The Journal of Immunology (J Immunol)

Publisher: American Association of Immunologists, American Association of Immunologists

Journal description

The JI publishes novel results in all areas of experimental immunology.

Current impact factor: 4.92

Impact Factor Rankings

2016 Impact Factor Available summer 2017
2014 / 2015 Impact Factor 4.922
2013 Impact Factor 5.362
2012 Impact Factor 5.52
2011 Impact Factor 5.788
2010 Impact Factor 5.745
2009 Impact Factor 5.646
2008 Impact Factor 6
2007 Impact Factor 6.068
2006 Impact Factor 6.293
2005 Impact Factor 6.387
2004 Impact Factor 6.486
2003 Impact Factor 6.702
2002 Impact Factor 7.014
2001 Impact Factor 7.065
2000 Impact Factor 6.834
1999 Impact Factor 7.145
1998 Impact Factor 7.166
1997 Impact Factor 6.937
1996 Impact Factor 7.296
1995 Impact Factor 7.412
1994 Impact Factor 7.383
1993 Impact Factor 7.065
1992 Impact Factor 6.723

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 5.26
Cited half-life 8.60
Immediacy index 0.96
Eigenfactor 0.24
Article influence 2.02
Website The Journal of Immunology website
Other titles Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950: Online), The journal of immunology, JI
ISSN 1550-6606
OCLC 34394395
Material type Document, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

American Association of Immunologists

  • Pre-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print archiving may be considered prior publication
    • Post-print on personal website only
    • Post-print not allowed on Institutional Repository
    • Set statement must accompany article (see policy link)
    • If mandated by funding agency may deposit authors post-print in PubMed Central, 6 or 12 months after publication
    • Papers submitted after 29th March 2011, funded by NIH, HHMI, MRC or Wellcome Trust, will be automatically deposited in PubMed Central if requested at submission
    • Publisher's version/PDF may only be used, if part of a thesis/ dissertation within a thesis repository
    • Must link to publisher version
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IFN regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is expressed in many types of blood cells and plays critical roles in cellular differentiation and function. However, the role of IRF8 in nonhematopoietic systems remains poorly understood. In this study, we provide evidence that IRF8 is a transcriptional modulator of the gastric mucosa necessary for limiting Helicobacter pylori colonization. H. pylori infection significantly upregulated expression of IRF8, which, in turn, promoted IFN-γ expression by gastric epithelial cells. Mice deficient in IRF8 exhibited increased H. pylori colonization and aborted induction of mucosal IFN-γ. Genome-wide analyses of IFN-γ-treated gastric epithelial cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA sequencing led to the identification of IRF8 target genes, with many belonging to the IFN-regulated gene family that was observed previously in immune cells. Our results identify the IRF8-IFN-γ circuit as a novel gastric innate immune mechanism in the host defense against infection with H. pylori.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF is tightly controlled. During endotoxin tolerance, transcription of TNF mRNA is repressed, although not entirely eliminated. Production of TNF cytokine, however, is further controlled by posttranscriptional regulation. In this study, we detail a mechanism of posttranscriptional repression of TNF mRNA by GAPDH binding to the TNF 3' untranslated region. Using RNA immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that GAPDH-TNF mRNA binding increases when THP-1 monocytes are in a low glycolysis state, and that this binding can be reversed by knocking down GAPDH expression or by increasing glycolysis. We show that reducing glycolysis decreases TNF mRNA association with polysomes. We demonstrate that GAPDH-TNF mRNA binding results in posttranscriptional repression of TNF and that the TNF mRNA 3' untranslated region is sufficient for repression. Finally, after exploring this model in THP-1 cells, we demonstrate this mechanism affects TNF expression in primary human monocytes and macrophages. We conclude that GAPDH-TNF mRNA binding regulates expression of TNF based on cellular metabolic state. We think this mechanism has potentially significant implications for treatment of various immunometabolic conditions, including immune paralysis during septic shock.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical response in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients treated with biologic agents can be influenced by pharmacokinetic variability among and within these patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring is seen as a valuable tool to improve patient care. The aim of this study was to generate a panel of mAbs toward etanercept (ETN) and to determine ETN and anti-ETN concentrations in AS patients. mAbs against ETN (MA-ETN) were generated using hybridoma technology. For quantification of ETN concentrations, a mAb-based TNF-coated ELISA and a mAb/mAb-based sandwich-type ELISA were developed. For evaluation of the anti-ETN Ab response, a bridging ELISA, as well as a functional cell-based assay, were constructed. Disease activity of the AS patients was measured with the AS Disease Activity Score (ASDAS). Active disease was defined as ASDAS ≥ 2.1. A total of 59 of 76 generated mAbs were ETN specific and were characterized further. Fifty-one mAbs revealed inhibitory properties in a cell-based assay. Analysis of serum concentrations of 21 ETN-treated AS patients with the TNF/MA-ETN68C5-HRP ELISA and the MA-ETN63C8/MA-ETN61C1-HRP ELISA revealed a good Pearson's r (+0.974) but a poor intraclass correlation coefficient (+0.528) as the result of underestimation of the values in the former ELISA. At 24 wk, ETN concentrations were similar in patients with ASDAS < 2.1 and ≥ 2.1. Anti-ETN Abs were not detected in any of the patient samples tested. In conclusion, highly sensitive mAb-based immunoassays were developed for quantification of ETN and anti-ETN concentrations. The impact of these methods needs to be evaluated further in clinical practice.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin A has essential but largely unexplained roles in regulating lymphopoiesis. We have previously shown that retinoic acid receptor (RAR) γ-deficient mice have hematopoietic defects, some phenotypes of which were microenvironment induced. Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment cells identified by either their expression of nestin (Nes) or osterix (Osx) have previously been shown to have roles in regulating lymphopoiesis. We therefore conditionally deleted Rarγ in Nes- or Osx-expressing microenvironment cells. Osx cell-specific deletion of Rarγ had no impact on hematopoiesis. In contrast, deletion of Rarγ in Nes-expressing cells resulted in reductions in peripheral blood B cells and CD4(+) T cells, accompanied by reductions of immature PreB cells in BM. The mice lacking Rarγ in Nes-expressing cells also had smaller thymi, with reductions in double-negative 4 T cell precursors, accompanied by reduced numbers of both TCRβ(low) immature single-positive CD8(+) cells and double-positive T cells. In the thymus, Nes expression was restricted to thymic stromal cells that expressed cerebellar degeneration-related Ag 1 and lacked expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule. These cells expressed platelet-derived growth factor α and high transcript levels of Rars, Cxcl12, and stem cell factor (Scf). Short-term treatment of mice with all-trans retinoic acid resulted in increased PreB lymphopoiesis in BM and an increase in thymic double-negative 4 T cells, inverse to that observed upon Nes cell-specific deletion of Rarγ. Collectively, these studies show that RARγ is a regulator of B and T lymphopoiesis via Nes-expressing cells in the BM and thymic microenvironments, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Pathogen invasion triggers robust antiviral cytokine production via different transcription factor signaling pathways. We have previously demonstrated that major vault protein (MVP) induces type I IFN production during viral infection; however, little is known about the role of MVP in proinflammatory responses. In this study, we found in vitro that expression of MVP, IL-6, and IL-8 was inducible upon dsRNA stimulation or viral infection. Moreover, MVP was essential for the induction of IL-6 and IL-8, as impaired expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in MVP-deficient human PBMCs, human lung epithelial cells (A549), and THP-1 monocytes, as well as in murine splenocytes, peritoneal macrophages, and PBMCs from MVP-knockout (MVP(-/-)) mice, was observed. Upon investigation of the underlying mechanisms, we demonstrated that MVP acted in synergy with AP-1 (c-Fos) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)β-liver-enriched transcriptional activating protein to activate the IL6 and IL8 promoters. Introduction of mutations into the AP-1 and C/EBPβ binding sites on the IL6 and IL8 promoters resulted in the loss of synergistic activation with MVP. Furthermore, we found that MVP interacted with both c-Fos and C/EBPβ. The interactions promoted nuclear translocation and recruitment of these transcription factors to IL6 and IL8 promoter regions. In the MVP(-/-) mouse model, significantly decreased expression of early antiviral cytokines resulted in higher viral titer in the lung, higher mortality, and heavier lung damage after infection with lethal influenza A virus. Taken together, our findings help to delineate a novel role of MVP in host proinflammatory response.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that frequently causes ear infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, and exacerbations in patients with underlying inflammatory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In mice, NTHi is rapidly cleared, but a strong inflammatory response persists, underscoring the concept that NTHi induces dysregulation of normal inflammatory responses and causes a failure to resolve. Lipid-derived specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) play a critical role in the active resolution of inflammation by both suppressing proinflammatory actions and promoting resolution pathways. Importantly, SPMs lack the immunosuppressive properties of classical anti-inflammatory therapies. On the basis of these characteristics, we hypothesized that aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) would dampen NTHi-induced inflammation while still enhancing bacterial clearance. C57BL/6 mice were treated with AT-RvD1 and infected with live NTHi. AT-RvD1-treated mice had lower total cell counts and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and had earlier influx of macrophages. In addition, AT-RvD1-treated mice showed changes in temporal regulation of inflammatory cytokines and enzymes, with decreased KC at 6 h and decreased IL-6, TNF-α, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression at 24 h post infection. Despite reduced inflammation, AT-RvD1-treated mice had reduced NTHi bacterial load, mediated by enhanced clearance by macrophages and a skewing toward an M2 phenotype. Finally, AT-RvD1 protected NTHi-infected mice from weight loss, hypothermia, hypoxemia, and respiratory compromise. This research highlights the beneficial role of SPMs in pulmonary bacterial infections and provides the groundwork for further investigation into SPMs as alternatives to immunosuppressive therapies like steroids.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a zinc finger protein that functions as a transcriptional activator or repressor and participates in multiple biological processes, including development and tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of YY1 in developing T cells, we used mouse models that depleted YY1 at two distinct stages of thymocyte development. When YY1 was depleted in CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative thymocytes, development to the CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive stage was impaired, due to increased apoptosis that prevented expansion of post-β-selection thymocytes. When YY1 was depleted in double-positive thymocytes, they underwent increased cell-autonomous apoptosis in vitro and displayed a shorter lifespan in vivo, as judged by their ability to undergo secondary Vα-to-Jα recombination. Mechanistically, we found that the increased apoptosis in YY1-deficient thymocytes was attributed to overexpression of p53, because concurrent loss of p53 completely rescued the developmental defects of YY1-deficient thymocytes. These results indicated that YY1 functions as a critical regulator of thymocyte survival and that it does so by suppressing the expression of p53.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide with well-established immunomodulatory functions. CGRP-containing nerves innervate dermal blood vessels and lymph nodes. We examined whether CGRP regulates the outcome of Ag presentation by Langerhans cells (LCs) to T cells through actions on microvascular endothelial cells (ECs). Exposure of primary murine dermal microvascular ECs (pDMECs) to CGRP followed by coculture with LCs, responsive CD4(+) T cells and Ag resulted in increased production of IL-6 and IL-17A accompanied by inhibition of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-22 compared with wells containing pDMECs treated with medium alone. Physical contact between ECs and LCs or T cells was not required for this effect and, except for IL-4, we demonstrated that IL-6 production by CGRP-treated pDMECs was involved in these effects. CD4(+) cells expressing cytoplasmic IL-17A were increased, whereas cells expressing cytoplasmic IFN-γ or IL-4 were decreased by the presence of CGRP-treated pDMECs. In addition, the level of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt mRNA was significantly increased, whereas T-bet and GATA3 expression was inhibited. Immunization at the site of intradermally administered CGRP led to a similar bias in CD4(+) T cells from draining lymph node cells toward IL-17A and away from IFN-γ. Actions of nerve-derived CGRP on ECs may have important regulatory effects on the outcome of Ag presentation with consequences for the expression of inflammatory skin disorders involving Th17 cells.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: A long-standing question in the field of tumor immunotherapy is how Th2 cytokines block tumor growth. Their antitumor effects are particularly prominent when they are secreted continuously in tumors, suggesting that Th2 cytokines may create a tumor microenvironment unfavorable for tumor growth independently of adaptive immunity. In this study, we show that local production of IL-33 establishes a high number of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) with potent antitumor activity. IL-33 promotes secretion of a massive amount of CXCR2 ligands from ILC2s but creates a tumor microenvironment where tumor cells express CXCR2 through a dysfunctional angiogenesis/hypoxia/reactive oxygen species axis. These two signaling events converge to reinforce tumor cell-specific apoptosis through CXCR2. Our results identify a previously unrecognized antitumor therapeutic pathway wherein ILC2s play a central role.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Germinal centers (GCs) are microanatomical structures critical for the development of high-affinity Abs and B cell memory. They are organized into two zones, light and dark, with coordinated roles, controlled by local signaling. The innate lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1) is known to be expressed on B cells, but its functional role in the GC reaction has not been explored. In this study, we report high expression of LLT1 on GC-associated B cells, early plasmablasts, and GC-derived lymphomas. LLT1 expression was readily induced via BCR, CD40, and CpG stimulation on B cells. Unexpectedly, we found high expression of the LLT1 ligand, CD161, on follicular dendritic cells. Triggering of LLT1 supported B cell activation, CD83 upregulation, and CXCR4 downregulation. Overall, these data suggest that LLT1-CD161 interactions play a novel and important role in B cell maturation within the GC in humans.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Dectin-1 and TLR9 play distinct roles in the recognition and induction of innate immune responses to Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. Dectin-1 is a receptor for the major fungal cell wall carbohydrate β-1,3 glucan that induces inflammatory cytokines and controls phagosomal maturation through spleen tyrosine kinase activation. TLR9 is an endosomal TLR that also modulates the inflammatory cytokine response to fungal pathogens. In this study, we demonstrate that β-1,3 glucan beads are sufficient to induce dynamic redistribution and accumulation of cleaved TLR9 to phagosomes. Trafficking of TLR9 to A. fumigatus and C. albicans phagosomes requires Dectin-1 recognition. Inhibition of phagosomal acidification blocks TLR9 accumulation on phagosomes containing β-1,3 glucan beads. Dectin-1-mediated spleen tyrosine kinase activation is required for TLR9 trafficking to β-1,3 glucan-, A. fumigatus-, and C. albicans-containing phagosomes. In addition, Dectin-1 regulates TLR9-dependent gene expression. Collectively, our study demonstrates that recognition of β-1,3 glucan by Dectin-1 triggers TLR9 trafficking to β-1,3 glucan-containing phagosomes, which may be critical in coordinating innate antifungal defense.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-C1q autoantibodies (anti-C1q) are frequently found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and correlate with the occurrence of proliferative lupus nephritis. A previous study of anti-C1q in experimental lupus nephritis demonstrated an important role for FcγRs in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis, suggesting a direct effect on phagocytes. Therefore, we developed an in vitro model to study the effect of SLE patient-derived anti-C1q bound to immobilized C1q (imC1q) on human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) obtained from healthy donors and SLE patients. HMDMs were investigated by analyzing the cell morphology, LPS-induced cytokine profile, surface marker expression, and phagocytosis rate of apoptotic Jurkat cells. Morphologically, bound anti-C1q induced cell aggregations of HMDMs compared with imC1q or IgG alone. In addition, anti-C1q reversed the effect of imC1q alone, shifting the LPS-induced cytokine release toward a proinflammatory response. FcγR-blocking experiments revealed that the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines was mediated via FcγRII. The anti-C1q-induced inflammatory cytokine profile was accompanied by a downregulation of CD163 and an upregulation of LPS-induced CD80, CD274, and MHC class II. Finally, HMDMs primed on bound anti-C1q versus imC1q alone displayed a significantly lower phagocytosis rate of early and late apoptotic cells accompanied by a reduced Mer tyrosine kinase expression. Interestingly, anti-C1q-dependent secretion of proinflammatory cytokines was similar in SLE patient-derived cells, with the exception that IL-10 was slightly increased. In conclusion, anti-C1q induced a proinflammatory phenotype in HMDMs reversing the effects of imC1q alone. This effect might exacerbate underlying pathogenic mechanisms in lupus nephritis.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: We used two different infection models to investigate the kinetics of the PcpA-dependent pneumococcal disease in mice. In a bacteremic pneumonia model, we observed a PcpA-dependent increase in bacterial burden in the lungs, blood, liver, bronchoalveolar lavage, and spleens of mice at 24 h postinfection. This PcpA-dependent effect on bacterial burden appeared earlier (within 12 h) in the focal pneumonia model, which lacks bacteremia or sepsis. Histological changes show that the ability of pneumococci to make PcpA was associated with unresolved inflammation in both models of infection. Using our bacteremic pneumonia model we further investigated the effects of PcpA on recruitment of innate immune regulatory cells. The presence of PcpA was associated with increased IL-6 levels, suppressed production of TRAIL, and reduced infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells. The ability of pneumococci to make PcpA negatively modulated both the infiltration and apoptosis of macrophages and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor-like cells. The latter have been shown to facilitate the clearance and control of bacterial pneumonia. Taken together, the ability to make PcpA was strongly associated with increased bacterial burden, inflammation, and negative regulation of innate immune cell recruitment to the lung tissue during bacteremic pneumonia.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The activation of naive CD8 T cells typically results in the formation of effector cells (TE) as well as phenotypically distinct memory cells that are retained over time. Memory CD8 T cells can be further subdivided into central memory, effector memory (TEM), and tissue-resident memory (TRM) subsets, which cooperate to confer immunological protection. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras and adoptive transfer studies in which CD8 T cells either do or do not express IL-21R, we discovered that under homeostatic or lymphopenic conditions IL-21 acts directly on CD8 T cells to favor the accumulation of TE/TEM populations. The inability to perceive IL-21 signals under competitive conditions also resulted in lower levels of TRM phenotype cells and reduced expression of granzyme B in the small intestine. IL-21 differentially promoted the expression of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 and the integrin α4β7 on CD8 T cells primed in vitro and on circulating CD8 T cells in the mixed bone marrow chimeras. The requirement for IL-21 to establish CD8 TE/TEM and TRM subsets was overcome by acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection; nevertheless, memory virus-specific CD8 T cells remained dependent on IL-21 for optimal accumulation in lymphopenic environments. Overall, this study reveals a context-dependent role for IL-21 in sustaining effector phenotype CD8 T cells and influencing their migratory properties, accumulation, and functions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are vital to antiviral defense, directing immune responses via secretion of huge concentrations of IFN-α. These cells are critical in protecting the lung against clinically relevant respiratory viruses, particularly influenza (Flu), a virus responsible for substantial worldwide morbidity and mortality. How pDC responses to such viral pathogens are regulated, however, is poorly understood in humans. Using an unbiased approach of gene chip analysis, we discovered that Flu significantly affects metabolism in primary human pDCs. We demonstrate that Flu and RV, another common respiratory virus, induce glycolysis in pDCs and that this metabolic pathway regulates pDC antiviral functions, including IFN-α production and phenotypic maturation. Intranasal vaccination of human volunteers with live influenza virus also increases glycolysis in circulating pDCs, highlighting a previously unrecognized potential role for metabolism in regulating pDC immune responses to viral infections in humans.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important pathogen and has evolved several mechanisms to evade IFN-I responses. We report that a host microRNA, miR-30c, was upregulated by PRRSV via activating NF-κB and facilitated its ability to infect subject animals. Subsequently, we demonstrated that miR-30c was a potent negative regulator of IFN-I signaling by targeting JAK1, resulting in the enhancement of PRRSV infection. In addition, we found that JAK1 expression was significantly decreased by PRRSV and recovered when miR-30c inhibitor was overexpressed. Importantly, miR-30c was also upregulated by PRRSV infection in vivo, and miR-30c expression corresponded well with viral loads in lungs and porcine alveolar macrophages of PRRSV-infected pigs. Our findings identify a new strategy taken by PRRSV to escape IFN-I-mediated antiviral immune responses by engaging miR-30c and, thus, improve our understanding of its pathogenesis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) is an extracellular protein, associated with the ectodomain of TLR4, that plays a critical role in the recognition of bacterial LPS. Despite high overall structural and functional similarity, human (h) and murine (m) MD-2 exhibit several species-related differences. hMD-2 is capable of binding LPS in the absence of TLR4, whereas mMD-2 supports LPS responsiveness only when mMD-2 and mTLR4 are coexpressed in the same cell. Previously, charged residues at the edge of the LPS binding pocket have been attributed to this difference. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was used to explore the hydrophobic residues within the MD-2 binding pocket as the source of functional differences between hMD-2 and mMD-2. Whereas decreased hydrophobicity of residues 61 and 63 in the hMD-2 binding pocket retained the characteristics of wild-type hMD-2, a relatively minor change of valine to alanine at position 135 completely abolished the binding of LPS to the hMD-2 mutant. The mutant, however, retained the LPS binding in complex with TLR4 and also cell activation, resulting in a murine-like phenotype. These results were supported by the molecular dynamics simulation. We propose that the residue at position 135 of MD-2 governs the dynamics of the binding pocket and its ability to accommodate lipid A, which is allosterically affected by bound TLR4.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of Immunology