dose to the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation therapy can help preserve a patient׳s neurocognitive function. Progressive research and advancements in treatment techniques have made treatment planning more sophisticated but beneficial for patients undergoing treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare hippocampal sparing whole-brain (HS-WB) radiation therapy treatment planning techniques using volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We randomly selected 3 patients to compare different treatment techniques that could be used for reducing dose to the hippocampal region. We created 2 treatment plans, a VMAT and an IMRT, from each patient׳s data set and planned on the Eclipse 11.0 treatment planning system (TPS). A total of 6 plans (3 IMRT and 3 VMAT) were created and evaluated for this case study. The physician contoured the hippocampus as per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 protocol atlas. The organs at risk (OR) were contoured and evaluated for the plan comparison, which included the spinal cord, optic chiasm, the right and left eyes, lenses, and optic nerves. Both treatment plans produced adequate coverage on the planning target volume (PTV) while significantly reducing dose to the hippocampal region. The VMAT treatment plans produced a more homogenous dose distribution throughout the PTV while decreasing the maximum point dose to the target. However, both treatment techniques demonstrated hippocampal sparing when irradiating the whole brain. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For patients with cervical cancer, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) improves target coverage and allows dose escalation while reducing the radiation dose to organs at risk (OARs). In this study, we compared dosimetric parameters among 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), "step-and-shoot" IMRT, and volumetric intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) in a series of patients with cervical cancer receiving definitive radiotherapy. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 10 patients with histologically proven cervical cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy (RT) from December 2008 to March 2010 at our department were selected for this study. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) were delineated following the guidelines of the Gyn IMRT consortium that included cervix, uterus, parametrial tissues, and the pelvic nodes including presacral. The median age was 57 years (range: 30 to 85 years). All 10 patients had squamous cell carcinoma with Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB-IIIB. All patients were treated by VMAT. OAR doses were significantly reduced for plans with intensity-modulated technique compared with 3D-CRT except for the dose to the vagina. Between the 2 intensity-modulated techniques, significant difference was observed for the mean dose to the small intestine, to the benefit of VMAT (p < 0.001). There was no improvement in terms of OARs sparing for VMAT although there was a tendency for a slightly decreased average dose to the rectum: - 0.65Gy but not significant (p = 0.07). The intensity modulation techniques have many advantages in terms of quality indexes, and particularly OAR sparing, compared with 3D-CRT. Following the ongoing technologic developments in modern radiotherapy, it is essential to evaluate the intensity-modulated techniques on prospective studies of a larger scale. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is a reduction in cardiac dose for left-sided breast radiotherapy during treatment with deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) when compared with treatment with free breathing (FB). Various levels of DIBH may occur for different treatment fractions. Dosimetric effects due to this and other motions are a major component of uncertainty in radiotherapy in this setting. Recent developments in deformable registration techniques allow displacement vectors between various temporal and spatial patient representations to be digitally quantified. We propose a method to evaluate the dosimetric effect to the heart from variable reproducibility of DIBH by using deformable registration to create new anatomical computed tomography (CT) scans. From deformable registration, 3-dimensional deformation vectors are generated with FB and DIBH. The obtained deformation vectors are scaled to 75%, 90%, and 110% and are applied to the reference image to create new CT scans at these inspirational levels. The scans are then imported into the treatment planning system and dose calculations are performed. The average mean dose to the heart was 2.5Gy (0.7 to 9.6Gy) at FB, 1.2Gy (0.6 to 3.8Gy, p < 0.001) at 75% inspiration, 1.1Gy (0.6 to 3.1Gy, p = 0.004) at 90% inspiration, 1.0Gy (0.6 to 3.0Gy) at 100% inspiration or DIBH, and 1.0Gy (0.6 to 2.8Gy, p = 0.019) at 110% inspiration. The average mean dose to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was 19.9Gy (2.4 to 46.4Gy), 8.6Gy (2.0 to 43.8Gy, p < 0.001), 7.2Gy (1.9 to 40.1Gy, p = 0.035), 6.5Gy (1.8 to 34.7Gy), and 5.3Gy (1.5 to 31.5Gy, p < 0.001), correspondingly. This novel method enables numerous anatomical situations to be mimicked and quantifies the dosimetric effect they have on a treatment plan. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists