Heart and Vessels (Heart Ves)

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Current impact factor: 2.07

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 2.065
2013 Impact Factor 2.109
2012 Impact Factor 2.126
2011 Impact Factor 2.047
2010 Impact Factor 1.882
2009 Impact Factor 1.716
2008 Impact Factor 1.351
2007 Impact Factor 1.043
2006 Impact Factor 1.056
2005 Impact Factor 1.346
2004 Impact Factor 0.829
2003 Impact Factor 0.426
2002 Impact Factor 0.684
2001 Impact Factor 0.337
2000 Impact Factor 0.595
1999 Impact Factor 0.269
1998 Impact Factor 0.193
1997 Impact Factor 0.232
1996 Impact Factor 0.244

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.79
Cited half-life 4.80
Immediacy index 0.46
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.36
Website Heart and Vessels website
Other titles Heart and vessels (Online)
ISSN 1615-2573
OCLC 45071723
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility of catheter down sizing for QCA, the reliability of a 4Fr catheter as a calibration device was evaluated. Repeated coronary angiograms of 9 lesions were obtained using 4Fr and 6Fr catheters under otherwise identical conditions. The calibration factor was measured 10 times by 4Fr and 6Fr catheters. QCA measurements including minimal lumen diameter (MLD), interpolated normal reference (Int N), percent diameter stenosis (%DS), and lesion length (LL) were performed by two technicians twice with a 3-month interval. The intraobserver and interobserver variability of each parameter was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Mean of mean SD of calibration factor was significantly larger in 4Fr than in 6Fr in 9 lesions. The mean of mean coefficient of variance was significantly larger in 4Fr catheters vs in 6Fr catheters. A 6Fr catheter showed excellent reliability for both intraobserver and interobserver variability in MLD, Int N, %DS, and LL. In contrast, 4Fr showed that reliability in intraobserver variability depended on the analyst. Although reliability of interobserver variability in Int N measured by the 4Fr catheter was >0.80, the value was less than that by the 6Fr catheter. Taking these results into consideration, 4Fr catheters are less reliable than 6Fr catheters when measuring QCA data especially for follow-up data that need most accurate measurements of MLD and %DS. It would be better to use a 6Fr catheter to evaluate QCA measurements such as acute gain, late loss, restenosis rate, and device size.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify the association between the time course of left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) and late gadolinium enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-cMRI) in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). We identified 214 IDCM patients treated by optimal pharmacotherapies. LVRR was defined as ≥10 % increment in LV ejection fraction along with ≥10 % reduction in LV end-diastolic dimension. Findings of LGE-cMRI focusing on presence and extent of LGE were evaluated at baseline. Echocardiographic evaluation for detecting LVRR was performed in all patients for 3 years. The primary endpoint was defined as composite events (CEs) including readmission for heart failure, detection of major ventricular arrhythmia, and all-cause mortality. LVRR was found at <1 year in 59 patients (28 %, early responder), ≥1 year in 56 patients (26 %, late responder), and was absent in 99 patients (46 %, non-responder). Multivariate Cox-proportional hazards analysis revealed that both early responders (P = 0.02) and late responders (P < 0.001) had lower incidence of CEs than non-responders. Among 66 subjects (23 %) with complete cMRI evaluation, LGE was detected more often in late and non- than early responders (65, 83 vs. 23 % P < 0.001, respectively), whereas the LGE area was smaller in both early and late than non-responders (2 ± 3, 4 ± 3 vs. 12 ± 10 %, P < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, evaluating the presence and the extent of LGE is useful for predicting the clinical differences of LVRR time course and subsequent long-term outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: The improvement of life expectancy created more surgical candidates with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis and age >80. Therefore, the main objective of this observational, retrospective single-centre study is to compare the long-term survival of octogenarians that have undergone surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) to the survival of the general population of the same age and to establish whether any perioperative characteristics can anticipate a poor long-term result, limiting the prognostic advantage of the procedure at this age. From 2000 to 2014, 264 octogenarians underwent AVR at our institution. Perioperative data were retrieved from our institutional database and patients were followed up by telephonic interviews. The follow-up ranged between 2 months and 14.9 years (mean 4.1 ± 3.1 years) and the completeness was 99.2 %. Logistic multivariate analysis and Cox regression were respectively applied to identify the risk factors of in-hospital mortality and follow-up survival. Our patient population ages ranged between 80 and 88 years. Isolated AVR (I-AVR) was performed in 136 patients (51.5 %) whereas combined AVR (C-AVR) in 128 patients (48.5 %). Elective procedures were 93.1 %. Logistic EuroSCORE was 15.4 ± 10.6. In-hospital mortality was 4.5 %. Predictive factors of in-hospital mortality were the non-elective priority of the procedure (OR 5.7, CI 1.28-25.7, p = 0.02), cardiopulmonary bypass time (OR 1.02, CI 1.01-1.03, p = 0.004) and age (OR 1.36, CI 1.01-1.84, p = 0.04). Follow-up survival at 1, 4, 8 and 12 years was 93.4 % ± 1.6 %, 72.1 % ± 3.3 %, 39.1 % ± 4.8 % and 20.1 % ± 5.7 %, respectively. The long-term survival of these patients was not statistically different from the survival of an age/gender-matched general population living in the same geographic region (p = 0.52). Predictive factors of poor long-term survival were diabetes mellitus (HR 1.55, CI 1.01-2.46, p = 0.05), preoperative creatinine >200 μmol/L (HR 2.07, CI 1.21-3.53, p = 0.007) and preoperative atrial fibrillation (HR 1.79, CI 1.14-2.80, p = 0.01). In our experience, AVR can be safely performed in octogenarians. After a successful operation, the survival of these patients returns similar to the general population. Nevertheless, the preoperative presence of major comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction and atrial fibrillation significantly impact on long-term results.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: Aortic coarctation (CoA) in adults is associated with reduced survival. Despite successful repair, some unfavorable changes in the left ventricular (LV) myocardial function are reported. Three-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging (3D-STE) is a novel method that allows to assess regional myocardial function in all directions simultaneously and to calculate global area strain which integrates longitudinal and circumferential deformation. The aim of our study was to assess whether 3-D STE provides any new characteristics of LV deformation in patients with optimal CoA repair. Adults after CoA correction underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examinations. Patients with significant concomitant lesions were ruled out. Global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), global area strain (GAS), and global radial strain (GRS) were assessed using 3D-STE (Echopac Software, GE). The data were compared with those obtained from healthy subjects. 26 adults (9F/17M; mean age 24.4 years) with repaired CoA were studied. Despite preserved LVEFs, patients with repaired CoA had decreased GAS compared with controls (-28.8 vs. -31.7 %; p = 0.007). No differences between patients and healthy subjects in terms of GLS, GCS and GRS were observed. We found a significant correlation between mean blood pressure and GAS (R = 0.39; p < 0.05). No significant influence of age at repair, CoA correction method or LV mass on three-dimensional deformation was observed. Summarizing, global area strain derived from 3D-STE may be a sensitive indicator of subclinical LV dysfunction in patients after optimal repair of CoA. Mean blood pressure, but not age at correction seems to determine LV deformation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: Direct vasodilator effects of nitroglycerin, nifedipine, cilnidipine and diltiazem on human skeletonized internal mammary artery graft harvested with ultrasonic scalpel were assessed in the presence of 0.1 or 0.2 µM of noradrenaline. Ring preparations were made of distal end section of the bypass grafts, and those dilated by acetylcholine were used for assessment. Each drug dilated the artery in a concentration-related manner (0.01-10 µM, n = 6 for each drug) with a potency of nitroglycerin > nifedipine = cilnidipine > diltiazem. These results indicate that nitroglycerin can be useful for treating internal mammary artery spasm, that clinical utility of diltiazem may not depend on its vasodilator effect on the bypass graft, and that cilnidipine as well as nifedipine will have anti-spastic action which is in the middle between those of nitroglycerine and diltiazem.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: Aneurysmal degeneration of a saphenous vein graft (SVG) is a rare, but potentially fatal complication of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. In this case report, a patient that had undergone prior CABG surgery and bare metal stent (BMS) implantation at the site of a stenotic SVG lesion presented at our hospital with chest pain, and an SVG aneurysm was detected at the previous BMS implantation site. In addition, the implanted BMS was fractured and floating in the SVG aneurysm. The SVG aneurysm was successfully occluded by percutaneous intervention, using a combination of distal covered stent deployment at the site of the anastomosis between the native coronary artery and the SVG and proximal coil embolization of the aneurysm.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: Interest is growing in the clinical use of sutureless (SU) valves. However, indications in some anatomical sub-settings, like bicuspid aortic valves (BAV), have been so far limited. We discuss herein our initial experience with the implantation of the 3f Enable SU bioprosthesis in patients with a BAV. Patients with a BAV were selected in our unit between March 2011 and September 2014 for a SU 3f Enable valve implantation. Twenty of the 198 patients who underwent a 3f Enable valve implantation in our unit had a BAV. Procedural success was 100 %, but reclamping was necessary in one (5 %) case. Median size of implanted bioprosthesis was 23 mm. After a mean follow-up of 13.8 ± 10.7 months, survival was 100 %. Two patients (10 %) showed an immediate grade 1 paravalvular leak (PVL) that progressed to grade 2 and 3+ (moderate/severe), respectively, during follow-up. Type of bicuspidy (Sievers classification) in these two patients was 0 and intraoperatively aortic annuli admitted the 25 mm calibrator. Among the 18 patients without PVL, no one had a type 0 large BAV. At 1 year, implantation of the 3f Enable SU bioprosthesis appears to be safe in patients with BAV type I and II, while in type 0 use of the SU valve seems to be safe only if the annular diameter is <25 mm. Larger studies are necessary to confirm our findings in order to clarify the indications for SU technology in the subset of bicuspid patients.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to assess 3-year clinical outcome of patients with true bifurcation lesions (TBLs) versus non-true bifurcation lesions (non-TBLs) following treatment with second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES). TBLs are characterized by the obstruction of both main vessel and side-branch. Limited data are available on long-term clinical outcome following TBL treatment with newer-generation DES. We performed an explorative sub-study of the randomized TWENTE trial among 287 patients who had bifurcated target lesions with side-branches ≥2.0 mm. Patients were categorized into TBL (Medina classes: 1.1.1; 1.0.1; 0.1.1) versus non-TBL to compare long-term clinical outcome. A total of 116 (40.4 %) patients had TBL, while 171 (59.6 %) had non-TBL only. Target-lesion revascularization rates were similar (3.5 vs. 3.5 %; p = 1.0), and definite-or-probable stent thrombosis rates were low (both <1.0 %). The target-vessel myocardial infarction (MI) rate was 11.3 versus 5.3 % (p = 0.06), mostly driven by (periprocedural) MI ≤48 h from PCI. All-cause mortality and cardiac death rates were 8.7 versus 3.5 % (p = 0.06) and 3.5 versus 1.2 % (p = 0.22), respectively. The 3-year major adverse cardiac event rate for patients with TBL versus non-TBL was 20.0 versus 11.7 % (p = 0.05). At 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up, 6.5, 13.0, and 11.0 % of patients reported chest pain at less than or equal moderate physical effort, respectively, without any between-group difference. Patients treated with second-generation DES for TBL had somewhat higher adverse event rates than patients with non-TBL, but dissimilarities did not reach statistical significance. Up to 3-year follow-up, the vast majority of patients of both groups remained free from chest pain.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: Tolvaptan is an oral antagonist of arginine vasopressin receptor 2 that has been approved in Japan to reduce congestive symptoms in patients with heart failure refractory to loop diuretics. However, it is unknown whether the early use of tolvaptan results in better clinical outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed 102 consecutive patients with decompensated heart failure treated with tolvaptan at our hospital. A given patient was defined as a responder when the maximum urine volume was greater than 150 % of that observed before tolvaptan use. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the early use of tolvaptan (within 3 days after admission) was an independent factor associated with tolvaptan responsiveness. There were no significant differences in the baseline clinical parameters between the early and late tolvaptan use groups. However, the early use of tolvaptan was associated with higher tolvaptan responsiveness, a shorter duration of carperitide infusion, earlier initiation of ambulatory cardiac rehabilitation, shorter hospital stay, lower rate of in-hospital death. The early use of tolvaptan was associated with a shorter hospital stay and reduced mortality in our retrospective cohort. It might therefore be beneficial to consider administering tolvaptan earlier in patients with heart failure.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: Catheter ablation of complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE), also known as defragmentation ablation, may be considered for the treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) beyond pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Concomitant antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy is common, but the relevance of AAD administration and its optimal timing during ablation remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the use and timing of AADs during defragmentation ablation and their possible implications for AF termination and ablation success in a large cohort of patients. Retrospectively, we included 200 consecutive patients (age: 61 ± 12 years, LA diameter: 47 ± 8 mm) with persistent AF (episode duration 47 ± 72 weeks) who underwent de novo ablation including CFAE ablation. In all patients, PVI was performed prior to CFAE ablation. The use and timing of AADs were registered. The follow-ups consisted of Holter ECGs and clinical visits. Termination of AF was achieved in 132 patients (66 %). Intraprocedural AADs were administered in 168/200 patients (84 %) 45 ± 27 min after completion of PVI. Amiodarone was used in the majority of the patients (160/168). The timing of AAD administration was predicted by the atrial fibrillation cycle length (AFCL). At follow-up, 88 patients (46 %) were free from atrial arrhythmia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that administration of AAD early after PVI, LA size, duration of AF history, sex and AFCL were predictors of AF termination. The administration of AAD and its timing were not predictive of outcome, and age was the sole independent predictor of AF recurrence. The administration of AAD during ablation was common in this large cohort of persistent AF patients. The choice to administer AAD therapy and the timing of the administration during ablation were influenced by AFCL, and these factors did not significantly influence the moderate single procedure success rate in this retrospective analysis.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) gradually regressed after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SV1 + RV5/6) is possibly the most widely used criterion for ECG-LVH. The aim of this study was to determine whether decrease in Sokolow-Lyon voltage reflects left ventricular reverse remodeling detected by echocardiography after AVR. Of 129 consecutive patients who underwent AVR for severe aortic stenosis, 38 patients with preoperative ECG-LVH, defined by SV1 + RV5/6 of ≥3.5 mV, were enrolled in this study. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. The patients were divided into ECG-LVH regression group (n = 19) and non-regression group (n = 19) according to the median value of the absolute regression in SV1 + RV5/6. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess determinants of ECG-LVH regression among echocardiographic indices. ECG-LVH regression group showed significantly greater decrease in left ventricular mass index and left ventricular dimensions than Non-regression group. ECG-LVH regression was independently determined by decrease in the left ventricular mass index [odds ratio (OR) 1.28, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.69, p = 0.048], left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.03-1.41, p = 0.014), and left ventricular end-systolic dimension (OR 1.24, 95 % CI 1.06-1.52, p = 0.0047). ECG-LVH regression could be a marker of the effect of AVR on both reducing the left ventricular mass index and left ventricular dimensions. The effect of AVR on reverse remodeling can be estimated, at least in part, by regression of ECG-LVH.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: In this pilot study, we compared the infarct and edema size in acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients treated by nicorandil with those treated by nitrate, using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Fifty-two acute MI patients who underwent emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled, and were assigned to receive nicorandil or nitrate at random just before reperfusion. For the assessment of infarct and edema areas, short-axis delayed enhancement (DE) and T2-weight (T2w) CMR images were acquired 6.1 ± 2.4 days after the onset of MI. A significant correlation was observed between the peak creatinine kinase (CK) level and the infarct size on DE CMR (r = 0.62, p < 0.05), as well as the edema size on T2w CMR (r = 0.70, p < 0.05) in patients treated by nicorandil (28 patients). A similar correlation was seen between the peak CK level and the infarct size on DE CMR (r = 0.84, p < 0.05), as well as the edema size on T2w CMR (r = 0.84, p < 0.05) in patients treated by nitrate (24 patients). The maximum CK level was significantly lower in patients treated by nicorandil rather than nitrate (1991 ± 1402, 2785 ± 2121 IU/L, respectively, p = 0.03). Both the edema size on T2w CMR and the infarct size on DE CMR were significantly smaller in patients treated by nicorandil rather than nitrate (17.7 ± 9.9, 21.9 ± 13.7 %; p = 0.03, 10.3 ± 6.0, 12.7 ± 6.9 %, p = 0.03, respectively). The presence and amount of microvascular obstruction were significantly smaller in patients treated by nicorandil rather than nitrate (39.2, 64.7 %; p = 0.03; 2.2 ± 1.3, 3.4 ± 1.5 cm(2); p = 0.02, respectively). Using CMR imaging, we demonstrated that the complementary use of intravenously and intracoronary administered nicorandil during PCI favorably acts more on the damaged myocardium after MI than nitrate. We need a further powered prospective study on the use of nicorandil.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: Episodes of atrial fibrillation (AF) are mainly initiated by triggers from pulmonary veins (PVs). The superior vena cava (SVC) has been identified as a second major substrate of non-PV foci, but the electrophysiologic features of the SVC have not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that SVC ectopies are suppressed by predominant features of PV ectopies and tend to appear after PV isolation (PVI). We evaluated the electrophysiological characteristics and clinical implications of SVC ectopies in patients with AF during catheter ablation using high-dose isoproterenol and the atrial overdrive pacing maneuver. The manifestation patterns and modes of onset (coupling interval and appearance interval) of ectopies from both the PVs and SVC were investigated. 205 patients were enrolled [153 males and 52 females; mean age 64 ± 10 years; paroxysmal in 143 patients (69.8 %), persistent in 40 (19.5 %), and long-standing persistent in 22 patients (10.7 %)]. Before PVI, PV ectopies were detected in 182/205 patients (89 %). SVC ectopies were rarely observed before PVI but were significantly more frequent after the completion of PVI (3/205 vs. 14/205 patients, p = 0.011). The coupling interval (CI) and % CI (CI/preceding the A-A interval × 100) of PV ectopies were significantly shorter than those of SVC ectopies (211 ± 78 vs. 282 ± 106 ms, p = 0.021, and 34 ± 9 vs. 51 ± 17 %, p < 0.001, respectively). The appearance intervals of the PV ectopies were shorter than those of the SVC ectopies (6.3 ± 4.0 vs. 10.7 ± 6.7 s, p = 0.030). During repeat procedures, PVs with reconnection to the left atrium were less frequently observed in patients with SVC firing than in patients without SVC firing (1.7 ± 1.5 vs. 2.9 ± 1.1 PVs, p = 0.029). We demonstrated that PVI tends to manifest SVC ectopies with less spontaneous activity and that an elimination of predominant ectopies from the PVs may affect appearance of SVC ectopy.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: A previous study demonstrated that ventricular premature contractions (VPCs) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) are provoked during sodium channel blocker challenge tests in Brugada syndrome (BrS) patients (Morita et al., J Am Coll Cardiol 42:1624-1631, 2003). The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is a major arrhythmogenic focus and isolated VPCs originating from that area have been shown to initiate VF (Kakishita et al., J Am Coll Cardiol 36:1646-1653, 2000). Here, we describe a case report of a BrS patient with VPCs arising from the posterior aspect of the RVOT epicardium which was provoked by a low-dose of pilsicainide, a pure sodium channel blocker, and was successfully ablated from the right coronary cusp.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the prognosis of elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown. We aimed to examine the association of body weight with the clinical outcomes among Japanese elderly patients with a history of documented AF. This observational study of AF patients from an outpatients clinic in Nagoya University Hospital included 413 patients ≥70 years old (99 obese: BMI ≥25 kg/m(2); 256 normal weight: BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2); and 58 underweight patients: BMI <18.5 kg/m(2)). The mean age was 77.5 ± 5.6 years. During a mean follow-up of 19.0 months, all-cause death occurred in 23 patients (obese 1 %, normal weight 5.1 %, and underweight 16 %). The major adverse events including all-cause death, stroke or transient ischemic attack, heart failure requiring admission, and acute coronary syndrome were observed in 53 patients (obese 5.1 %, normal weight 13 %, and underweight 26 %). After adjusting for confounding factors, the underweight group had a significantly greater risk for all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR) 2.91, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.12-7.60, p = 0.029], and major adverse events (HR 2.45, 95 % CI 1.25-4.78, p = 0.009) than the normal weight group. In contrast, the obese group had a better prognosis in major adverse events compared with the normal weight group (HR 0.34, 95 % CI 0.13-0.89, p = 0.029). In conclusion, lower BMI was independently associated with poor outcomes among older AF patients. The association between obesity and better prognosis in elderly AF patients was also found.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Heart and Vessels
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    ABSTRACT: Catheter tissue contact force (CF) is an important factor for durable lesion formation during radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of atrial fibrillation (AF). Since CF varies in the beating heart, atrial rhythm during RFCA may influence CF. A high-density map and RFCA points were obtained in 25 patients undergoing RFCA of AF using a CF-sensing catheter (Tacticath, St. Jude Medical). The operators were blinded to the CF information. Contact type was classified into three categories: constant, variable, and intermittent contact. Average CF and contact type were analyzed according to atrial rhythm (SR vs. AF) and anatomical location. A total of 1364 points (891 points during SR and 473 points during AF) were analyzed. Average CFs showed no significant difference between SR (17.2 ± 11.3 g) and AF (17.2 ± 13.3 g; p = 0.99). The distribution of points with an average CF of ≥20 and <10 g also showed no significant difference. However, the distribution of excessive CF (CF ≥40 g) was significantly higher during AF (7.4 %) in comparison with SR (4.2 %; p < 0.05). At the anterior area of the right inferior pulmonary vein (RIPV), the average CF during AF was significantly higher than during SR (p < 0.05). Constant contact was significantly higher during AF (32.2 %) when compared to SR (9.9 %; p < 0.01). Although the average CF was not different between atrial rhythms, constant contact was more often achievable during AF than it was during SR. However, excessive CF also seems to occur more frequently during AF especially at the anterior part of RIPV.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Heart and Vessels