# Journal of Polymers and the Environment (J POLYM ENVIRON)

Publisher: Springer Verlag

## Journal description

The Journal of Polymers and the Environment fills the need for an international forum in this diverse and rapidly expanding field. The journal serves a crucial role for the publication of information from a wide range of disciplines and is a central outlet for the publication of high-quality peer-reviewed original papers review articles and short communications. The journal is intentionally interdisciplinary in regard to contributions and covers the following subjects - polymers environmentally degradable polymers and degradation pathways: biological photochemical oxidative and hydrolytic; new environmental materials: derived by chemical and biosynthetic routes; environmental blends and composites; developments in processing and reactive processing of environmental polymers; characterization of environmental materials: mechanical physical thermal rheological morphological and others; recyclable polymers and plastics recycling environmental testing: in-laboratory simulations outdoor exposures and standardization of methodologies; environmental fate: end products and intermediates of biodegradation; microbiology and enzymology of polymer biodegradation; solid-waste management and public legislation specific to environmental polymers; and other related topics.

## Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017 1.671 1.628 1.495 1.349 1.507 1.571 1.129 1.099 1.243 1.278 1.591 0.452 0.196 0.158

## Impact factor over time

Impact factor
.
Year

5-year impact 2.06 6.30 0.19 0.00 0.42 Journal of Polymers and the Environment website Journal of polymers and the environment (Online) 1566-2543 45848804 Document, Periodical, Internet resource Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

## Publisher details

• Pre-print
• Author can archive a pre-print version
• Post-print
• Author can archive a post-print version
• Conditions
• Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as arXiv.org
• Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
• Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
• Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
• Published source must be acknowledged
• Must link to publisher version
• Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
• Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
• Classification
green

## Publications in this journal

• ##### Article: New multi-scale hybrid system based on maple wood flour and nano crystalline cellulose: Morphological, mechanical and physical study

No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Polymers and the Environment
• ##### Article: Evaluation of the Effect of Chemical or Enzymatic Synthesis Methods on Biodegradability of Polyesters
[Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This work compares the biodegradability of polyesters produced by an esterification reaction between glycerol and oleic di-acid (D 18:1) issued from green chemical pathways, via either classical thermo-chemical methods, or an enzymatic method using the immobilized lipase of Candida antartica B (Novozym 435). An elastomeric polymer synthesized by enzymatic catalysis is more biodegradable than an elastomeric thermo-chemical polyester synthesized by a standard chemical procedure. This difference lies in percentage of the dendritic motifs, in values of the degree of substitution, and certainly in cross-links inducing an hyper-branched structure less accessible to the lipolytic enzymes in a waste treatment plant. However, when the elastomeric polymer synthesized by enzymatic catalysis is processed at high temperature as required for certain industrial applications, it presents an identical rate of biodegradation than the chemical polyester. The advantages of the thermo-chemical methods are greater speed and lower cost. Enzymatic synthesis appears be suited to producing polyesters, devoid of metallic catalysts, which must be used without processing at high temperature to keep a high biodegradability.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Polymers and the Environment
• ##### Article: New Polyacrylamide [PAM] Material Formulations for the Coagulation/Flocculation/Decantation Process
[Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new copolymers, high molecular weight poly(acrylamide) [AM2A0.01W20] and [AM1A0.1W20] were synthesized by radical adiabatic copolymerization in aqueous solution. The [AM2A0.01W20] copolymer was hydrolysed in basic medium by using sodium hydroxide solution and leads to a new hydrolysed poly(acrylamide) [AM3A0.01W20-H]. The structure and composition of the copolymers were established by 1H NMR, IRTF and conductivity. The molecular weights are obtained by size exclusion chromatography [SEC] and by viscosity. The variation of the reduced viscosity of aqueous copolymer solutions with copolymer concentration revealed a strong viscosity values showing very high [PAM] molecular weights. In the present work, several copolymer formulations are tested by the process of Coagulation/Flocculation/Decantation with a Jar-test, using a 30 mg L−1 clay suspension. The optimization process shows that the copolymers present different flocculation efficiencies. The copolymers with the best performances were tested on a semi-industrial experimental pilot for the Coagulation/Flocculation/Decantation process. Good Flocculation yield superior than 70 % are observed for the [AM3A0.01W20-H] with high molecular weight. Keywords High weight poly(acrylamide) [PAM] Hydrolysed poly(acrylamide) [H-PAM] Coagulation Flocculation Turbidity and viscosity
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Polymers and the Environment
• ##### Article: Tensile Properties of Polylactide/Poly(ethylene glycol) Blends
[Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The blends of polylactide (PLA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with different contents (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%) and molecular weights ( $$\overline{M}_{w}$$ 6000, 10,000 and 20,000, called respectively as PEG 6000, PEG 10,000, and PEG 20,000) were prepared by means of melt blending method. The effects of tensile speed, content and molecular weight of the PEG on the tensile properties of the PLA/PEG blends were investigated using a universal testing machine at 24 °C. With increasing tensile speed, the tensile modulus, strength and stress at break of the PLA/PEG blends marginally increased, while the tensile modulus and stress at break declined non-linearly, and the tensile strength dropped nearly linearly with increasing PEG 10,000 content. When the PEG 10,000 content was 5-15 wt%, the tensile strain at break of the PLA/PEG 10,000 blend markedly increased, and then decreased as the PEG 10,000 content exceeded 15 wt%. With increasing the molecular weight of PEG, tensile modulus and strength increased, whereas the tensile strain at break decreased. This showed that the application of right amount of lower molecular weight PEG was more conducive to improving the tensile toughness of the PLA/PEG blends, which was attributed to its better miscibility with PLA and increased mobility of PLA molecular chains.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Polymers and the Environment
• ##### Article: Preparation of Chitin Nanofiber-Reinforced Cellulose Films Through Stepwise Regenerations from Individually Prepared Ion Gels
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the preparation of chitin nanofiber (CNF)-reinforced cellulose films through stepwise regeneration procedures from the respective ion gels with ionic liquids. Self-assembled CNF dispersions were prepared by regeneration from the chitin ion gel with the ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, using methanol, followed by dilution with adjusted amounts of methanol. Cellulose ion gels with the ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, were then prepared, soaked in the CNF dispersions, and centrifuged to simultaneously occur regeneration of cellulose and compatibilization with the CNFs. Soxhlet extraction with methanol and subsequent drying of the resulting materials gave the CNF/cellulose composite films. The IR and SEM results of the films indicated the presence of CNFs not only on the surfaces of the films but also inside the films. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns showed the amorphous structure of the cellulose in the film. Tensile testing of the films suggested the reinforcing effect of the CNFs on the mechanical properties of the films.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Polymers and the Environment
• ##### Article: Preparation, Characterisation, and Controlled-Release of Biodegradable Polyester and Marine-Algae Composite
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ABSTRACT: A composite material composed of maleic anhydride-grafted polycaprolactone (PCL-g-MA) and treated (cross-linked) marine algae powder (TMAP) was used to fabricate bacteria-encapsulated film bag (BEFB) material. The biodegradability of the composite was evaluated with regard to the controlled release of encapsulated bacteria. PCL and PCL-g-MA composite film bags were also assessed. Human lung fibroblasts were seeded onto two series of these composites to assess biocompatibility. The water resistance of PCL-g-MA/TMAP was greater than that of PCL/MAP, although the weight loss of both materials after burial in compost containing Burkholderia cepacia BCRC 14253 indicated comparable biodegradability, especially at high levels of MAP or TMAP substitution. After 120 days, the weight loss of the PCL-g-MA/TMAP (20 wt%) composite was greater than 50 %. PCL/MAP exhibited a weight loss of approximately 4-11 wt% more than PCL-g-MA/TMAP. The complete degradation of PCL, PCL-g-MA, and their composite film bags resulted in the release of encapsulated bacterial cells. These results demonstrate that the controlled release of BEFBs to enhance fertiliser utilisation is achievable.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Polymers and the Environment
• ##### Article: Novel Mineral and Organic Materials from Agro-Industrial Residues as Fillers for Natural Rubber
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ABSTRACT: Bio-based materials are being developed, increasingly, because of the need for sustainable, environmentally friendly, processes and products. We have made natural rubber composites containing low cost fillers derived from agro-industrial wastes, namely, eggshells, carbon fly ash, processing tomato peels and guayule bagasse. Composites manufactured with 35 phr (parts per hundred rubber) of carbon black (particle size 108 ± 31 nm) were used as a reference filled material. The amount of carbon black was gradually replaced by a specific waste-derived macro (<300 µm diameter) or micro (<38 µm diameter) filler. Despite differences in particle size distribution and surface chemistry, the tensile properties of micro sized tomato peels composite were similar to those of the carbon black reference composite. Composites manufactured using micro sized particles at low loadings (5 and 10 phr) of carbon fly ash and eggshells, as co-fillers with carbon black, also demonstrated comparable tensile results to those of composites manufactured solely with carbon black. Hierarchical cluster analysis partitioned the data into five groups of composites having statistically similar mechanical properties. Composites containing micro sized particles at low loadings (5 and 10 phr) were grouped in clusters 1, 2 and 5. These clusters gathered composites with the highest tensile strength and 300 % modulus. As the amount of non-carbon black filler increased above 10 phr and up to 35 phr (maximum filler loading used), the composites became weaker than the carbon black filled composites and modulus decreased.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Polymers and the Environment
• ##### Article: Non-Toxic Crosslinking of Starch Using Polycarboxylic Acids: Kinetic Study and Quantitative Correlation of Mechanical Properties and Crosslinking Degrees
[Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: For the first time, kinetics of citric acid crosslinking of starch was studied, and mechanical properties of starch films were quantitatively correlated with crosslinked degrees and structures of polycarboxylic acids. To substitute toxic crosslinkers to improve the properties of bio-derived polymers, non-toxic polycarboxylic acids were widely used to improve the performance properties of starch-derived industrial products, and were proved effective. However, the mechanism of the reaction and relationship between crosslinking extents and performance properties of starch products had not been clarified. In this study, crosslinking of starch by polycarboxylic acids was verified, and logarithmic relationship between crosslinking degree and strength was elucidated. The polycarboxylic acids with more carboxyl groups could more effectively improve the tensile properties of starch films. In general, crosslinking using polycarboxylic acids might improve the mechanical properties of starch products in a controlled manner and thus could facilitate their industrialization.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Polymers and the Environment
• ##### Article: New Polyacrylamide [PAM] Material Formulations for the Coagulation/Flocculation/Decantation Process
[Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new copolymers, high molecular weight poly(acrylamide) [AM2A0.01W20] and [AM1A0.1W20] were synthesized by radical adiabatic copolymerization in aqueous solution. The [AM2A0.01W20] copolymer was hydrolysed in basic medium by using sodium hydroxide solution and leads to a new hydrolysed poly(acrylamide) [AM3A0.01W20-H]. The structure and composition of the copolymers were established by 1H NMR, IRTF and conductivity. The molecular weights are obtained by size exclusion chromatography [SEC] and by viscosity. The variation of the reduced viscosity of aqueous copolymer solutions with copolymer concentration revealed a strong viscosity values showing very high [PAM] molecular weights. In the present work, several copolymer formulations are tested by the process of Coagulation/Flocculation/Decantation with a Jar-test, using a 30 mg L−1 clay suspension. The optimization process shows that the copolymers present different flocculation efficiencies. The copolymers with the best performances were tested on a semi-industrial experimental pilot for the Coagulation/Flocculation/Decantation process. Good Flocculation yield superior than 70 % are observed for the [AM3A0.01W20-H] with high molecular weight.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Polymers and the Environment
• ##### Article: Thermal Composites of Biobased Polyamide with Boron Nitride Micro Networks
[Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: With the growing awareness of the damage sustained by environment, and the nearly-ubiquitous impulse to minimize and counteract this damage, the use of renewable (green) resources is becoming increasingly popular. Electronic industry continues to produce millions of electronic devices daily and the rapid growth of modern technology reduces these devices’ useable life spans. As a result, it has become increasingly imperative to find solutions for recycling these devices. Furthermore, since electronic devices are constantly becoming smaller and more powerful, accumulating heat concentration further reduces efficiency. Therefore, heat dissipation plays a very important role in modern electronic packaging applications. Bio-based high thermally conductive Polymeric composites seem to be potentially suitable replacements for current electronic packaging. These composites promise improved thermal management of electronics as well as protection from non-recyclable oil-based products in the environment. In this research, parametric study on partially bio-based polyamide (PA) in composite with micron size hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) platelets were performed. High viscosity PA90 and low viscosity PA30, both in composites with high thermally conductive hBN, were compared to determine the effect of matrix viscosity on mobility and arrangement of hBN particles, as well as effective thermal conductivity of the composite. Low viscosity PA30 consistently maintained higher values of thermal conductivity than the PA90. However PA90 shows higher mechanical properties. Furthermore, by narrowing down the filler content difference of the sample an interesting nonlinear trend between filler content and effective thermal conductivity of the composite is observed.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Polymers and the Environment