animal (ANIMAL)

Publisher: British Society of Animal Science; Institut national de la recherche agronomique (France); European Association for Animal Production, Cambridge University Press (CUP)

Journal description

Animal attracts the best research in animal biology and animal systems from across the spectrum of the agricultural, biomedical, and environmental sciences. It is the central element in an exciting collaboration between the British Society of Animal Science (BSAS), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) and the European Federation for Animal Science (EAAP) and represents a merging of three scientific journals: Animal Science; Animal Research; Reproduction, Nutrition, Development. animal publishes original cutting-edge research, 'hot' topics and horizon-scanning reviews on animal-related aspects of the life sciences at the molecular, cellular, organ, whole animal and production system levels. The main subject areas include: breeding and genetics; nutrition; physiology and functional biology of systems; behaviour, health and welfare; farming systems, environmental impact and climate change; product quality, human health and well-being. Animal models and papers dealing with the integration of research between these topics and their impact on the environment and people are particularly welcome.

Current impact factor: 1.84

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 1.841
2013 Impact Factor 1.784
2012 Impact Factor 1.648
2011 Impact Factor 1.744
2010 Impact Factor 1.458
2009 Impact Factor 1.461
2008 Impact Factor 0.994
2007 Impact Factor

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.04
Cited half-life 4.10
Immediacy index 0.51
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.60
Website Animal (Cambridge, UK) website
Other titles Animal (Cambridge, England)
ISSN 1751-7311
OCLC 84716891
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Cambridge University Press (CUP)

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's Pre-print on author's personal website, departmental website, social media websites, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website on acceptance of publication
    • Author's post-print on departmental website, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv, after a 6 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published abstract may be deposited
    • Pre-print to record acceptance for publication
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher last reviewed on 07/10/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Cambridge University Press (CUP)'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Camera-based systems in dairy cattle were intensively studied over the last years. Different from this study, single camera systems with a limited range of applications were presented, mostly using 2D cameras. This study presents current steps in the development of a camera system comprising multiple 3D cameras (six Microsoft Kinect cameras) for monitoring purposes in dairy cows. An early prototype was constructed, and alpha versions of software for recording, synchronizing, sorting and segmenting images and transforming the 3D data in a joint coordinate system have already been implemented. This study introduced the application of two-dimensional wavelet transforms as method for object recognition and surface analyses. The method was explained in detail, and four differently shaped wavelets were tested with respect to their reconstruction error concerning Kinect recorded depth maps from different camera positions. The images’ high frequency parts reconstructed from wavelet decompositions using the haar and the biorthogonal 1.5 wavelet were statistically analyzed with regard to the effects of image fore- or background and of cows’ or persons’ surface. Furthermore, binary classifiers based on the local high frequencies have been implemented to decide whether a pixel belongs to the image foreground and if it was located on a cow or a person. Classifiers distinguishing between image regions showed high (⩾0.8) values of Area Under reciever operation characteristic Curve (AUC). The classifications due to species showed maximal AUC values of 0.69.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · animal
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (P<0.001) with sorghum-based diets compared with the control diet, whereas a combination of cottonseed meal and sorghum in the same diet did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (P<0.001) were observed in apparent ileal digestibility (%) of protein and energy with the cottonseed meal and sorghum/cottonseed meal-based diets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (P<0.001). Total tract digestibility of protein in sorghum and millet-based diets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (P<0.001). Higher total tract digestibility of starch were obtained with the control diet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two experiments suggest that broiler growth performance was not affected by the dietary level of sorghum, millet or cottonseed meal. Nutrient digestion can, however, be affected by these feed ingredients.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · animal
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    ABSTRACT: The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na 2 ) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na 2 ; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na 2 . Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E ( P =0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde ( P <0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species ( P <0.05) and carbonyl group levels ( P <0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels ( P =0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na 2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na 2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group ( P <0.05). PQQ.Na 2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight ( P =0.026), liver to BW ratio ( P =0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase ( P =0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase ( P <0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length ( P <0.05) and tail moment ( P <0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na 2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length and tail moment to the basal levels in fresh oil diet. These results indicate that PQQ.Na 2 is a potential antioxidant and is as effective against oxidized oil-related liver injury in laying hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na 2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals, inhibiting of lipid peroxidation and enhancing of antioxidant defense systems.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · animal
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    ABSTRACT: Feather eating has been associated with feather pecking, which continues to pose economic and welfare problems in egg production. Knowledge on feather eating is limited and studies of feather eating in commercial flocks of laying hens have not been performed previously. Therefore, the main objective was to investigate feather eating and its association with plumage damage and floor feather characteristics in commercial flocks of layers in barn and organic production systems. The study was performed in 13 flocks of barn layers and 17 flocks of organic layers. Each flock was visited at around 32 and 62 weeks of age. During both visits, the plumage condition was assessed and the density of floor feathers recorded. In week 62, droppings and floor feathers were collected. Droppings were examined for presence of feather content, whereas length, downiness and pecking damage were recorded for each floor feather. In week 62, a higher prevalence of hens with poor plumage condition was found in barn (22.2%) compared with organic production systems (7.4%; P <0.001), but the prevalence of droppings with feather content did not differ between the two production systems (8.5% in barn v . 4.3% in organic; P =0.99). Our hypothesis about a positive correlation between feather eating and plumage damage was not supported as no correlation was found between the prevalence of poor plumage condition and the prevalence of droppings with feather content. However, the prevalence of pecking damaged floor feathers was positively correlated both with prevalence of droppings with feather content ( P <0.05) and poor plumage condition ( P <0.01), indicating a possible association between feather eating and feather pecking. In conclusion, it was confirmed that feather eating occurs on-farm, but feather eating was only found to be positively correlated to the number of floor feathers with pecking damage and not as expected to the prevalence of plumage damage. More research is needed into the sources from where feathers are selected for ingestion, that is, whether they are picked from the floor litter, plucked directly from other hens or dislodged during preening of own feathers.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · animal
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    ABSTRACT: Nutritional stressors may cause negative effects on animal health and growth and lead to significant economic impact. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ producing, mediators and hormones, called adipokines. They play a dynamic role in body homeostasis and in the regulation of energy expenditure, interacting with feeding behavior, hormones and growth factors. This in vitro study aimed to investigate how nutritional conditions and growth hormone (GH) can influence nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression and secretion of three important adipokines, that is leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ), by swine adipocytes. In our experimental model, mesenchymal stem cells from omental adipose tissue were induced to adipogenic differentiation. After differentiation, adipocytes were incubated for 24 h (T0) with DMEM/Ham’s F12 (group A) or DMEM/Ham’s F12 salts (group B), a DMEM/Ham’s F12 formulation deprived of nutritional components. Primary adipocyte cells were also co-cultured for 4 h (T+4) or 12 h (T+12) with or without anterior pituitary slices. To stimulate GH secretion by pituitary cells, growth hormone releasing hormone at 10 −8 M was added at the start of the incubation times (4 or 12 h). At T0, T+4 and T+12, NO production, leptin, IL-6 and TNF- α expression and secretion were measured. NO increased ( P <0.05) up to twofold in restricted culture conditions. Deprived medium and coincubation with anterior pituitary positively influenced leptin secretion and expression. TNF- α was expressed and secreted only in deprived culture condition groups (B, B1 and B2). Nutrients availability and pituitary co-culture did not affect IL-6 expression and secretion. Our study shows an endocrine function for porcine adipocytes. In our model, adipocytes readily responded to nutritional inputs by secretion of molecules affecting energy balance. This secretion capacity was modulated by GH. Improving our knowledge of the role of adipocyte in the endocrine system, may lead to a more complete understanding of regulating energy balance in swine.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · animal
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    ABSTRACT: The intensification of livestock have increased the emission of pollutants to the environment, leading to a growing interest in seeking strategies that minimise these emissions. Studies have shown that it is possible to manipulate diets by reducing CP levels and thus reducing nitrogen (N) excretion, without compromising performance. However, there is no knowledge of any study that has focused on reducing N excretion and relating this reduction to individual amino acids. This study investigated the effect of dietary methionine+cysteine (MC) and threonine (THR), the two most limiting amino acids for broiler production, on nitrogen excretion (NE) and nitrogen deposition (ND) and determined the efficiency of utilisation of both amino acids for protein deposition. Six trials were conducted to measure the NE and ND in broiler chickens during three rearing phases in response to dietary amino acid. The efficiency of utilisation of the amino acids was calculated by linear regression of body protein deposition and the amino acid intake. Despite the differences between sexes and phases, the efficiency of utilisation was the same, being 0.60 and 0.59 for MC and THR, respectively. The rate of NE behaved exponentially, increasing with amino acid intake, and can exceed 50% of N intake, being higher than ND. On average, for a reduction in intake of each unit of MC or THR (mg) there is a reduction of 0.5% of NE. Although this reduction seems low, considering that it corresponds to changes in one amino acid only, the impact on a large scale would be significant. Knowledge of how animals respond to NE and ND/protein deposition according to amino acid dietary content may represent new efforts towards reducing the impact on environment.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · animal
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis ) of different age groups (young v . old). Higher ( P <0.05) myofibrillar and total protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · animal
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    ABSTRACT: The increased demand for animal-derived protein and energy for human consumption will have to be achieved through a combination of improved animal genetic merit and better management strategies. The objective of the present study was to quantify whether differences in genetic merit among animals materialised into phenotypic differences in commercial herds. Carcass phenotypes on 156 864 animals from 7301 finishing herds were used, which included carcass weight (kg), carcass conformation score (scale 1 to 15), carcass fat score (scale 1 to 15) at slaughter as well as carcass price. The price per kilogram and the total carcass value that the producer received for the animal at slaughter was also used. A terminal index, calculated in the national genetic evaluations, was obtained for each animal. The index was based on pedigree index for calving performance, feed intake and carcass traits from the national genetic evaluations. Animals were categorised into four terminal index groups on the basis of genetic merit estimates that were derived before the expression of the phenotypic information by the validation animals. The association between terminal index and phenotypic performance at slaughter was undertaken using mixed models; whether the association differed by gender (i.e. young bulls, steers and heifers) or by early life experiences (animals born in a dairy herd or beef herd) was also investigated. The regression coefficient of phenotypic carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat on their respective estimated breeding values (EBVs) was 0.92 kg, 1.08 units and 0.79 units, respectively, which is close to the expectation of one. Relative to animals in the lowest genetic merit group, animals in the highest genetic merit group had, on average, a 38.7 kg heavier carcass, with 2.21 units greater carcass conformation, and 0.82 units less fat. The superior genetic merit animals were, on average, slaughtered 6 days younger than their inferior genetic merit contemporaries. The superior carcass characteristics of the genetically elite animals materialised in carcasses worth €187 more than those of the lowest genetic merit animals. Although the phenotypic difference in carcass traits of animals divergent in terminal index differed statistically by animal gender and early life experience, the detected interactions were generally biologically small. This study clearly indicates that selection on an appropriate terminal index will produce higher performing animals and this was consistent across all production systems investigated.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · animal
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the effect of including genomic data for cows in the reference population of single-step evaluations. Deregressed individual cow genetic evaluations (DRP) from milk production evaluations of Nordic Red Dairy cattle were used to estimate the single-step breeding values. Validation reliability and bias of the evaluations were calculated with four data sets including different amount of DRP record information from genotyped cows in the reference population. The gain in reliability was from 2% to 4% units for the production traits, depending on the used DRP data and the amount of genomic data. Moreover, inclusion of genotyped bull dams and their genotyped daughters seemed to create some bias in the single-step evaluation. Still, genotyping cows and their inclusion in the reference population is advantageous and should be encouraged.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · animal
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    ABSTRACT: The movement of sows (Sus scrofa domesticus) out of individual gestation stalls in to group housing motivated us to search for personality traits that could predict an animal's ability to cope with enhanced environmental and social complexity. The temporal consistency of trait assessment via behavioral measurements is a prerequisite to this objective and was addressed at an interval of approximately five months during two consecutive gestation periods of 46 group housed sows from a common commercially available genetic line. Aggressive and social behaviors at mixing into a group, reaction to human approach, ease of handling, exploration of an open field, and reaction to a novel object were analyzed for consistent individual differences. Principal component analysis revealed the presence of three traits accounting for over 60% of the variance in behaviors: aggressive/dominant, reactive to humans, and, active/exploratory. Individual component scores were significantly correlated between pregnancies demonstrating temporal stability of trait assessment. Significant relationships were found between aggressive/dominant component scores and individual feed rank at ESF stations, skin lesion scores and average number of mummies per litter, as well as between reactive to humans component scores and average number of stillbirths per litter. These findings provide evidence for the temporal stability of distinct behavioral traits within a group of genetically similar sows and demonstrate how personality traits may be useful in predicting the outcomes of sows in group housing.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · animal
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    ABSTRACT: Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss ( P ⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat ( P ⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses ( P ⩽0.01) and shear force ( P ⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour ( P ⩽0.05), but increased beef ( P ⩽0.01) and liver ( P ⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid ( P ⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · animal