Current Heart Failure Reports (Curr Heart Fail Rep)

Publisher: Current Medicine Group

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Website Current Heart Failure Reports website
Other titles Current heart failure reports (Online), Current heart failure reports
ISSN 1546-9549
OCLC 53129493
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Current Medicine Group

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    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as arXiv.org
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    • Reviewed 09 June 2014
    • 'Current Medicine Group' is an imprint of 'Springer Verlag (Germany)'
  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heart failure is a common condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacologic and device therapies have resulted in substantial improvements in heart failure outcomes. Despite optimal therapy, 10 % of patients progress to advanced HF, characterized by progressive symptoms, poor quality of life, and poor prognosis. The "gold-standard" treatment of advanced heart failure remains cardiac transplantation. However, the number of patients with advanced heart failure far exceeds available donor organs. Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) were initially developed to bridge patients with hemodynamic collapse to transplantation. Their use resulted in marked improvements in survival and quality of life in select patients giving rise to increased and expanded overall implantation. Despite these improvements, patient selection and timing for LVAD therapy is still evolving. In this article, we will review a brief history of LVADs, examine patient selection, and explore the currently debated expansion of LVADs to "less sick" patients.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Current Heart Failure Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Improvement in functional status, long-term survival, and quality of life has always been the goal of therapy in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Neurohormonal modulating medications help patients achieve these goals and, in a subgroup of patients, can promote "reverse remodeling" resulting in the recovery of left ventricular systolic function. In the era of durable mechanical support, myocardial recovery that leads to explantation of the ventricular assist device occurs in a minority of cases. Optimal medical therapy appears to be a key component of achieving myocardial recovery, with recovery more likely in patients with a shorter duration of heart failure and a non-ischemic etiology. However, little is known about future management of patients who attain myocardial recovery, either with or without mechanical support. This review explores the epidemiology, physiology, cellular biology, and long-term outcomes for this subgroup of heart failure patients and outlines areas for future study.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Current Heart Failure Reports
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    ABSTRACT: The feasibility, safety, and efficacy of transcatheter heart valve (THV) therapies such as MitraClip and transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have made them valid therapeutic options in high-risk or inoperable patients with heart failure (HF). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) demonstrated noninferiority and superiority in terms of efficacy for 12 months of TAVI versus surgical replacement and optimal medical therapy, respectively. With regard to MitraClip, noninferiority was first demonstrated in four subgroups at 12 months and then later at 4-year follow-up. This difference in clinical outcomes between the two therapies is consistent with the discrepancy in the level of recommendation and class of evidence for TAVI and MitraClip according to recent international guidelines (IB vs. IIbC, respectively). Data from ongoing RCTs and national registries will help establish the reciprocal role and hierarchy among THV therapies, surgery, and medical treatment in patients with HF.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Current Heart Failure Reports
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    ABSTRACT: The understanding of the genetic basis of cardiomyopathy has expanded significantly over the past 2 decades. The increasing availability, shortening diagnostic time, and lowering costs of genetic testing have provided researchers and physicians with the opportunity to identify the underlying genetic determinants for thousands of genetic disorders, including inherited cardiomyopathies, in effort to improve patient morbidities and mortality. As such, genetic testing has advanced from basic scientific research to clinical application and has been incorporated as part of patient evaluations for suspected inherited cardiomyopathies. Genetic evaluation framework of inherited cardiomyopathies typically encompasses careful evaluation of family history, genetic counseling, clinical screening of family members, and if appropriate, molecular genetic testing. This review summarizes the genetics, current guideline recommendations, and evidence supporting the genetic evaluation framework of five hereditary forms of cardiomyopathy: dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM), and left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC).
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Current Heart Failure Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure affects over five million Americans each year and contributes to morbidity, mortality, and high health care costs. Despite the benefits of RAAS and SNS blockers, 5-year survival rates in patients with heart failure remain low, necessitating continued research and new drug targets. LCZ696 (sacubitril/valsartan) is an angiotensin-receptor neprilysin inhibitor recently approved for HFrEF, with dual actions that result in enhancement of natriuretic peptide levels and blockade of angiotensin II activities. This drug shows promise in further improving clinical outcomes in HFrEF and is being studied in patients with HFpEF. In the PARADIGM-HF study, LCZ696 (sacubitril/valsartan) was shown to reduce the composite of cardiovascular mortality and heart failure hospitalizations compared with enalapril in patients with HFrEF taking guideline-directed medical therapies and resulted in prolonged survival. In trials, hypotension occurred more frequently with LCZ696 (sacubitril/valsartan) compared to an ACE inhibitor, warranting careful dose titration. Further clinical experience with LCZ696 (sacubitril/valsartan) will provide additional information on tolerability in a broad range of patients of various demographics.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Current Heart Failure Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Despite increasing recognition of the importance of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction (RVD) in the pathophysiology of left heart disease, our understanding of its epidemiology in heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains incomplete. In part, this is due to complex RV geometry and challenging and inconsistent assessment of RV function . Consequently, the prevalence of RVD in HFpEF varies widely depending on study design and population characteristics; however, on average is observed in one third of HFpEF subjects. In these patients, RVD is most commonly associated with an advanced HF state, pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation, right ventricular pacing, and tricuspid valve regurgitation. Whether these associations are causal remains uncertain. Right ventricular dysfunction is recognized to confer poor outcomes in patients with HFpEF, including increased HF hospitalization and higher overall and cardiovascular mortality. Moreover, the prognostic significance of RVD in HFpEF is independent of, and additive to, the severity of pulmonary hypertension. As greater emphasis is placed on phenotyping subgroups of patients with HFpEF in order to tailor therapeutic strategies, improved characterization of the large subset of HFpEF patients with RVD, with and without antecedent pulmonary hypertension may yield critical insights, which inform novel therapeutic interventions.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Current Heart Failure Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) patients are at high risk of hospital readmission, which contributes to substantial health care costs. There is great interest in strategies to reduce rehospitalization for HF. However, many readmissions occur within 30 days of initial hospital discharge, presenting a challenge for interventions to be instituted in a short time frame. Potential strategies to reduce readmissions for HF can be classified into three different forms. First, patients who are at high risk of readmission can be identified even before their initial index hospital discharge. Second, ambulatory remote monitoring strategies may be instituted to identify early warning signs before acute decompensation of HF occurs. Finally, strategies may be employed in the emergency department to identify low-risk patients who may not need hospital readmission. If symptoms improve with initial therapy, low-risk patients could be referred to specialized, rapid outpatient follow-up care where investigations and therapy can occur in an outpatient setting.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Current Heart Failure Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure is a growing epidemic, and our understanding of the intricacies of its pathophysiology continues to evolve. Over the last decade, biomarkers of heart failure have been extensively investigated, particularly for diagnosis and risk stratification. While the natriuretic peptides remain the gold standard heart failure biomarker, they are plagued by their non-specific nature; furthermore, the strategy of natriuretic peptide-guided care remains elusive. Multiple candidate markers indicative of other physiologic aspects of heart failure have been identified and studied, including soluble ST2, galectin-3, and high-sensitivity cardiac troponins. Each of these biomarkers has the potential to provide unique therapeutically relevant information. Ultimately, a multi-marker approach may be applied to improve care of patients with heart failure. Definitive clinical trials and the use of advanced statistical analytic techniques are needed to truly determine the optimal strategy of biomarker-assisted diagnosis, prognostication, and management of patients who suffer from this devastating condition.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Current Heart Failure Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Despite major advances in the medical care of patients following heart transplantation (HTx) and a steady increase in long-term survival, allograft surveillance is still based on endomyocardial biopsy, the gold standard since the 1970s. This invasive procedure calls for less burdening and more cost-effective approaches. In recent years, impressive progress has been made in utilizing blood-based biomarkers for the diagnosis and management of diseases in a variety of fields. Hence, a number of trials have been performed testing the usefulness of circulating molecules or other technical methods to overcome the need for surveillance myocardial biopsy in HTx patients. Here, we review current approaches and the state of research on novel biomarkers for the management of patients following heart transplantation.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Current Heart Failure Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic variants contribute to several steps during heart failure pathophysiology. The mechanisms include frequent polymorphisms that increase the susceptibility to heart failure in the general population and rare variants as causes of an underlying cardiomyopathy. In this review, we highlight recent discoveries made by genetic approaches and provide an outlook onto the role of epigenetic modifiers of heart failure.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Current Heart Failure Reports
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    ABSTRACT: This review aims to discuss and summarize the evidence base for devices that have a role in monitoring patients with heart failure for the purpose of attempting to prevent heart failure-related admissions. Despite contemporary heart failure service provision, many patients continue to need acute admission for decompensation. There is a clinical need for a better strategy for predicting decompensation earlier so that appropriate therapeutic interventions can be commenced sooner in order to prevent the need for acute hospital admission. Between clinical assessment visits, the contemporary approach to management is based primarily on daily home monitoring of weight by patients; while this has proved useful, it falls short. For example, substantial weight gain was seen in only 20 % of ADHF admission patients according to data collected in the TEN-HMS home telemonitoring study. Monitoring devices offer the possibility of tracking additional physiological or haemodynamic parameters that may allow for earlier detection and more accurate identification of patients at risk of acute decompensation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Current Heart Failure Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has evolved into a major tool for the diagnosis and assessment of prognosis of patients suffering from heart failure. Anatomical and structural imaging, functional assessment, T1 and T2 mapping tissue characterization, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) have provided clinicians with tools to distinguish between non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathies and to identify the etiology of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. LGE is a useful tool to predict the likelihood of functional recovery after revascularization in patients with CAD and to guide the left ventricular (LV) lead placement in those who qualify for cardiac resynchronization (CRT) therapy. In addition, the presence of LGE and its extent in myocardial tissue relate to overall cardiovascular outcomes. Emerging roles for cardiac imaging in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are being studied, and CMR continues to be among the most promising noninvasive imaging alternatives in the diagnosis of this disease.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Current Heart Failure Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis (IGCM) is a rare disease causing progressive myocarditis characterized by myocardial necrosis and giant cells. Patients often present with rapidly progressive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, and heart block. Without treatment, the disease often results in progressive pump failure requiring urgent cardiac transplantation or the need for mechanical circulatory support. The underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are not yet defined but appear to involve genetics, autoimmune disorders, and possibly environmental factors such as viruses. Combined immunosuppressive regimens appear to prolong survival from death or cardiac transplant. Nevertheless, cardiac transplant is an effective treatment. The disease can recur in the transplanted heart resulting in death or the need for retransplant.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Current Heart Failure Reports