Periodontology 2000

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Periodontology 2000 comprises a series of monographs intended for periodontists and general practitioners with interest in periodontics. The editorial board will identify significant topics and outstanding scientists and clinicians for the individual monographs. Periodontology 2000 will serve as a valuable supplement to existing periodontal journals. Three monographs will be published each year.

Current impact factor: 3.63

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 3.632
2013 Impact Factor 3
2012 Impact Factor 4.012
2011 Impact Factor 3.961
2010 Impact Factor 2.082
2009 Impact Factor 3.027
2008 Impact Factor 3.493
2007 Impact Factor 3.581
2006 Impact Factor 2.8
2005 Impact Factor 2.377
2004 Impact Factor 2.457
2003 Impact Factor 1.333
2002 Impact Factor 2.493
2001 Impact Factor 2.319
2000 Impact Factor 1.391
1999 Impact Factor 1.729
1998 Impact Factor 1.308
1997 Impact Factor 0.75

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.29
Cited half-life 8.90
Immediacy index 1.79
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 1.24
Website Periodontology 2000 website
Other titles Periodontology 2000 (Online), Periodontology two thousand
ISSN 1600-0757
OCLC 46654325
Material type Document, Series, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • Non-Commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the technical challenges involved when collecting, processing and analyzing gingival crevicular fluid samples, research using gingival crevicular fluid has, and will continue to play, a fundamental role in expanding our understanding of periodontal pathogenesis and healing outcomes following treatment. A review of the literature, however, clearly demonstrates that there is considerable variation in the methods used for collection, processing and analysis of gingival crevicular fluid samples by different research groups around the world. Inconsistent or inadequate reporting impairs interpretation of results, prevents accurate comparison of data between studies and potentially limits the conclusions that can be made from a larger body of evidence. The precise methods used for collection and analysis of gingival crevicular fluid (including calibration studies required before definitive clinical studies) should be reported in detail, either in the methods section of published papers or as an online supplementary file, so that other researchers may reproduce the methodology. Only with clear and transparent reporting will the full impact of future gingival crevicular fluid research be realized. This paper discusses the complexities of gingival crevicular fluid collection and analysis and provides guidance to researchers working in this field.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: There has been immense interest in the uses of saliva in the diagnosis of systemic disease over the past decade and longer because it is recognized that saliva possesses great potential as a diagnostic fluid. In spite of this, the usefulness of saliva in studies of the epidemiology of human disease has still to be properly evaluated. This review describes the UK Biobank project and explores the scope to use this and other such cohort studies to gain important insights into the epidemiological aspects of systemic disease. The Biobank holds around 85,000 well-characterized saliva samples, together with blood and urine samples, the results of a battery of physiological tests, a full medical history and a detailed description of the subject's lifestyle. This repository is a resource for insightful and highly powered oral and dental research.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: This article provides an up-to-date review of the more robust salivary biomarkers, as well as of panels of combinatorial markers and periodontal pathogens, that reveal high sensitivity and specificity for enhancing clinical decision-making in periodontal disease progression, risk and diagnosis. Periodontal diseases are complex and require an inflammatory response to bacterial pathogens in a susceptible host to stimulate tissue destruction. When used alone, traditional clinical assessments provide a diagnosis of periodontitis only after the biologic onset of the disease process, and are unable to substantiate disease activity or future risk. New technologies are becoming available that are capable of measuring combinations of inflammatory cytokines and proteinases for rapid chair-side testing. Utilizing saliva to identify and measure specific phenotypes and host-derived mediators will allow highly individualized diagnosis, prognosis and treatments for periodontal diseases. This personalized medicine approach will strengthen the power of the clinical oral examination and medical history assessments, providing patients with evidence-based, targeted risk care.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: Saliva plays a major role in determining the composition and activity of the oral microbiota, via a variety of mechanisms. Molecules, mainly from saliva, form a conditioning film on oral surfaces, thus providing receptors for bacterial attachment. The attached cells use saliva components, such as glycoproteins, as their main source of nutrients for growth. Oral bacteria work sequentially and in a concerted manner to catabolize these structurally complex molecules. Saliva also buffers the pH in the biofilm to around neutrality, creating an environment which is conducive to the growth of many oral bacteria that provide important benefits to the host. Components of the adaptive and innate host defences are delivered by saliva, and these often function synergistically, and at sublethal concentrations, so a complex relationship develops between the host and the resident microbiota. Dysbiosis can occur rapidly if the flow of saliva is perturbed.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: Saliva in the mouth is a biofluid produced mainly by three pairs of major salivary glands - the submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands - along with secretions from many minor submucosal salivary glands. Salivary gland secretion is a nerve-mediated reflex and the volume of saliva secreted is dependent on the intensity and type of taste and on chemosensory, masticatory or tactile stimulation. Long periods of low (resting or unstimulated) flow are broken by short periods of high flow, which is stimulated by taste and mastication. The nerve-mediated salivary reflex is modulated by nerve signals from other centers in the central nervous system, which is most obvious as hyposalivation at times of anxiety. An example of other neurohormonal influences on the salivary reflex is the circadian rhythm, which affects salivary flow and ionic composition. Cholinergic parasympathetic and adrenergic sympathetic autonomic nerves evoke salivary secretion, signaling through muscarinic M3 and adrenoceptors on salivary acinar cells and leading to secretion of fluid and salivary proteins. Saliva gland acinar cells are chloride and sodium secreting, and the isotonic fluid produced is rendered hypotonic by salivary gland duct cells as it flows to the mouth. The major proteins present in saliva are secreted by salivary glands, creating viscoelasticity and enabling the coating of oral surfaces with saliva. Salivary films are essential for maintaining oral health and regulating the oral microbiome. Saliva in the mouth contains a range of validated and potential disease biomarkers derived from epithelial cells, neutrophils, the microbiome, gingival crevicular fluid and serum. For example, cortisol levels are used in the assessment of stress, matrix metalloproteinases-8 and -9 appear to be promising markers of caries and periodontal disease, and a panel of mRNA and proteins has been proposed as a marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Understanding the mechanisms by which components enter saliva is an important aspect of validating their use as biomarkers of health and disease.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: Research into biomarkers of periodontitis is driven by mainly three targets: to identify 'at risk' patients before periodontal tissue destruction occurs; to determine disease activity and progression; and to build up our understanding of this complex disease with the purpose of finding new therapeutic targets. Whilst blood and gingival crevicular fluid were previously the biological samples of choice, saliva has recently gained more attention as a readily accessible oral fluid which has a mediator profile similar to that of serum and gingival crevicular fluid. The aim of this paper was to give a comprehensive overview of salivary cytokines in periodontitis, highlighting extensively studied cytokines such as interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6, but also cytokines that have been the subject of only a few studies and which warrant further investigation. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of salivary cytokines, and the potential of cytokines as periodontitis biomarkers, are evaluated. Finally, a discussion of potential confounding factors, such as concurrent systemic diseases and smoking, is presented.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the structure and function of the mouth, its tissues and secretions is of great interest to physiologists, cell biologists, immunologists and microbiologists but is also of fundamental interest to the dental professional interested in comprehending the aberrant processes associated with oral disease and in the application of effective clinical interventions. The field of periodontology, which has a truly multidisciplinary perspective cutting across leading edge molecular and cellular biology, clinical dentistry, epidemiology and behavioural science, exemplifies this. A paradigm shift in recent years has led to the consideration of the oral cavity (and, thus, oral disease) not in isolation but as a component integrated with systemic physiology, important in maintaining systemic health and reflective of systemic disease; this has served to promote periodontology, in particular, into the forefront of medicine in general. This volume of Periodontology 2000 considers the role of gingival crevicular fluid and saliva in physiological function, maintenance of oral tissue integrity, defense against pathogens and oral disease as well as the many, emerging applications of analysis of these fluids in support of periodontal disease diagnosis, prognosis and epidemiology. However, whilst the emphasis is on periodontal disease, the wider contexts of oral and systemic health are also key considerations.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: In evaluating the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, the diagnostic potential of gingival crevicular fluid has been extensively explored during the last twenty years, from initially just confirming health and disease states to more recently investigating it as a potential prognostic tool. As host susceptibility is a critical determinant in periodontal disease pathogenesis, the inflammatory mediator levels present in gingival crevicular fluid represent relevant risk indicators for disease activity. Considerable work has been carried out to identify the many different cytokine inflammatory pathways and microbial stimuli that are associated with periodontal disease pathogenesis. Now, ‘omics’ approaches aim to summarize how these pathways interact and probably converge to create critical inflammatory networks. More recently, gingival crevicular fluid metabolomics appears promising as an additional diagnostic method. Biofilm structure and the host inflammatory response to the microbial challenge may induce specific inflammatory signatures. Host genetics and epigenetics may also modulate microbial colonization, adding to the multiplicity of potential causal pathways. Omics analyses of gingival crevicular fluid, measuring microbial and host interactions in association with the onset and progression of periodontal diseases, still show the potential to expand the landscape for the discovery of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic markers.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a highly organized event impacting upon organs, tissues and biological systems. Periodontal diseases are characterized by dysregulation or dysfunction of resolution pathways of inflammation that results in failure to heal and in a dominant chronic, progressive, destructive and predominantly unresolved inflammation. The biological consequences of inflammatory processes may be independent of the etiological agents, such as trauma, microbial organisms and stress. The impact of the inflammatory pathological process depends upon the tissues or organ system affected. Whilst mediators are similar, there is tissue specificity for the inflammatory events. It is plausible that inflammatory processes in one organ could directly lead to pathologies in another organ or tissue. Communication between distant parts of the body and their inflammatory status is also mediated by common signaling mechanisms mediated via cells and soluble mediators. This review focuses on periodontal inflammation, its systemic associations and advances in therapeutic approaches based on mediators acting through orchestration of natural pathways to resolution of inflammation. We also discuss a new treatment concept in which natural pathways of resolution of periodontal inflammation can be used to limit systemic inflammation and promote healing and regeneration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: Periodontitis is an infectious/inflammatory disease characterized by the loss of periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Herpesviruses are frequent inhabitants of periodontitis lesions, and the periodontopathogenicity of these viruses is the topic of this review. In 26 recent studies from 15 countries, subgingival cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex virus type 1, respectively, yielded median prevalences of 49%, 45% and 63% in aggressive periodontitis, 40%, 32% and 45% in chronic periodontitis, and 3%, 7% and 12% in healthy periodontium. An active herpesvirus infection of the periodontium exhibits site specificity, is a potent stimulant of cellular immunity, may cause upgrowth of periodontopathic bacteria and tends to be related to disease-active periodontitis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by the herpesvirus infection may activate matrix metalloproteinases and osteoclasts, leading to breakdown of the tooth-supportive tissues. The notion that a co-infection of herpesviruses and specific bacteria causes periodontitis provides a plausible etiopathogenic explanation for the disease. Moreover, herpesvirus virions from periodontal sites may dislodge into saliva or enter the systemic circulation and cause diseases beyond the periodontium. Periodontal treatment can diminish significantly the periodontal load of herpesviruses, which may lower the incidence and magnitude of herpesvirus dissemination within and between individuals, and subsequently the risk of acquiring a variety of medical diseases. Novel and more effective approaches to the prevention and treatment of periodontitis and related diseases may depend on a better understanding of the herpesvirus-bacteria-immune response axis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of diabetes mellitus on the prevalence, severity and progression of periodontal disease has been known for many years and intense efforts have been made to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. It is widely reported that hyperglycemia causes numerous systemic changes, including altered innate immune-cell function and metabolic changes. The aim of this review was to summarize and discuss the evidence for mechanisms that probably play a role in the altered local inflammatory reactions in the periodontium of patients with diabetes, focusing on local changes in cytokine levels, matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, advanced glycation end-products, immune-cell functions, the RANKL/osteoprotegerin axis and toll-like receptors. Apart from the systemic effects of diabetes, recent evidence suggests that local changes in the periodontal tissues are characterized by enhanced interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells and by altered leukocyte functions [resulting in increased levels of reactive oxygen species and of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α)]. These local changes are amplified by the enhanced accumulation of advanced glycation end-products and their interaction with receptors for advanced glycation end-products. Furthermore, the increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines lead to an up-regulation of RANKL in periodontal tissues, stimulating further periodontal tissue breakdown. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) track, engage and eliminate foreign entities, including bacteria, fungi and subcellular particles. PMNL are the major host-cell line involved in the acute response during the early stages of infections, including those in the oral cavity. Rather short lived, they are among the fastest moving cells in the human body and travel great distances only to be immolated after encountering and neutralizing antigens. Although their role as the first line of host defense is well established, their role in chronic granulomatous inflammations, diseases and infections remains poorly understood, and many questions on the activation, motility, bactericidity and termination of PMNL in these conditions remain unanswered. This review aims to summarize our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of PMNL activation and signaling events. Recent evidence indicates the presence of collateral tissue damage caused by poorly regulated PMNL pursuits of periodontal bacteria. Imbalances between the antigenic challenge and the primary host response may augment periodontal tissue breakdown. Thereafter, orchestrated regulation of the resolution of inflammation fails in the presence of a pathogenic periodontal biofilm. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells are potent antigen-capture and antigen-presenting cells that play a key role in the initiation and regulation of the adaptive immune response. This process of immune homeostasis, as maintained by dendritic cells, is susceptible to dysregulation by certain pathogens during chronic infections. Such dysregulation may lead to disease perpetuation with potentially severe systemic consequences. Here we discuss in detail how intracellular pathogens exploit dendritic cells and escape degradation by altering or evading autophagy. This novel mechanism explains, in part, the chronic, persistent nature observed in several immuno-inflammatory diseases, including periodontal disease. We also propose a hypothetical model of the plausible role of autophagy in the context of periodontal disease. Promotion of autophagy may open new therapeutic strategies in the search of a 'cure' for periodontal disease in humans. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: A large amount of information is available, in the medical literature, on the molecular and immunological mechanisms in which T- and B-cells are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. This review attempts to describe the most important features of the T-cell subsets and their cytokine networks in periodontitis, including the interaction of pathogens with different cell subsets and their gene-expression profiles. Additionally, the known interactions of T- and B-cell subsets in periodontitis are described. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of the cell interactions and cytokine networks specifically involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, and models and paradigms from recent research in this area are presented. However, the review of the literature also revealed that relatively little is known about the genetic or structural factors that confer cross-reactivity of natural and/or autoreactive antibodies in the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis. Pathogens, in turn, are continuously evolving and creating mechanisms to evade immunological reactions controlled and modulated by T- and B-cells. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Periodontology 2000