Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia

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ISSN 1697-428X

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: At the end of last Century the concept of allostasis was proposed as the group of responses from live beings, regulated by the brain, leading to maintain the organism balance and, therefore, to survival. But this concept has clear Darwinian significance. Questions established in the XX Century. The HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland) axis is the most important among all regulatory systems triggered by allostasis, and it is programmed during the gestational period in mammals. Under a stressful situation the mother HPA axis operates secreting high amounts of glucocorticoids (GC) that get into the foetus affecting to the normal HPA programming; this abnormal development is irreversible in adulthood and will also reduce birth weight. Besides, it is a risk factor for possible adult pathologies such as diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular disease or chronic hypertension. The reason is the decrease of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in hippocampus, since they are crucial for the negative feedback of HPA axis. However, the mechanism by which GC reduce GR expression in hippocampus was unknown in the XX Century. Questions established in the XXI Century. A number of research articles published in the XXI Century reporting information about the epigenetic mechanism involved in the hippocampal reduction of GR are selected and presented. The main epigenetic mechanisms known up to date are also mentioned. Finally, the great therapeutic possibilities of the epigenetic mechanisms in the near future are enunciated as well as the possible explanation of evolutional processes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia
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    ABSTRACT: This review study considers the problems associated with the presence of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment since the 1980s and emphasizes the most important publications and legislation.The activities generating these products (the pharmaceutical industry, human and veterinary use and disposal and depuration processes) are outlined and the main routes of entry to the environment are identified.Data on the maximum concentrations of pharmaceuticals in waters, sediments and soils are presented, along with some examples of Spanish studies. The effects on man and on ecosystems are analysed and the methods most commonly used to evaluate health risks are described. Finally, measures of minimizing the risks and the extent to which pharmaceutical monitoring can address this problem are considered.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia
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    ABSTRACT: The end results of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine Phase 3 trials have moved us to comment the expectations that it has raised in the context of a brief updated report that aims at showing how recent knowledge on mechanisms used by the parasite to evade the host immune system and to develop resistance may promote the development of new vaccines and the design of antimalarial drugs addressing new targets.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia
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    ABSTRACT: The Superoxide Dismutase activity is present in every cell with aerobic metabolism, and is just absent in obligate anaerobes, due to the important role that it plays in antioxidant protection of many cellular components from oxygen reactive species (ROS). Its deficit is related with different pathologies, such as inflammation, diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, among others. In the present review, some pathologies produced by the enzymatic deficit will be tackled, and also the main methods of protein engineering, applied to optimization and modification of the enzyme as a therapeutic product.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia
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    ABSTRACT: The control of the intestinal flora is one of the targets of the functional foods and nutraceuticals. A symbiotic equilibrium can be achieved by the intake of live microorganisms (probiotics) or by the so-called prebiotics (non-digested oligosaccharides). Prebiotics are selectively fermented by the human microbiota allowing specific changes and conferring benefits upon host well-being and health. Among prebiotics fructooligosaccharides (FOS) constitute one of the most established groups. Levansucrases (EC 2.4.1.10) are a family of enzymes that catalyse the transfer of the fructosyl moiety from sucrose to different acceptors such as: (1) sucrose -yielding FOS that can be further fructosylated forming levan a polymer with food and biomedical applications -; (2) water resulting in sucrose hydrolysis. In this work a levansucrase from Zymomonas mobilis was characterized and the reaction products using sucrose as substrate were analysed by High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography (HPAEC-PAD). The number of FOS synthesized by the soluble enzyme was significantly higher compared with previous reports. In order to optimize the biocatalytic process the enzyme was further immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate gel and the resulting beads were dehydrated to obtain DALGEEs (Dry ALGinate Entrapped Enzymes). Different immobilization strategies were studied to minimize enzyme loss (lixiviation) throughout the pores. The effect of enzyme immobilization on levansucrase behaviour was also analysed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia
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    ABSTRACT: From birth to death, neurons are actively and dynamically accompanied by neuroglial cells in a very close morphological and functional relationship. The results of their study in the last years revolutionized the concepts about the functionality of the CNS. Classically, three families of these cells in the CNS have been classically considered: astroglia, oligodendroglia and microglia. Many types and subtypes have been described by morphological and immunocytochemical methods, including NGR2+ cells, with a wide variety of pathophysiological effects on the neurons and neuronal circuits. Now, all these elements are considered of paramount importance in all proposed theories for explaining any physiological or pathological process in the CNS because they are involved in both, neuroprotection/neurorepair and neurodegeneration. Glio-glial, glio-neuronal and neuro-glial cell signaling pathways and glio-transmission are essential phenomena that support the brain functions, from a simple reflex to the most sophisticated higher mental function. Glioplasticity is a parallel phenomenon to neuroplasticity for optimizing the function of the neuronal circuits. Moreover, they possess the ability to change to a reactive status (gliosis), in which new functions are developed in their relationships with the neurons.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia
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    ABSTRACT: Antibiotic resistance is spreading faster than the introduction of new compounds into clinical practice, causing a public health crisis. In a recent publication has been described a new antibiotic of depsipeptide nature named teixobactin that was discovered in a screen of uncultured soil bacteria (1). This compound inhibits cell wall synthesis by binding to a highly conserved motif of lipid II (precursor of peptidoglycan) and lipid III (precursor of cell wall teichoic acid). The method developed in its discovery and the apparent ability of teixobactin to avoid resistances, may open a path towards the development of other clinicaly useful antibiotics.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia
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    ABSTRACT: A complete review of the regulations applicable to blood derived medicines is made, including European legislation and its transposition into national legislation. This complex and comprehensive regulation is updated and commented to facilitate appropriate guidance to healthcare professionals for its consultation and use. Blood derived products, as chronic medication and susceptible of transmitting diseases, are very important in the pharmaceutical industry, they have a large social and mediatic impact and their manufacturing is based on the use of human plasma as raw material. The discussion on donating plasma altruistically or in remunerated manner and its effect on self-sufficiency for the availability of blood products is also addressed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia
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    ABSTRACT: Class I phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3Ks) generate PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 to activate cell signaling cascades essential to cell growth, differentiation and survival, and are essential to the function of innate and adaptive immunity. The generation of a vast array of newly developed PI3K inhibitors to treat cancer poses the question of their use in the modulation of pathological immune reactions like autoimmune diseases, or the effect of these drugs in the anti-tumor immune reactions. Here, the role of PI3K in adaptive immune reactions and data concerning the use of inhibitors to control immune responses are reviewed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmaceutical co-crystals emerge as a possibility to improve the biopharmaceutical properties and pharmaceutical of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). Theco-crystalsare crystalline solids composed of on API and a former, which are located in the same crystal cell. The search for new pharmaceutical co-crystals is the responsibility of supramolecular chemistry, since the formerand the API are held together by non-covalent interactions. Solution and solid state methods are employed for the formation of cocrystals. In addition, this field offers a possibility of intellectual development due to the patentability of products, without neglecting the regulatory aspects. This work presents the main concepts considered for the study of these pharmaceutical solids.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress, defined as a disturbance in the equillibrium between reactive: oxygen species (ROS) production and the capacity of the defense system of the organism (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) to protect against them, is involved in the physiopathology of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In this context, the search of antioxidant compounds is an interesting research field. In this Doctoral Thesis, it has been evaluated the neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress of the diterpenes andalusol, conchitriol, foliol, lagascatriol, linearol and sidol isolated from Sideritis spp.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia
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    ABSTRACT: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2013 to Austrian researcher Martin Karplus, Professor of the Université de Strasbourg, France and Emeritus Professor at Harvard University, USA, to Southafrican Michael Levitt, Professor at Stanford University, USA, and Israeli AriehWarshel, Professor at University of Southern California, USA "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems". The work awarded with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry this year focuses on the development of methods that use both molecular mechanics and quantum mechanics. However, despite the impressive advances in software and hardware, the study of complex systems with a large number of atoms, such as biomolecules, is quite challenging. To carry out modeling of enzymatic reactions and other biomolecular processes involving changes in electronic structure, such as formation and breaking of covalent bonds or charge-transfer processes, the combined use of quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) has become the method of choice, following an idea originally formulated by this year's awarded researchers.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia
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    ABSTRACT: Biotechnology drugs may be monoclonal antibodies or small molecules designed to act on defined therapeutic targets. Was made a search in PubMed, ScienceDirect and FDA. Information on mechanisms of action, therapeutic targets, main pharmacokinetic aspects, more frequent and significant adverse reactions and approved uses and research was obtained. It describes monoclonal antibodies as the drug groups to which they belong, tyrosine kinase inhibitors; proteasome inhibitors and blockers of T cell costimulation. Are significant advances in the treatment of many diseases, especially cancer and rheumatic diseases, but are accompanied by high costs and frequent toxicity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia