The Progressive Fish-Culturist

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

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Website Progressive Fish-Culturist, The website
Other titles Progressive fish-culturist
ISSN 1548-8640
OCLC 163395046
Material type Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Taylor & Francis

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Photoperiod effects on fish are well known, but other aspects of light control for fish tanks, including light-shock reactions caused by abrupt on-off changes in lighting, have received less attention. This article provides a discussion of light control equipment - especially timing and dimming devices - available for fish tanks, lists information about some of the units that are commercially available in North America, and mentions some systems developed by fish culturists.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a 60-d experiment to ascertain diet-related differences in survival and growth of larval lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens. We offered formulated diets to larval lake sturgeon 2 weeks after first-feeding to find a suitable formulated diet. The five formulated diets were fed to larvae in combination with live brine shrimp Artemia sp., which served as a control. There was no diet effect (P ≤ 0.05) on mean survival, which ranged from 67.4% to 58.3%. Lake sturgeon fed only brine shrimp were significantly greater in mean length (60.4 mm) at 68 d of age than all other treatments, and BioKyowa produced the lowest (44.2 mm) mean length. Mean weight of fish provided brine shrimp (0.74 g) was significantly greater than the weights of those fed the Tunison, Biodiet, or BioKyowa diets. There was no indication that larval lake sturgeon had consumed the formulated feeds; rather, it is likely they may have become imprinted on brine shrimp during the 2 weeks immediately following the onset of exogenous feeding.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: Young razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus (mean total length [TL] = 127 mm) and Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius (mean TL = 150 mm) were marked by freeze branding and injection of a fluorescent elastomer. The elastomer injection was made at the base of the anal fin and on the operculum (razorback suckers) or lower jaw (Colorado squawfish) and consisted of one of four colors: green, blue, red, or orange. Freeze branding had 99% retention after 15 months for both species. Elastomer recognition was better for Colorado squawfish (mean 74%) than for razorback suckers (mean 60%) after 15 months, and retention at both locations was similar. Red and orange had the best recognition and blue had the poorest. Red and orange elastomer injected in young Colorado squawfish could be detected (95%) for 5 months. One person implanting elastomer at two locations on each fish and one person anesthetizing and handling fish can mark 130-140 fish/h. Approximately three times that number can be freeze-branded per hour. Greater retention times and efficiency in marking makes the use of freeze branding a practical replacement for tagging with passive integrated transponders during the first two growing seasons.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: Postrelease smolt survival of summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss that had been trucked 0.75 h and released was compared with that of smolts that had been trucked and allowed to rest for 24 h before release. Results showed no difference in return rates, suggesting that resting after transport may not improve steelhead survival.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of six diets to promote growth, survival, and egg production in juvenile mummichogs Fundulus heteroclitus reared in the laboratory. Fish were fed one of six diets—nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia sp. (24 h posthatch), frozen brine shrimp, BioTrainer, Salomon Moist, TetraMin, or Canadian Moist—for 33 weeks. The instantaneous growth rate in mummichogs changed significantly (analysis of variance, P < 0.05) between diet treatment and over time. TetraMin and Canadian Moist produced the lowest growth overall. Survival was high for fish fed brine shrimp nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, BioTrainer, and TetraMin. There were no significant differences in egg production on the basis of total female weight. Brine shrimp nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, BioTrainer, and Salomon Moist promoted the best growth; brine shrimp nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, BioTrainer, and TetraMin promoted the best survival. Fish size rather than diet affected total egg production. Processed diets high in animal protein that contained added flavor enhancement promoted better growth in juvenile mummichogs than diets made of plant and animal products.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: There are many applications in biology and aquaculture for a shaker, including the suspension of small batches of eggs or algal cultures. Three-dimensional motion platform shakers provide uniformly mixed fluids with little or no foaming, but they are expensive. If only a one-speed device for suspending fluids is needed, one of these shakers can be constructed simply, in less than an hour if all the materials are at hand, for about US$75. Construction centers around a subfractional gear motor, a “lazy susan” turntable swivel with ball-bearings, and a slightly eccentric angled hole that is drilled in a block of wood attached to the lazy susan.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: Five Virginia trout farms were selected for examination of effluent impacts on downstream water quality, periphyton production, and composition of macroinvertebrate and fish communities during fall 1994 and summer 1995. Annual trout production and feeding rates varied from 18.5 to 59.5 thousand kilograms and 15.6 to 87.6 thousand kilograms, respectively, and were correlated with discharge. Substrate embeddedness increased significantly (P < 0.07) downstream at two farms, but settleable solid concentrations in effluent were always less than 0.1 mL/L. Total ammonia nitrogen, un-ionized ammonia nitrogen, and nitrite nitrogen levels increased significantly (P < 0.001) downstream but were well below recommended thresholds for lethal exposure for aquatic organisms. Dissolved oxygen levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) downstream at postfeeding and predawn hours but were typically greater than 7.0 mg/L. Effluent water temperatures, pH, nitrate nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentrations did not differ from upstream levels. Settling ponds at two farms effectively reduced nutrient loadings downstream. Periphyton increased significantly (P < 0.001) downstream, but enrichment was localized to within 400 m. Macroinvertebrate richness and abundance of sensitive taxa (mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies) were reduced downstream, and pollution-tolerant noninsect taxa (isopods and gastropods) increased. Results of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's rapid bioassessment protocol (RBP), which integrates macroinvertebrate community metrics, reflected moderately impaired environmental conditions downstream at farms A and C and only slightly impaired or unimpaired water quality at the other farms. Results of the index of biotic integrity (IBI), which is based on fish community metrics, did not correspond with those of the RBP and reflected poor environmental conditions at farms C and D. Low fish species richness and abundance in these headwater streams limited the usefulness of the IBI for examining impacts of trout farm effluents.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Photoperiod effects on fish are well known, but other aspects of light control for fish tanks, including light-shock reactions caused by abrupt on-off changes in lighting, have received less attention. This article provides a discussion of light control equipment-especially timing and dimming devices-available for fish tanks, lists information about some of the units that are commercially available in North America, and mentions some systems developed by fish culturists.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: Female channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were induced to spawn with carp pituitary extract either singly paired with channel catfish males in aquaria (males present) or stocked with multiple females in aquaria or tanks (males absent). There was no difference between ovulation rates of females induced to spawn in the presence or absence of channel catfish males (P = 0.57). Females hand-stripped with males absent produced more eggs per kilogram of body weight (4,585) than females with males present (2,942; P = 0.07). When females in the males-present treatment deposited eggs in the aquaria, which allowed observation of the readiness of females, the number of eggs available for stripping was reduced. There was no difference in fertilization rate between treatments when using sperm from blue catfish I. furcatus (P = 0.35). Females that ovulated with males absent produced a similar (P = 0.12) number of viable eggs per kilogram of female body weight as females that ovulated with males present (3,809 and 2,291, respectively). It may be commercially feasible to artificially produce hybrids of channel and blue catfish by using the methods demonstrated in this experiment. This study has shown that pairing channel catfish females with males is unnecessary to induce ovulation in females and that more eggs are available to the culturist for hybrid production when males are absent.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: The 96-h median-lethal concentration (96h LC50) of total ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N) to fingerling shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum was 149.8 ± 55.20 mg/L (mean ± SD, 17.9 ± 0.62°C, pH = 6.8–7.3). Calculated 96-h LC50 for un-ionized ammonia-N was 0.58 ± 0.213 mg/L. The 96-h LC50 of nitrite nitrogen to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings was 11.3 ± 8.17 mg/L (17.9 ± 0.31°C,
    No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: Optimal conditions were determined for induction of meiotic diploid gynogenesis in white bass Morone chrysops. In two series of experiments, ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation doses to inactivate sperm genome and optimal temperature shock to restore diploidy were established. Eggs of white bass were inseminated with sperm from striped bass M. saxatilis diluted (1:30) in saline and irradiated with UV at doses ranging from 50 to 1,200 J/m. A typical “Hertwig effect” was observed with increasing UV dose. Larvae obtained at doses of 400 J/m and greater were abnormally developed (haploid syndrome) and had a haploid chromosome number (n = 24). Heat shocks to cause retention of the second polar body were applied. Heat shocks of 2-min duration at 36°C, 38°C, or 40°C were applied at 2 or 3 min after insemination to white bass eggs inseminated with irradiated (800 J/m) striped bass sperm. The best results were obtained after application of 36°C heat shock at 3 min after insemination, which induced a significant increase in yield of diploid gynogens (24–39%, from initial numbers of gynogenetic embryos) and provided relatively high postshock embryo survival. The gynogenetic origin of diploids obtained was confirmed by the lack of melanophores in putative gynogens (contrary to pigmented control hybrid larvae).
    No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of water temperature, density as measured by density index (DI), and food deprivation (alternating cycles of daily feeding and fasting) on dorsal fin erosion of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss through a factorial experiment lasting 22 weeks. Dorsal fin index (DFI) correlated inversely with age, length, and weight of fish and was significantly affected by crowding (i.e., DI). Increasing DI (from 0.0 to 0.5) also improved feed conversions and slightly depressed survival, but DI had no significant effects on weight gain, condition (K), or carcass composition. Water temperature (10°C or 15°C) had a strong and significant effect on DFI; colder water improved DFI while slowing body growth. Low temperature treatments improved survival slightly and altered carcass composition by increasing moisture at the expense of fat and protein. The effects of density and temperature were also strongly interactive. Food deprivation slightly improved final DFI at low DIs, but greatly reduced the average size of fish affected by severe fin erosion. Food-deprived fish exhibited carcass composition trends similar to fish reared in 10°C water. Feed conversion improved significantly with alternating fasting and feeding cycles. Histological evaluation proved inconclusive for physical fin nipping evidence or for the presence of detrimental microorganisms.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist

  • No preview · Article · Jun 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of water temperature, density as measured by density index (DI), and food deprivation (alternating cycles of daily feeding and fasting) on dorsal fin erosion of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss through a factorial experiment lasting 22 weeks. Dorsal fin index (DFI) correlated inversely with age, length, and weight of fish and was significantly affected by crowding (i.e., DI). Increasing DI (from 0.0 to 0.5) also improved feed conversions and slightly depressed survival, but DI had no significant effects on weight gain, condition (K), or carcass composition. Water temperature (10°C or 15°C) had a strong and significant effect on DFI; colder water improved DFI while slowing body growth. Low temperature treatments improved survival slightly and altered carcass composition by increasing moisture at the expense of fat and protein. The effects of density and temperature were also strongly interactive. Food deprivation slightly improved final DFI at low DIs, but greatly reduced the average size of fish affected by severe fin erosion. Food-deprived fish exhibited carcass composition trends similar to fish reared in 10°C water. Feed conversion improved significantly with alternating fasting and feeding cycles. Histological evaluation proved inconclusive for physical fin nipping evidence or for the presence of detrimental microorganisms.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: The growth of the settled zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha was analyzed in a controlled flow-through system with fresh unicellular alga Selenastrum capricornutum as the food. Stocks of live algae from a light-regulated chemostat were diluted and metered continuously into rearing tanks that contained the mussels. Growth and migration of the mussels inside the tank were recorded over a 3-month period. Small mussels (1–3 mm) migrated frequently and had a high mortality rate (>99%). The mortality rate of the larger mussels (>12 mm) was lower (25%). Larger size mussels seldom migrated, but they did not increase in size during the entire 3-month period. Medium-size mussels (3–12 mm) exhibited strong photophobic behavior. Significant growth was observed in individuals that settled in dim places away from rapid water current. Results suggested that illumination should be examined as a potential detererent to the settling of this organism.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to develop a procedure for rearing larval bluegills Lepomis macrochirus in tanks. In preliminary experiments, seven commercial diets were fed to larval bluegills from the onset of exogenous feeding to 28 d posthatch. Although all diets were eaten by the larvae, none were observed to pass through the fish's digestive tract, and survival was essentially zero. In the next set of experiments, bluegill larvae survived on commercial diets when they were fed nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana for an initial 7-d period before being switched to commercial feed. Using this protocol, we compared three feeds (BioKyowa Fry Feed Kyowa B-250, Argent Hatchery Encapsulon Grade II, and Zeigler Larval AP-100) over a 28-d period. There were no significant (α = 0.05) differences in growth (length and weight) among fish fed the three diets at the end of 28 d, but survival was significantly higher for fish fed BioKyowa. In another experiment, we fed BioKyowa to larval bluegills after feeding them brine shrimp nauplii for 3, 7, or 14 d. Larvae fed brine shrimp for 14 d had significantly higher growth and survival than larvae in the other two treatments. Our results indicate that the feeding protocol for tank-rearing larval bluegills should start with brine shrimp before a commercial diet is used.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: Blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus were significantly easier to harvest by seining than channel catfish I. punctatus female channel catfish × male blue catfish F1 and F2 hybrids, channel catfish backcrosses, and blue catfish backcrosses (P < 0.05). The F1 hybrid was significantly easier to catch than channel catfish (P < 0.05). The F3 hybrid was significantly easier to catch than the F2 hybrid, channel catfish, and channel catfish backcrosses (P < 0.05). Individual epistatic recombination loss had a positive effect on percent fish caught in the first seine haul. Channel catfish additive genetic effects had a negative effect on ease of capture by seining. The more channel catfish genes present, the harder the fish was to catch.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: Triploidy induction is a technique that allows genetic manipulation of chromosome number to control reproduction and potentially create faster-growing animals; however, most methods for inducing polyploidy are not 100% effective. Using sunshine bass (white bass Morone chrysops ♀ × striped bass M. saxatilis ♂) as a model, we cross-validated the most common verification techniques: DNA staining and fluorescence quantification with a flow cytometer, erythrocyte nuclear volume with a Coulter counter particle size analyzer, silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), and cytological karyotyping. Results indicated that the electronic techniques of particle size analysis and flow cytometry were the simplest and quickest methods of validation. The major drawback of both electronic ploidy determination methods is the cost of the equipment required for analysis. Cytological karyotyping was the most accurate method for determining polyploidy because actual chromosome numbers were determined. It was also the most time-consuming, tedious, and frustrating of the techniques, which reduces its applicability in mass screening of fish. Silver staining was the least expensive technique used for verifying a nominal number of fish, but it was also the most suspect because the NORs were sometimes difficult to detect, and there were conflicting results in older fish. All techniques demand a certain technical competence that can either be self-taught or requires extramural training.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist
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    ABSTRACT: Survival of larval red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (36 h posthatch) stocked into fertilized culture ponds was monitored to determine the effects of temperature and pH. In 108 pond trials, larvae were stocked at pH values ranging from 8.5 to 10.8 and temperatures ranging from 19.8°C to 30.8°C. Fish were acclimated for 15–25 min before stocking. Culture ponds were stocked only when temperature, dissolved oxygen, and salinity were conducive to survival. In addition to pH and temperature, ponds were monitored for dissolved oxygen and salinity over a 3-d period before sampling. Pond stocking success was based on the results of ichthyoplankton tows where less than 50 larvae/tow was considered failure and 50 or more larvae/tow was considered success. Ponds with a maximum pH of 9.4 and above had reduced survival (
    No preview · Article · Jun 1998 · The Progressive Fish-Culturist